TOURISM PETER ROBINSON MICHAEL LÜCK STEPHEN L. J. SMITH 13 Tourism and Destination Strategy Learning Objectives • • • • To explain the concept of strategy and strategic planning within the context of tourism organizations To assess a range of different growth strategies appropriate to the sector To evaluate external factors that impact upon a tourism business To construct a tourism strategy Strategic Planning • A strategic plan is an articulation of the aims and goals of an organization over a period of time, usually based on a 5-year period, and always between 3 and 10 years • Strategies can be either deliberate or emergent, and in any case lead to the realized strategy (see next slide) Strategic Planning • Deliberate strategy: is the intended and chosen strategic direction for the organization, based upon a detailed planning process, assessing external factors and future opportunities • Emergent strategy: describes the way a strategy may change and develop a response to external factors • Realized strategy: is the final strategy that may occur as a result of the merging of the deliberate and emergent strategies (Mintzberg and Walters, 1985) The Strategic Management Process Strategic Implementation Strategic Analysis Strategic Choice Strategic Purpose Strategic Objectives • • • • • • Profile Collaboration Innovative focus Support Stakeholders Members Strategic Analysis The Organization • Micro-environment versus macroenvironment SWOT Analysis The MicroEnvironment Resource Audit and Porter’s 5 Forces The MacroEnvironment PESTLE Analysis SWOT Analysis • • • • Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Porter’s Five Forces 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The threat of new entrants and barriers to entry The bargaining power of suppliers The power of buyers The threat of substitute goods and services Rivalry amongst competitors PESTLE Analysis • • • • • • Political factors Economic factors Social factors Technological factors Environmental factors Legal factors Stakeholder Analysis Porter’s Generic Competitive Strategies Strategic Direction • Market penetration – Existing markets, existing products • Market development – New markets, existing products • Product development – Existing markets, new products • Diversification – New markets, new products Ansoff’s Directional Matrix Directional Strategies • Integration – – – – Backward integration Forward integration Diagonal integration Horizontal integration Strategic Growth • • • • • • Organic growth (or internalization) Mergers and acquisitions Strategic alliances and joint ventures Franchising Licensing Marketing cooperatives Implementing and Monitoring • Managing change • Strategic drift • Evaluation of tourism strategies References • Mintzberg, H. and Walters, J. (1985) Of Strategies, deliberate and emergent. Strategic Management Journal 6, 257–272.