Dr Yvonne Muthien
 Public Service
 Pre 1994 “Command & Control” to
 Post 1994 “Decentralised Government”
Paradigm Shift
 Democratisation & Transformation (1994-2004)
 Building a Development State (2005-2013+)
RSA Constitution Chapter 10
Chapter 10
Public Administration
Basic values and principles governing public administration
195. (1) Public administration must be governed by the democratic values and principles enshrined in the
Constitution, including the following principles:
(a) A high standard of professional ethics must be promoted and maintained.
(b) Efficient, economic and effective use of resources must be promoted.
(c) Public administration must be development-oriented.
(d) Services must be provided impartially, fairly, equitably and without bias.
(e) People’s needs must be responded to, and the public must be encouraged to participate in
(f) Public administration must be accountable.
(g) Transparency must be fostered by providing the public with timely, accessible and accurate
(h) Good human-resource management and career-development practices, to maximise human
potential, must be cultivated.
(i) Public administration must be broadly representative of the South African people, with
employment and personnel management practices based on ability, objectivity, fairness,
and the need to redress the imbalances of the past to achieve broad representation.
Public Service Commission
196. (1) There is a single Public Service
Commission for the Republic.
(2)The Commission is independent and must be
impartial, and must exercise its powers and
perform its functions without fear, favour or
prejudice in the interest of the maintenance of
effective and efficient public administration and a
high standard of professional ethics in the
public service.
Building a Capable Development State
Governance: Accountability & Ethics
Organisational Design for Service Delivery
Process Redesign
Skills Deficit & Quality of Leadership
Political vs. Professional Appointments
Governance: Accountability & Ethics
 President Zuma 2010: “The failures in our government are not mainly
caused by any significant lack of capacity. The simple truth is that we face
a crisis of accountability” (PSC 2010)
 Value of Business with State by Employees (Auditor-Gen/PSC)
2010/11 – R1.2bn
2011/12 – R438m
2011/12 – R141m – family members
Tip of the Iceberg
 NDP/PAM 2013 – Prohibits public officials from
conducting business with state/politicians?
 13 Agencies & 7 Forums deal with Corruption
 Weaknesses/Gaps in Regulations, Statutes
Organisational Redesign for Service Delivery
 President Mbeki 2004: “is the SA public service capacitated,
organised and resourced to deliver on government’s socio-economic
objectives in the context of the developmental state”? (FOSAD 2005)
 Forum of SA Directors-General Report 2005:
 Organisational structures poorly designed
 Span of control uneven
 Poor understanding of responsibility in policy making
 Lack of service delivery models
 Duplication of roles/functions
 Lack of supply chain management
 Lack of monitoring & evaluation
 Organisational Design Manual 2007:
 80 toolkits & templates
 9 organisational architecture tools
 10 change management tools
Process Redesign
 Simplicity in Execution: Customer Centric vs Policy Design
 Culture of Execution
 Clarity of Responsibility
 Re-Engineering of Business Process Design
 Simplify layers of tasks, decision-making, discretion, permission
 Example: State Bank of India
 200,000 employees
 From Hierarchical, Bureaucratic, Government Bank to
 Modern, Customer Focussed, Technologically Advanced
Global Bank
 Steve Jobs: “Focus, Simplify, Take Responsibility
End to End”
Skills Deficit & Leadership Quality
Effective Service Delivery Requires:
 Architecture of Execution
 End-to-End Capability
 Strong Operational Culture
 Training With A Purpose
Skills Gap Analysis
Strategy Needs & Outcomes
Competitive Performance Culture
Appropriate Incentives/Rewards
 Prototype Leadership Model
Political vs. Professional Appointments
 PSC Study 2010:
 HoD Turnover (2003-7) 59 % = Terminations (Cabinet Reshuffling)
 Rapid Management Mobility: 68% - Rapid Career Advancement &
Internal Movements
 Implications for Medium Term Planning & Delivery
 Cadre Deployment vs. Impartial Appointments Authority?
 Career Civil Service
 Limit rapid internal turnover?
NDP Propose Hybrid System
• “It would be counterproductive to give the PSC a far-reaching direct role
in recruitment, because an overly centralised recruitment system would
make it more difficult for departments to recruit their staff and undermine
the ability of departmental heads to formulate a strategic direction for their
own departments. However, the PSC should play a direct role in the
recruitment of the most senior posts.
“A hybrid approach is proposed: A selection panel convened by the
chair of the PSC and the administrative head of the public service would
draw up a shortlist of suitable candidates for senior posts, from which the
political principal would select a candidate. This allows independent
oversight to ensure that candidates are suitably qualified, while also
ensuring that the final selection is compatible with the priorities of the
political principal.”
 Transition from Good Policy-Making to Effective
Service Delivery
 Integrated Coherent Model of Public Administration
& Management
 Independent & Impartial Task Team
 National Skills/Integration/Efficiency Audits
 Simplified Organisational Design Model for
End to End Service Delivery
 Independent & Impartial Appointments Agency
 Review Appointments
 Enforce Standards & Ethics
 Address Skills Deficit
 Develop Prototype Leadership Model
Successful Capable Development States
Strong Charismatic Leadership
Favourable Constellation of Economic Forces
Integrated & Coherent Public Administration Model
Clear Measureable Goals & Outcomes
Development Pact with Key Stakeholders
Nation-Wide Mobilisation of Population behind Development