A glossary of terms for the OGT 22-31
The number of people that die in one year out
of every 1,000 people. (97)
A system in which
citizens participate in
government decisions
by voting directly on
issues or by electing
people to represent
them in the legislature.
In a democracy, the
source of authority for
the government is the
A. head of state.
B. legislature.
C. courts.
D. people.
A system in which citizens
have few rights and the
government is controlled
by an individual or small
group. Nazi Germany was
an example of a
The primary feature of a
dictatorship is that
A. people are permitted to
vote for more than one
B. the executive branch has
equal power with the
legislative branch.
C. judicial courts are
replaced by military courts.
D. leaders make decisions
without the consent of the
2008 Test Question
Some countries that are dictatorships hold elections
from time to time. These elections are different from
elections in presidential democracies because
typically elections in dictatorships
A. only allow citizens to vote and to run for elected office.
B. are monitored by international observers to ensure
C. only have candidates from one political party on the
D. are held more often than elections in presidential
A series of droughts that affected the
American Midwest in the 1930s, drying up
crops and turning the soil to dust. (68)
A movement of thought in 18thcentury Europe and America.
Enlightenment thinkers believed
government decisions and social
arrangements should be based on
the laws of nature and reason. (23)
Enlightenment Test Question
Enlightenment philosophers such as John Locke and JeanJacques Rousseau challenged the idea of the divine right
of kings. They wrote about a government’s obligations to
uphold people’s rights and how the government should be
based on the consent of the governed.
These new ideas encouraged people to
A. remain firm in their support of absolute monarchs.
B. look for leaders who would exercise dictatorial powers.
C. engage in revolutions to establish democratic
D. call for church leaders to create theocracies and replace
the monarchies.
2008 Question
What action by the leaders of the
French Revolution
demonstrates that they were
influenced by Enlightenment
A. They called for the fall of the
absolute monarchy.
B. They encouraged the conquests
of Napoleon.
C. They fought to maintain
France’s colonial empire.
D. They supported the combination
of church and state.
In exploring the relationship
between governments and
people, Thomas Hobbes argued
that governments resulted from a
social contract to maintain an
orderly society. John Locke,
another philosopher of the
Enlightenment, inspired
American revolutionaries by
arguing that a new social
contract could be instituted
under what circumstance?
A. if a government failed to compel
B. if a government violated people’s
natural rights
C. if a government failed to protect
people from economic inequality
D. if a government entered into
alliances with foreign
2009 Question
Enlightenment philosophers such as
John Locke and Jean Jacques
Rousseau wrote that the
relationship between citizens and
their government was a social
contract. Which statement
describes the impact of the idea of
government as a social contract on
the French Revolution in 1789?
A. The king granted women the
right to vote.
B. French citizens claimed their
natural rights.
C. The king raised taxes to pay off
the public debt.
D. French citizens supported the
king against the nobles.
What was one idea that the leaders
of the American Revolution shared
with Enlightenment thinkers?
A. Colonies exist to provide raw
materials and markets for
mother countries.
B. The people have the right to
overthrow their government if it
abuses its powers.
C. Governments may restrict
freedom of speech and of the
press during times of crisis.
D. Factories and businesses should
be owned by the government
rather than by individuals.
The guarantee in the
U.S. Constitution that
each person is entitled
to the “equal protection
of the laws.” (127)
14th Amendment
What perspective of AfricanAmericans was reflected in
the founding of the National
Association for the
Advancement of Colored
People (NAACP) in 1909?
A. the desire for a return to their
cultural heritage
B. the need to improve working
conditions in factories
C. the desire to end legalized
discrimination based on race
D. the belief in the importance of
building a new country in
European political movement that emerged
after World War I. Fascists believe the state
is supreme; that an absolute leader
expressed the needs of the state: and that
citizens should make sacrifices for the state.
Mussolini lead a military-fascist state in Italy.
A system established in
1913, in which a
government agency
oversees the nation’s
money supply.
Federal Reserve
Banks lend money to
other banks, and also
Ben Bernanke
decide on bank
reserve requirements. Chairman Federal Reserve Board
Federal Reserve Banks
Federal Reserve Writing Questions
What would be the expected
effect on spending by the
public if the U.S. government
lowered personal income tax
rates? Explain your answer.
Write your answer in the
Answer Document. (2 points)
Reserve System seeks to influence the U.S.
economy is by raising or lowering One way the
Federal the rate of interest (discount rate) that
member banks must pay to borrow money
from the Federal Reserve.
• Considering that the inflation rate rose
significantly from 1976 to 1980, identify
the change (increase or decrease) the
Federal Reserve System could have
made in the discount rate to reverse that
• Describe the expected impact this change
in the discount rate would have had on:
 consumer spending
 business spending
• Explain why this change in the discount
rate would produce the desired effects on
Write your answer in the Answer Document.
(4 points)
Federal Reserve Question
A newspaper headline states:
“Federal Reserve Decides to
Reduce the Money Supply;
Slowing of the Economy
Likely Impact.”
According to the headline, the
Federal Reserve
A. wants banks to reduce lending.
B. thinks the unemployment rate is
too high.
C. wants banks to give more
customers loans.
D. hopes that consumers will
decide to spend more
2009 Question
What was a key reason for the
creation of the Federal Reserve
A. to encourage exports
B. to increase tax revenues
C. to reduce budget deficits
D. to promote economic stability
An amendment passed after the Civil
War guaranteeing that the right to
vote could not be denied to any
citizen on the basis of race, religion
or national origin.(127)
A means of stimulating
the economy through
government spending
and taxation policies.
U.S. government enforcement of
environmental regulations helps
reduce health problems related
to environmental pollution.
How does this help promote
economic growth and stability?
A. It decreases the size of the
available workforce.
B. It creates new productive
C. It reduces the cost of raw
materials for manufacturers.
D. It lowers health care costs for
individuals and businesses.
2008 Question
In order to stimulate the economy, the United States
government lowers personal income tax rates. Why
this action be expected to promote economic growth?
A. Businesses would be required to hire more
B. Manufacturers would have to pay more for raw
C. The government would be less likely to engage in
deficit spending.
D. Consumers would have more money available to
spend on goods and services.
2009 Question
Identify one action that may be taken by the federal
government that could improve the ability of businesses to
raise wages, buy new equipment, and conduct product
A. support monopolies
B. reduce government spending
C. reduce corporate income taxes
D. set price ceilings on goods and