The Early Republic 1789 - 1844 Presidents and Vice Presidents • George Washington John Adams • John Adams Thomas Jefferson • Thomas Jefferson Aaron Burr & George Clinton George Clinton & Elbridge Gerry • James Madison • James Monroe Daniel Thompkins Political Parties • Federalists • Democratic-Republicans Leaders: Hamilton, Adams Supporters: lawyers, Leaders: Jefferson, Madison Supporters: farmers, urban merchants, manufacturers, clergy workers Beliefs: Beliefs: • Strong national government • Loose construction of the Constitution • Favored national bank • Limited national government • Strict construction of the Constitution • Opposed national bank • Agricultural economy • Economy based on trade Political Party Clothing Styles • Federalist Powdered wigs • Democratic-Republicans Loose hair Bow ties Neckerchief Broad coattails Narrow coattails Breaches Trousers Stockings Buckles Laces New Styles for a New Nation • A Revolution of Fashion Clothing styles reflected revolutionary political changes underway in America. Here the old style at the bottom left is replaced with more relaxed, plainer styles. New Styles Continued • The Model of Liberty The goddess of Liberty, who appeared on U.S. coins in 1795, was modeled on a famous woman of the Federal period – Anne Willing Bingham. She was brilliant and highly educated and a friend of President Jefferson. Her world famous intelligence, independent spirit, and beauty made her the perfect choice to represent liberty on America’s new coins. New Styles Continued • Architecture Americans saw a link between their new republic and the ancient republic of Rome. Like the Romans, Americans had rebelled against a king and established a democracy. Architects began designing buildings for their new government using Roman forms to represent the nation’s ideals of democracy. Massachusetts State House 1797 Virginia State Capitol 1789 Technology of the Time • Jefferson enjoyed inventions and technology. He developed the wheel cipher, copy machine, and sundial. Other Inventions • • • • • 1769 - The Steam Engine 1793 - The Cotton Gin 1803 - Locomotive 1807 - Steamboat 1837 - Telegraph and Steel Plow All of these inventions and more improved American lives.