Job Analysis

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Guide for SHP 1313
students at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Prepared by : Siti Rokiah Siwok
[email protected]
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Personnel Psychology
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Organizational Psychology
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Human Factors
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Job analysis
Job Description
Job Evaluation
Employee Selection
Evaluating Selection Techniques and
Decisions
Legal Issues in Employee Selection
Evaluating Employee Performance
Designing and Evaluating Training
Systems
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It is a process of gathering, analyzing and
structuring about a job’s components,
characteristics and requirements ( Sanchez &
Levine, 2000)
A process of determining the work activities
and requirements.
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Very important.
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A job analysis provides information for :
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Job description
Employee selection
Performance Appraisal/Competency criteria
Job Evaluation
Job Classification
Job Design
Organizational analysis
Training
etc
Who will conduct?
 How often?
 Who should participate?
 What types of information?
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Internal Department
Internal Task Force
Supervisors
Employees
Consultants
Interns
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Choices
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All employees
Random sample
Representative sample
Convenience sample
Considerations: Diversities
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Job competence
Race
Gender
Education
Perspectives
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Level of specificity
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Formal /informal
Many ways to do it.
 The goal of the job analysis is :
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◦ Identify tasks performed in the job
◦ The conditions under which the tasks are
performed and,
◦ the KSAOs needed to perform the tasks
under the conditions identified.
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Identify task performed
Write tasks statements
Rate task statements
Determine essential KSAOs
Select tests to tap KSAOs
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Gathering existing information
Interviewing subject matter experts (SMEs)
◦ Individual/group interviews/SME Conferences
◦ Ammerman Technique.pptx
◦ Follow interview guidelines
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Observation
Job participation
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The next step is writing the task
statements. These task statements will be
the job description.
Must contain an action ( what is done) and
an object ( to which the action is done),
where, how , why and when.
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Characteristics of well-written task statements
One action and one object
Appropriate reading level
The statement should make sense by itself
All statements should be written in the same tense
Should include the tools and equipment used to
complete the task
◦ Task statements should not be competencies
◦ Task statements should not be policies
◦ Include level of authority if decision making included
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Poorly written task
statement
Properly written task
statement
Sends purchase requests
Sends purchase requests to the
purchasing department using
campus mail
Drives
Drives a five-speed truck to make
food deliveries within the city of
Johor Bahru
Locks hall doors
Uses master key to lock hall doors
at midnight so that nonresidents
cannot enter the residence hall
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Handles customer complaints
Type, files, and distributes
correspondence
In charge of the copy machine
Uses the computer to balance department
budget
Responsible for opening and closing the
office
Greets visitors
Oversees the office
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Tasks can be rated on various scales
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Importance
Part-of-the-job
Frequency of performance
Time spent
Relative time spent
Complexity
Criticality
Research shows only two scales are necessary
◦ Frequency
◦ Importance
Frequency
0
1
2
Task is not performed as part of this job
3
Task is frequently performed
Task is seldom performed
Task is occasionally performed
Importance
Unimportant. There would be no negative consequence if the
0
task were not performed or not performed properly
1
Important: Job performance would be diminished if task
were not completed properly
2
Essential: The job could not be performed effectively if the
incumbent did not properly complete this task
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Create a chart summarizing the ratings
Add the frequency and importance ratings to
form a combined rating for each task
Include the task in the job description if:
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Average rating is greater than 0.5
Include the task in the task inventory if:
◦ (1) the average rating of (F) or Importance (I)
greater than 0. 5
◦ (2)Combined Ratings (CR) of more than 2
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Raters
Scully
Combined
Average
Mulder
Task
#
1
F
I
CR
F
I
CR
F
I
CR
2
0
2
3
0
3
2.5
0.0
2.5
2
2
2
4
2
1
3
2.0
1.5
3.5
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4
3
2
5
3
2
5
3.0
2.0
5.0
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Knowledge
A body of information needed to perform a task
Skill
The competence to perform a certain task
Ability
A basic capacity for performing a wide range of different
tasks, acquiring a knowledge, or developing a skill
Other
characteristics
Personal factors such as personality, willingness, interest,
and motivation and such tangible factors as licenses,
degrees, and years of experience
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Competency
1. Typing speed
2. Finger dexterity
3. Driving a car
4. Traffic rules
5. A driver’s license
6. A friendly personality
7. Ten years of experience
8. Basic intelligence
KSAO
Skill
Ability
Skill
Knowledge
Other
Other
Other
Ability
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Competency
9. Physical strength
10. Color vision
11. Being a nonsmoker
12. Customer service experience
13. Use of PowerPoint
14. Willingness to work weekends
15. Spelling and grammar
16. Writing reports
KSAO
Ability
Ability
Other
Other
Skill, knowledge
Other
Skill, knowledge
Skill
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The next step is to determine the best
method to tap the KSAOs needed during
recruitment
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The written product of the job analysis is the job
description, which is a brief 2-5 page summary
of the tasks and job requirements found in the
job analysis.
Thus, job analysis is the process of determining
the work activities and requirements and job
description is the written result of the job
analysis.
Job analysis and job description is the basis for
many HR activities, such as employee selection,
evaluation , training, performance appraisal, job
design etc (Brannick & Levine, 2002)
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Job title
Brief summary
Work activities
Tools and equipment used
Work context
Work Performance
Compensation information
Job competencies
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The job title must describe the nature of the
job.
Assists in employee selection and recruitment
The job title influences the perceptions of
job worth and status.
Affects the accuracy of resumes.
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The summary is useful for recruitment
advertising
The language used should be easily
understandable.
Avoid the use of jargon and abbreviations
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Organize work activities by dimensions
◦ Similar activities
◦ Similar KSAOs
◦ Temporal order
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Task statements
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One activity per statement
“stand alone” statements
Written in easy to understand style
Precise, not general
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Include all the tools and equipment used to
perform the activities.
Placing the tools in a separate section make
them easier to identify.
Also useful for training purposes
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Work context includes:
◦ Work schedule
◦ Degree of supervision
◦ Ergonomic details
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Contains description of performance
evaluation, which includes:
◦ The standard used
◦ Evaluation frequency
◦ Evaluation dimensions
◦ Evaluation personnel
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Contains information on the salary grade
and the factors used to determine the
salary.
The actual salary or salary range should not
be written in the job description
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Contains the KSAOs necessary to do
the job
Competencies should be separated:
◦ Those needed before hire
◦ Those that can be learned after hire
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Without a clear understanding of the tasks
performed and competencies needed to
perform the tasks, employee selection
cannot be made.
With clear understanding and requirements
for tasks identified, tests or interview
questions can be formulated to determine
suitability of applicants.
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The evaluation of employee performance
must be job related, thus job analysis is
crucial in the construction of a performance
appraisal instrument (PAI).
Through job analysis, performance appraisal
instrument, are specific, job-related and
valid; leading to accurate performance
appraisals.
PAI, when properly administered and utilized,
serve as excellent source of employee
training and counselling.
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Job analysis enables the HR to classify jobs
into groups based in requirements and
duties.
Useful in determining pay levels, transfers
and promotions.
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Another use of the job analysis is to
determine the worth of a job .
The process of determining a job’s worth is
called job evaluation.
Job evaluation is usually done in 2 stages,
namely determining internal pay equity and
determining external pay equity
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Job analysis information can be use to
determine the optimal way in which a job
should be performed.
Examples : the best way to sit at the
computer table, the best way for a warehouse
person to lift boxes etc
Good work design prevents wasted and
unsafe motions; resulting in higher
productivity and reduced number of injuries.
Job analysis provides requirements of a job
and yields lists of job activities that can be
used to create training programs.
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Personpower planning is important (but seldom
used).
Personpower planning is to determine
employees’ mobility within an organization, that
is looking into other jobs that employees can be
expected to be eventually promoted and become
successful.
Job analysis results are used to compare all jobs
in the company so as to promote the best
employee from the most similar job, thus better
match between the person being promoted and
the requirements of the job.
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Any employment decision must be based on
job-related information and job analysis is
one of the ways to directly determine job
relatedness.
No law specifically requires a job analysis ,
but several important guidelines and court
cases mandate job analysis for all practical
purposes.
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During the course of their work, job analysts
often become aware of certain problems
within the organization.
Job analysts thus help to correct lapses in
the organization and correct problems so as
to promote better organizational functioning.
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Providing Information
Providing Information
Equipment
Providing Information
Environment
Providing Information
on Worker Activities
about Tools and
about Work
about Competencies
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Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
Developed at Purdue University by
McCormick, Jeanneret and Mecham (1972).
Contains 194 items in six main dimensions,
namely:
Information input, mental process, work
output, relationships with other persons, job
Context and other variables such as work
schedule, pay and responsibilities
General
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Many advantages: cheap, little time to use,
acceptable levels of reliability. Results can be
compared with other positions using the
computer.
Disadvantage:
◦ Requires grade 10-12 reading level, thus PAQ has
to be filled in by analysts.
◦ Designed to cover all jobs but only 194 questions
and six dimensions.
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Job Structure Profile, A revised version of
PAQ, developed by Patrick and Moore ( 1985).
Job Elements Inventory, developed by
Cornelius and Hakel ( 1978).
Functional Job Analysis by Fine(1955):
◦ Can analyze and compare thousand of jobs
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Job Components Inventory, developed by
Banks, Jackson, Stafford and Warr (1983) to
be used in England.
Consists of 400 questions covering five major
categories.
Research indicates the inventory is reliable,
can differentiate between jobs and can
cluster jobs.
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Arbeitswissenschaftlinches ….. ( AET)
(ergonomic job analysis procedure), Rohmert
and Ladau 91983)
Contains 216 items, analyses a job along
several dimensions.
Not enough published research.
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O*NET : The Occupational Information
Network.
Created by the federal government of the USA
Includes information about the activity, the
work characteristics needed for success in the
job.
Also information on economic factors asuch
as labour demand etc
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Critical Incident Techniques (CIT)
Developed by Flanagan and his students at
the U of Pittsburg in the late 1940s and early
1950s.
Discover actual incidents of job behaviour
that makes the difference between a job’s
successful or unsuccessful performance (
Flanagan, 1954 in Aamodt, 2010)
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Aamodt, M. G ( 2010).
Industrial/Organizational Psychology. An
Applied Approach.( 6th Ed) USA: Wadsworth
Spector, P. E. ( 2008). Industrial and
Organizational Psychology (5th ed). USA: Wiley
Job Analysis (2010). Cengage Learning
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