The World of Shakespeare Honors Survey of Literature 2009-2010 Cornell Notes Topic: Class: Questions ? Period: Date: Notes Don’t write everything I say, just the important things. Use abbr. Summary: Please take Cornell notes for slides 3-10 Shakespeare’s Life Born William Shakespeare on April 23, 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon. At the age of 18, he married an older woman, Anne Hathaway. He had 3 children- Susanna and twins, Hamnet and Judith. He retired in 1613. He died on April 23, 1616. Shakespeare Becomes a Playwright When Shakespeare was in London, Elizabeth I was the queen (1558-1603). This was called the Elizabethan Era. Literature and theater became popular during this time. He first entered the theater as an actor traveling with different acting companies. He was part-owner of the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, which was later changed to the King’s Men. At the age of 27, he decided to try writing plays. Although he was respected during his day, he didn’t gain popularity until the 19th century (1800s). He wrote 38 plays in total, although his authorship is questioned (what does that mean?) Shakespeare’s Plays Between 1590-1613, he produced most of his known work. His works can be traced back to various literary sources and incidents in his life and the world around him. His writing was influenced by Roman and Italian authors. He wrote 3 types of plays: Comedies Histories Humorous (Obviously) Chronicle the lives of royalty Tragedies Have fatal endings Theater in the Elizabethan Age Elizabethans wanted plays with lots of excitement, laughs and romance, with ghosts, stabbings and sword fights. If they were not pleased, the audience would throw rotten eggs and vegetables at the actors. Women were not allowed to act, so men had to play all parts. Young boys would often play the parts of women. The Original Globe Theater The original theater was built in 1599 by the acting company, Lord Chamberlain’s Men. Most of Shakespeare’s plays were performed here. It was 3 stories high, octagon-shaped and had an open air court in the middle. The stage reached into the middle area and was surrounded by tiers of seats that had a roof over them. The upper- and middle- class sat in the seats. The poor people (called “groundlings”) paid a penny to stand in the center. The Globe Theater In 1613, the original theater was burned down by a fire during a performance of Henry VIII, ignited by a theatrical cannon. It was rebuilt in 1614. It was closed by the Puritans in 1642 and destroyed in 1644. In 1997, the theater reopened in London under the name of “Shakespeare’s Globe Theater.” Shakespeare’s Other Works 154 sonnets 3 long narrative poems Several other poems * (Remember, he wrote 38 plays) Romeo and Juliet Shakespeare's tragic tale of two star-crossed lovers whose families get in the way of their happiness. The story came from a poem by Arthur Brooke titled “The Tragicall Historye of Romeus and Juliet.” The first performance of the play was in 1591, and it was published in 1597. Theatrical Devices Tragedy- the main character is brought to ruin or suffers extreme sorrow, especially as a consequence of a tragic flaw, moral weakness, or inability to handle bad circumstances. Soliloquy- a long conversation by a person who is talking to him or herself. It is intended to tell the character’s innermost thoughts. The character is usually on stage alone. Theatrical Devices Irony- the use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning, and an outcome of events contrary to what was, or might have been, expected Dramatic Irony- irony that is understood by the audience, but not grasped by the characters in the play. Theatrical Devices Aside- part of an actor’s lines supposedly not heard by other actors on stage and intended only for the audience. Rhyme- The same sound at the end of a line. Tie, pie Pun- the humorous use of a word or phrase to emphasize the different meanings; a play on words. The science teachers fell in love because they had great chemistry. Allusion- a brief reference to something in history, art, religion, etc. Theatrical Devices Plot Twist- an unexpected change in a story. Comic Relief- an amusing scene, incident, or speech introduced into serious or tragic elements, as in a play, in order to provide temporary relief from tension, or to intensify the dramatic action. The End ENJOY!