條頓騎士團,St Casimir`s Church

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• 中世紀西歐的盈與虧
• 波羅的海之旅的反思
• 琥珀之路和中古貿易 - 經濟和政治,軍事,
宗教等相互關係
• 分享 (條頓騎士團,St Casimir’s Church)
條頓騎士團
條頓騎士團背景
• 十字軍東征期間建立的軍事修會組織
• 協調神聖和世俗的使命,保護並照顧前往耶路撒
冷的朝聖者
• 重要的軍事政治力量
• 1190年 德意志商人組織 重點放在支援德意志人
• 騎士團由神聖羅馬帝國皇帝和教宗雙重領導,從
前者取得了大量土地,從後者取得了大量的特權
• 琥珀之路的經濟收益
條頓騎士團的政治軍事制度
條頓騎士團 – 影響從小亞細亞到波羅地海沿岸,主要是出於政治經濟的考慮
從某程度上,條頓騎士團成立時,聖城時代已經過去,前往小亞細亞的不是絡
繹不絕的朝聖者,而是歐洲君主率領的大軍,在這些位高權重的君主手下,還
有聲名遠揚的聖殿騎士團和醫院騎士團,騎士團作為獨立的組織發展實在困
難。儘管騎士團努力與穆斯林作戰,十字軍東征失敗後,局勢卻越來越對條頓
騎士團不利,作為一個政治軍事實體,投資沒有回報,反而條頓騎士團將活動
中心移到波羅的海沿岸後,取得了利益保證,和軍事成功,條頓騎士團成為一
個具有相當影響力的國家性質的政治實體,取得經濟成果,在德意志殖民的歷
史上書寫了重要的一頁。條頓騎士團全盛時期,控制了東西普魯士,整個波羅
的海東岸,包括愛沙尼亞,拉脫維亞和立陶宛的大部分地區,以及在南部義大
利、希臘、西班牙、法國的屬地。
條頓騎士團的沒落
軍事因素
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•
•
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騎士們開始沉溺於浮華、虛榮,變得頹廢、萎靡
騎士團內部兵源的日益萎縮和離心力的日益加劇
14世紀開始,整個歐洲正經歷著重大的軍事變革
面對15世紀以來的軍事變革,騎士團還是沿用1 5
世紀以前的戰爭指導思想和作戰規則
政治原因
• 西羅馬帝國崩潰之後,歐洲秩序重建的歷
史
• 歐洲最後的一塊異教領土皈依了基督教,
條頓騎士團己經無法得到教俗力量的支持
經濟社會原因
• 中世紀的後期,歐洲各國經濟有了長足進
步,城市興起、市場發達、經濟繁榮,紛
紛開始建立自己的財政體系,發展本國的
實力,實現自己的政治抱負。
• 中央財政制度的建立和完善為進行穩步的
國家建設提供了有力的經濟保障。
• 騎士團失敗的投資
• St Casimir's Church was built in 1635 in Vilnius,
capital of Lithuania.
• Casimir died of tuberculosis at the age of 24.
The Vatican canonized St. Casimir in 1602. St
Casimir is also the patron of Vilnius.
• What the church has encountered in that past
400 hundred years is an epitome of that part of
history in Baltic Sea region.
• The apparently unique history of St Casimir's
Church may be a microcosm of the macro one –
how religion was affected by politics.
• invaded and ruled by Russia, France,
Poland, Germany and USSR at different
periods, and even within Catholic circle,
the Jesuits being suppressed between
1773 and 1814
• the church has changed hands and been
re-structured in appearance in line with the
prevailing style and architecture, with what
it intended to serve religiously or
pragmatically.
• Say, it was in the hand of Augustinians when the Jesuit was
suppressed.
• France turned it into a granary given the rather anti-religion (or at
most religion neutral) attitude of Napoleon.
• Russians turning it into an Orthodox Church known as St Michael
(later Orthodox Nikolaevskii Cathedral).
• Germany turning it into a Lutheran house of worship for their army
during the occupation in the first World War,
• Soviets first using it for storage of grain then destroying the religious
portions such as altar, organ and bells and turning it into a museum
of atheism during the Soviet era in 60s.
• Lithuania regained independence in 1991, and around that time the
church was returned to the Roman Catholic community and was
reconstructed and reconsecrated, with Jesuits again working in it. It
is now a Roman Catholic church.
• St Casimir's Church being basically of baroque
style, of its very original Catholic nature, the
church was constructed in the form of a Latin
cross and where the central nave and transept
meet, a majestic cupola of forty metres rises and
is topped on the outside by the crown of the
grand Duke of Lithuania (seventeen meters in
diameter).
• The two main frontal towers are quite special,
with current feature partly remains of the onion
domes of the Russian Orthodox at which time
the steeples were all covered with domes.
• The intensive restoration after 1991 has
probably seen the pictures of resurrected Jesus
and Blessed Virgin Mary placed in the prominent
locations, and the still rather plain interior feature
in the absence of sculpture, as common in other
Catholic churches, is perhaps due to the long
period of it being used as Orthodox and
Lutheran churches.
• The pictures of Jesus and Mary may come from
a large crypt from the beginning of the 17th
Century, discovered under the main altar in
1991.
Thank you.
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