Classical Greece 2000 B.C.E. - 300 B.C.E. Section 1: Cultures of the Mountains and Sea Geography Shapes Greek Life Greek life influenced by: 1) Sea 2) Land 3) Climate Mycenaean Civilization Develops Strong culture led by wealthy warriorkings Invade Crete, spread aspects of Minoan culture Mycenaean kings defeat Troy & become the dominant power in Aegean region Greek Culture Declines Under the Dorians Dorians replace Mycenaeans No written language & less advanced than Mycenaeans Homer composes The Iliad & The Odyssey Myths help Greeks understand nature & human behavior Individual Activity In your notebook, answer questions 1-2 on page 124. You do not have to write the question. Where was the center of the Mycenaean Civilization located? Based on the map, how did Mycenaean traders conduct most of their trade? Group Activity: 1-2 People Option 1: Comparing Cultures Option 2: Remembering the Trojan War-2 pages Create a chart comparing the Mycenaeans, Minoans, and Dorians Write a journal entry as a survivor of the Trojan War. Discuss what you remember about the war, why it was fought, and how it ended (p. 125) Option 3: Greek Epics and Myths-2 pages Write an essay explaining why the Greek epics and myths are so well known and studied in today’s society (page 125-126) Section 2: Warring City-States Rule & Order in Greek City-States Polis (city-state): basic political unit; run by males Acropolis: hilltop where men gathered to conduct business Each polis ruled by a monarchy, aristocracy, or oligarchy A new idea--army made of citizen-soldiers Used the phalanx formation (spear & shield) Sparta Builds a Military State Conquers Messenians & forces them to stay on the land to work it (helots) Governed by an assembly, Council of Elders, & 5 elected officials that carried out the laws passed by the assembly Spartan education=military training for boys Boys & girls learned to put Sparta before anything else Valued duty, strength, & discipline Athens Builds a Limited Democracy Avoids civil war by developing democratic rule; only free men can be citizens (women expected to be unheard, unseen) Solon given power in 594 B.C.E.; reformed legal system, assembly, & trade Cleisthenes weakens the nobility & gives citizens more power Valued individuality, beauty, & freedom The Persian Wars Defeats Darius on land; 10 years later defeat Xerxes by land & sea Victory gives Athenians renewed selfconfidence & sets the stage for a golden age Section 3: Democracy & Greece’s Golden Age Pericles’ 3 Goals for Athens 1) Direct Democracy: increased # of paid public officials, citizens rule directly 2) Strengthens Navy: used $ from Delian League’s treasury; 200 ships 3) Beautifies Athens: bought gold, marble, built Parthenon Greek Styles in Art Artists & sculptors create an idealized human form Classical Art=standards of order, balance, & proportion Individual Activity Look at pages 140-141 on Greek Art and Architecture Read the section and answer the following questions in your notebook: How does the Parthenon display the Greek preference for symmetry and balance? On what does our culture today base its standards of beauty? Give examples to support your answer. Greek Drama Dramatic tragedies & comedies serve as entertainment (More about this in your group activity today) Spartans & Athenians Go to War Sparta & Athens begin the Peloponnesian War willingly (so much for the unification they had at Thermopylae) After 27 years, Athens surrenders to Sparta Athens loses its empire, power & wealth; confidence in democratic rule declines due to bad leaders Reasons for the Peloponnesian War How could the goal of strengthening democracy have helped lead Athens to war? How could war be used to strengthen Athens’ trade empire? How might war increase Athens’ prestige? Philosophers Search for Truth Believe universe & its laws can be studied & understood Socrates: ?’s traditional Greek values; condemned to death Plato: wrote The Republic & says ideal society is an oligarchy Aristotle: develops rules of logic; leads to scientific method Partner Activity: Exploring Themes in Greek Drama Step 1: Read the passage on Greek drama on page 136. Step 2: Create a list of the different themes treated in Greek theater. Step 3: Match as many themes as possible with some of the TV shows or movies you have watched. Ex: the movies in the Star Wars series deal with war Extra Credit: Identify any shows or movies in which a leading character has a tragic flaw that causes his/her downfall. Alexander–Empire Builder Philip Build’s Macedonia’s Power Builds a powerful professional army & defeats his enemies Conquers Greece, but murdered before he gets to Persia Alexander continues father’s empire building Alexander Defeats Persia 1st establishes control over Greece, then invades Persia Defeat of Persians in Anatolia shows military genius Darius tries to negotiate, but Alexander conquers Egypt & Persia Alexander’s Other Conquests Extends empire into Central Asia; wants to reach continent’s end Conquests end at Indus Valley Dies planning another expansion Strong generals divide and take over his empire Conquests result in blending of Greek & Persian cultures Activity: Pop-Up Map In groups of no more than 3, develop a map of Alexander’s Empire On your map, you must outline the empire and label important geographical features Use pages 142-146 to research the places Alexander took his empire. Create at least 7 “pop-ups” that provide information about what happened in that region This assignment is worth 20 points. It is graded on completeness and effort. Section 5: The Spread of Hellenistic Culture Hellenistic Culture in Alexandria A blend of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, & Indian influences Alexandria in Africa becomes greatest Hellenistic city City thrives as major center of scholarship with its museums & library Science & Technology Astronomers develop theories that shape European thought for centuries Euclid develops geometry Archimedes’ laws serve as the basis for many mechanical inventions Individual Activity Refer to the picture on page 147 of your book. For what aspects of astronomy were the Greeks relatively correct? For what aspects of astronomy were the Greeks incorrect? What was Ptolemy’s view of the universe? Philosophy & Art Stoics seek to control desire & live in harmony w/ natural & divine laws Epicureans seek to harmonize in mind & body Sculptors reject classical ideas & create more realistic works Colossus of Rhodes Group Activity: Hellenistic Alexandria For this activity, you will be dividing into 6 groups: Trade and Cultural Diversity Alexandria’s Attractions Astronomy Mathematics and Physics Stoicism and Epicureanism Realism in Sculpture In your group, read your section then create a poster to explain your section. Remember the purpose of posters: to inform briefly from a distance Your poster must have written and visual information You may not go to the library to print pictures Review Questions Why was sea travel important to early Greece? Why did the Greeks develop myths? What were the two most powerful city-states in early Greece? What were the consequences of the Persian Wars? What were Pericles’ three goals for Athens? Who were the three renowned philosophers of the golden age? Why was Greece so easily conquered by Macedonia? What was the full extent of Alexander’s empire before his death? What four influences blended to form Hellenistic culture? What were some of the scientific achievements of the Hellenistic period?