INTRODUCTION TO CYTOLOGY DEFINITION • Scientific study of cells obtained from tissues or body secretions to identify disease. TYPES • Based on sampling techniques, cytology is classified into the following: 1. Exfoliative Cytology. 2. Abrasive Cytology. 3. Aspiration Cytology. EXFOLIATIVE CYTOLOGY • Based on spontaneous shedding of cells derived from the lining of an organ into a cavity. • Contents of the sample are derived from several sources. • Examples: vaginal smear, sputum, urine, CSF, and body effusions. • The material is collected spontaneously or by a syringe or a cotton swab. ABRASIVE CYTOLOGY • Cells are obtained directly from the surface of the target of interest. • Samples are taken by scraping, brushing, or washing. • Examples: cervical scraper, endoscopy, and gastric lavage. • Samples can be obtained from superficial or deep lesions. ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY • • • • Samples are obtained from solid tissues that are not connected to a hollow viscus. A needle with or without a syringe is used. Simple, safe, rapid, cost effective, and require no special clinical skills. Virtually every organ in the body is accessible to this method. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CYTOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS • The cytologic diagnosis must be based on the entire clinical evidence available, rather than on changes in individual cells. • To maintain satisfactory results, the uniformity of the technical methods employed is important. • It is very important to acquire a thorough knowledge of normal cells originating from a given source before attempting diagnosis. CONTINUE • Understanding structural and functional cell changes in health and disease. • The best quality control is generated by careful follow-up of patients and constant referral to tissue evidence. COURSE CONTENTS(THEORY) • • • • • • • Introduction to Cytology. Recognizing and classifying cells. Fixation and preservation in cytology. Methods of preparation in cytology. Stains and staining in cytology. Gynecological cytology: methods of collection. Gynecological cytology: normal and functional cytology. CONTINUE • • • • • • • • Gynecological cytology: abnormal cytology Respiratory tract cytology. Urinary tract cytology. Gastrointestinal tract cytology. Cytology of fluids and body effusions. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology. Test Exam. Revision. COURSE CONTENTS(PRACTICAL) • • • • • • • Introduction to cytology laboratory. Recognizing and classifying cells. Preparation of fixatives and preservatives. Preparation and fixation of specimens. Preparation, Fixation, and Staining(1). Preparation, Fixation, and Staining(2). Normal gynecological cytology(slides). CONTINUE • Abnormal non-neoplastic gynecological cytology(slides). • Abnormal neoplastic gynecological cytology (slides). • Respiratory tract cytology(slides). • Cytology of urinary tract, GIT, and body effusions(slides). CONTINUE • Revision. • Test Exam. • Revision.