The Decades Of Life Decade 3 words to describe decade 0-9 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 80-89 Which decade(s) were the hardest/easiest to do? Is there a tendency to think that no more important changes occur after adulthood? Questions to Ponder What is the ideal age? What is the worst age to be? When does old age begin? True OR False?? Directions: Please number your paper 1-9. Write true or false next to each number. 1. If a mother drinks heavily during pregnancy, her baby may be mentally retarded. True 2. Newborns see only a blur of meaningless light and dark shades. False 3. Before age 2, infants cannot think. False 4. Infants initially develop close attachments to their mothers, merely because the mother provides nourishment. False 5. Most abusive parents were themselves battered or neglected as children. False 6. The first two years of life provide a good basis for predicting a person’s eventual personality traits. True 7. A heartbeat can be detected as early as 8 weeks into pregnancy. True 8. Memories before the age of 5 are formulated differently, making them almost impossible to remember as adults. True 9. A young child often believes that the sun rises in the morning to wake him/her up. True Early Physical Development Prenatal Development conception 1 single cell EGG + SPERM = ZYGOTE Divides into about 100 cells within a week and then cells begin to differentiate baby 100 trillion cells Terms used to describe the developing human: • Zygote = fertilized egg • Embryo = 2-8 weeks (difficult to distinguish human from other mammals at this time) • Fetus = 9 weeks to birth • Neonate = newborn • Infant = from the first few days until walking Teratogens Harmful things such as chemicals or diseases that can reach the developing embryo or fetus and cause damage resulting in birth defects or mental retardation. Effect of Nicotine on a fetus- increased risk of abnormal fetal heartbeat, premature birth, related complications and miscarriage. Effects of Alcohol on a fetus- Mothers who drink heavily during pregnancy may have children born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) • Physical and cognitive abnormalities • Brain damage • Facial misproportions: •Small upturned nose, small jaw, small eyes Video "Teratogens and Their Effect on the Developing Brain" Infancy • Physical growth rate is faster than any other postnatal period. • Maturation = physical growth and development of the body and especially the nervous system. • Rate varies, but order is virtually universal! IMPORTANT: Maturation often creates a condition of readiness for learning. WHAT DOES THAT MEAN? (and why does it matter?) The Newborn • Reflexes- an automatic, unlearned response – Sucking – Swallowing – Grasping Temperament- emotional excitability Easy Difficult Slow to warm-up Newborn Reflexes • Reflexes that are seen in the newborn indicate that the nervous system is up and running. – Rooting reflex = looking for food – Grasping reflex = hanging on – Sucking reflex = receiving nourishment – Moro reflex = startle reflex Reflex video Baby Swimming Motor Development 2 months-Lifts head 90 degrees when lying on stomach. 12 monthswalks well 6 monthsstands holding on 3 months-Rolls over 5 months- Sits without support Tomorrow we will look at cognitive development in children. What does “cognitive” mean? Cognitive refers to thinking, memory, decision-making, and language development Funny Babies Talking Twins Give your best estimate of the age at which approximately 50 percent of children begin to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Laugh Pedal a tricycle Sit without support Feel ashamed Walk unassisted Stand on one foot for 10 seconds Recognize and smile at mother or father Kick a ball forward Think about things that cannot be seen Make a two word sentence. Psychology Blog/Journal What is your earliest memory of learning how to do something? Example, riding a bike, catching a ball. Describe the memory and include the methods used to teach you the task.