Lesson Three:
Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy
http://kohlin.com/BibleSurvey/
1
Leviticus – “about Levites”
 Author: Moses
 Purpose: to guide the Israelites in the ways of holiness, so they
would be set apart from the world and receive blessings instead of
judgment as they lived near the presence of their holy God.
 Date of writing: c. 1446-1406 BC, concerning events primarily around
Mount Sinai, primarily for the generation of the exodus.
 Key truths:
o
o
o
o
God is Holy, and He requires holiness from his people
God’s people fail to keep the requirements of holiness
Temporary atonement could be found in the sacrificial system
God called His people to pursue holiness in every aspect of their lives in
gratitude for the mercy He had shown them
o God offered wondrous blessings and threatened judgment so his people
would repent
2
Figure carrying burden – Israel
Murky stream – Israel lived in a world
where evil was a reality
Spotted tunic, burden, broken notes – the
sinfulness of the chosen ones issued
in the same disharmonies as those
experienced by the first inhabitants of
God’s good earth
Extended hands – Israel’s mission
entailed a ministry to all on the earth
Figure clutches burden – Preoccupied
with its own burdens, Israel was not
free to minister to the needs of others
Lamb between figure and extended hands
– Freed from its own burden by the
atoning acts of God, Israel would be
free to fulfill its mission
Manuscript message – the atonement of
God was designed by Him to
empower Israel “to be a blessing”
© the Bethel Series
3
Leviticus
Laws on Sacrifice (Lev 1:1 – 7:38)
Moses explained how the laity and the priests were to participate in a
variety of sacrifices in the presence of God at the tabernacle
The Ordination of the Aaronic Priesthood (Lev 8:1 – 10:20)
Moses described how Aaron and his sons were ordained to be priests for
Israel. Moses performed a number of ceremonies and Aaron andhis
sons completed the ceremonies. In order to encourage priests not to
violate their ordination, Moses then explained why two sons of Aaron
had fallen under God’s judgment while two others had been exonerated.
Uncleanness and it’s treatment (Lev 11:1 – 16:34)
Moses described how to identify and deal with ritual uncleanness.
The practice of Holiness (Lev 17:1 – 27:34)
Moses revealed the far-reaching implications of Israel’s call to holiness by
touching on how to remain holy in many different spheres of life.
4
Numbers – “In the Desert”
 Author: Moses
 Purpose: to call the second generation of the exodus to serve God
as His holy army in the conquest of the promised land by avoiding
the failures of the past and by remaining faithful to God’s directives.
 Date of Writing: c. 1406 BC, concerning events about and on the way
from Mount Sinai to Moab, for those born in the desert.
 Key Truths:
o God fully prepared His people to serve Him and to succeed in the
conquest of the promised land.
o The members of the first generation failed to succeed because they
were ungrateful for the grace God had shown them and feared the
power of the Canaanites.
o God raised up another generation for the conquest of the promised
land, but they also had to remain faithful to the Lord in order to succeed.
5
6
Numbers
The preparation of the First-Generation Army (Num 1:1 – 9:14)
Through the leadership of Moses and Aaron, God prepared the first
generation of the exodus with everything it needed to be a holy army
ready to possess the promised land.
The failed march of the First-Generation Army (Num 9:15 – 25:18)
The first generation of the exodus began the march toward the promised
land with great hope, but complaints and rebellion led to the demise of
nearly the entire generation. Yet, in His mercy, God began to prepare a
second generation to move forward.
The preparation of the Second-Generation Army (Num 26:1 – 36:13)
God prepared the second generation of the exodus to move forward as His
holy army. God demonstrated His love for Israel by restoring their
numbers and reaffirming holy leadership for the nation. He also gave
instructions that would guide the people as they conquered the land.
7
Deuteronomy
 Author: Moses
 Purpose: to encourage a renewal of the covenant mediated by
Moses as Israel was about to enter the promised land under
Joshua’s leadership.
 Date of Writing: c. 1406, about events that took place on the plains
of Moab, to the second generation of the exodus
 Key Truths:
o The Israelites on the plains of Moab were to learn the importance of
loyalty to the covenant from the experiences of the previous generation.
o The laws of Moses were designed to benefit the people of God as they
moved into the promised land under Joshua’s leadership.
o Loyalty to the covenant would be rewarded with blessings, and
disobedience would be punished with curses.
o The Israelites were to renew their commitment to the covenant as they
waited on the plains of Moab and after they entered the promised land.
8
Deuteronomy
Introduction (Dt 1:1-4)
Moses identified himself as the mediator of Israel’s covenant renewal on
the plains of Moab.
Moses First Address [the Historical Prologue] (Dt 1:5 – 4:43)
The Israelites were to learn gratitude and loyalty to the Lord from their
experiences and from the experiences of the previous generation.
Moses Second Address [the Stipulations] (Dt 4:44 – 26:19)
Loving loyalty to the Lord required obedience to His many laws. These
laws were His kind gift to His people. In the future, Israel was to be even
more firmly committed to the law.
Moses’ Third Address [Ratification: curses and blessings] (Dt 27:1 –
30:20)
Israel was to renew her commitment to the covenant in the promised land.
She was also to recommit on the plains of Moab. The wonderful
blessings and fearful curses of the covenant required such
commitments. Even if the curse of exile occurred, God promised to
return His people to the land and to His rich blessings.
9
Deuteronomy
The conclusion of Moses’ Ministry [leadership succession] (Dt 31:1 –
34:12)
Moses transferred his authority to Joshua. He left God’s people with
lessons learned from the past and with high hopes for the future.
10
11
Hammurabi’s Code
 King of Babylonia
 1792-1750 BC
 Babylon was sacked in
1531 BC
 Kassites ruled 400 years
and used Hammurabi’s
code of laws
12
Kassite Babylonia
 Hittite attacks weakened
the Babylonians
 Babylon was sacked in
1531 BC by the Hittite king
Mursilis I
 Kassite dynasty lasted
until 1155 BC
 Nebuchadnezzar I began a
period of native rule
 In 729 BC Babylon was
conquered into the NeoAssyrian Empire
13
Assyria
14
Assyria
15
16
17
18
History in the Law Books
Aaron and his sons are ordained as priests before the Lord, in the presence of
the congregation (Lev 8)
19
History in the Law Books
Aaron and his sons are ordained as priests before the Lord, in the presence of
the congregation (Lev 8)
Aaron’s sons Nadab and Abihu offer unauthorized worship, and are put to
death (Lev 10, WCF XXI)
20
History in the Law Books
Aaron and his sons are ordained as priests before the Lord, in the presence of
the congregation (Lev 8)
Aaron’s sons Nadab and Abihu offer unauthorized worship, and are put to
death (Lev 10, WCF XXI)
God chooses the tribe of Levi to be priests for the people (Num 3, 8)
21
History in the Law Books
Aaron and his sons are ordained as priests before the Lord, in the presence of
the congregation (Lev 8)
Aaron’s sons Nadab and Abihu offer unauthorized worship, and are put to
death (Lev 10, WCF XXI)
God chooses the tribe of Levi to be priests for the people (Num 3, 8)
The first passover is celebrated, a year after the departure from Egypt (Num 9)
22
History in the Law Books
Aaron and his sons are ordained as priests before the Lord, in the presence of
the congregation (Lev 8)
Aaron’s sons Nadab and Abihu offer unauthorized worship, and are put to
death (Lev 10, WCF XXI)
God chooses the tribe of Levi to be priests for the people (Num 3, 8)
The first passover is celebrated, a year after the departure from Egypt (Num 9)
A first census of the Israelites is taken, by their clans and families, of the men
available for military service (Num 1)
23
History in the Law Books
Aaron and his sons are ordained as priests before the Lord, in the presence of
the congregation (Lev 8)
Aaron’s sons Nadab and Abihu offer unauthorized worship, and are put to
death (Lev 10, WCF XXI)
God chooses the tribe of Levi to be priests for the people (Num 3, 8)
The first passover is celebrated, a year after the departure from Egypt (Num 9)
A first census of the Israelites is taken, by their clans and families, of the men
available for military service (Num 1)
The Levites are not counted for the army; they will be responsible for care of
the tabernacle of the testimony
24
History in the Law Books
Aaron and his sons are ordained as priests before the Lord, in the presence of
the congregation (Lev 8)
Aaron’s sons Nadab and Abihu offer unauthorized worship, and are put to
death (Lev 10, WCF XXI)
God chooses the tribe of Levi to be priests for the people (Num 3, 8)
The first passover is celebrated, a year after the departure from Egypt (Num 9)
A first census of the Israelites is taken, by their clans and families, of the men
available for military service (Num 1)
The Levites are not counted for the army; they will be responsible for care of
the tabernacle of the testimony
The descendents of Joseph are counted as two tribes, from his sons Ephraim
and Manasseh
25
History in the Law Books
Aaron and his sons are ordained as priests before the Lord, in the presence of
the congregation (Lev 8)
Aaron’s sons Nadab and Abihu offer unauthorized worship, and are put to
death (Lev 10, WCF XXI)
God chooses the tribe of Levi to be priests for the people (Num 3, 8)
The first passover is celebrated, a year after the departure from Egypt (Num 9)
A first census of the Israelites is taken, by their clans and families, of the men
available for military service (Num 1)
The Levites are not counted for the army; they will be responsible for care of
the tabernacle of the testimony
The descendents of Joseph are counted as two tribes, from his sons Ephraim
and Manasseh
603,550 fighting men are numbered from among a nation of 2,000,000
26
History in the Law Books
Aaron and his sons are ordained as priests before the Lord, in the presence of
the congregation (Lev 8)
Aaron’s sons Nadab and Abihu offer unauthorized worship, and are put to
death (Lev 10, WCF XXI)
God chooses the tribe of Levi to be priests for the people (Num 3, 8)
The first passover is celebrated, a year after the departure from Egypt (Num 9)
A first census of the Israelites is taken, by their clans and families, of the men
available for military service (Num 1)
The descendents of Joseph are counted as two tribes, from his sons Ephraim
and Manasseh
The Levites are not counted for the army; they will be responsible for care of
the tabernacle of the testimony
603,550 fighting men are numbered from among a nation of 2,000,000
Directions are given for the order of their encampment (Num 2)
27
28
History in the Law Books
Aaron and his sons are ordained as priests before the Lord, in the presence of
the congregation (Lev 8)
Aaron’s sons Nadab and Abihu offer unauthorized worship, and are put to
death (Lev 10, WCF XXI)
God chooses the tribe of Levi to be priests for the people (Num 3, 8)
The first passover is celebrated, a year after the departure from Egypt (Num 9)
A first census of the Israelites is taken, by their clans and families, of the men
available for military service (Num 1)
The Levites are not counted for the army; they will be responsible for care of
the tabernacle of the testimony
The descendents of Joseph are counted as two tribes, from his sons Ephraim
and Manasseh
603,550 fighting men are numbered from among a nation of 2,000,000
Directions are given for the order of their encampment (Num 2)
God ordered the Levites counted, and prescribed their duties and order of
encampment (Num 3, 4)
29
History in the Law Books
On the 20th day of the 2nd month of the 2nd year (c. 1445 BC), the Israelites
leave their encampment near Mount Sinai, bound for the promised land
(Num 10)
30
History in the Law Books
On the 20th day of the 2nd month of the 2nd year (c. 1445 BC), the Israelites
leave their encampment near Mount Sinai, bound for the promised land
(Num 10)
Twelve spies are sent into the land, one from each tribe. Caleb is from the tribe
of Judah; Joshua is from the tribe of Ephraim (Num 13)
31
History in the Law Books
On the 20th day of the 2nd month of the 2nd year (c. 1445 BC), the Israelites
leave their encampment near Mount Sinai, bound for the promised land
(Num 10)
Twelve spies are sent into the land, one from each tribe. Caleb is from the tribe
of Judah; Joshua is from the tribe of Ephraim (Num 13)
The spies report; all except Caleb and Joshua are pessimistic.
32
History in the Law Books
On the 20th day of the 2nd month of the 2nd year (c. 1445 BC), the Israelites
leave their encampment near Mount Sinai, bound for the promised land
(Num 10)
Twelve spies are sent into the land, one from each tribe. Caleb is from the tribe
of Judah; Joshua is from the tribe of Ephraim (Num 13)
The spies report; all except Caleb and Joshua are pessimistic.
The people are afraid and want to return to Egypt. God judges them for their
disobedience: they are condemned to wander in the wilderness for forty
years. More, the entire generation that was delivered out of Egypt shall die
in the desert; they will not inherit the promised land (Num 14)
33
History in the Law Books
On the 20th day of the 2nd month of the 2nd year (c. 1445 BC), the Israelites
leave their encampment near Mount Sinai, bound for the promised land
(Num 10)
Twelve spies are sent into the land, one from each tribe. Caleb is from the tribe
of Judah; Joshua is from the tribe of Ephraim (Num 13)
The spies report; all except Caleb and Joshua are pessimistic.
The people are afraid and want to return to Egypt. God judges them for their
disobedience: they are condemned to wander in the wilderness for forty
years. Moreover, the entire generation that was delivered out of Egypt shall
die in the desert; they will not inherit the promised land (Num 14)
Korah, a Levite, leads a rebellion (Num 16)
250 men are consumed by fire from the Lord
14,700 are killed by a plague
34
History in the Law Books
On the 20th day of the 2nd month of the 2nd year (c. 1445 BC), the Israelites
leave their encampment near Mount Sinai, bound for the promised land
(Num 10)
Twelve spies are sent into the land, one from each tribe. Caleb is from the tribe
of Judah; Joshua is from the tribe of Ephraim (Num 13)
The spies report; all except Caleb and Joshua are pessimistic.
The people are afraid and want to return to Egypt. God judges them for their
disobedience: they are condemned to wander in the wilderness for forty
years. Moreover, the entire generation that was delivered out of Egypt shall
die in the desert; they will not inherit the promised land (Num 14)
Korah, a Levite, leads a rebellion (Num 16)
250 men are consumed by fire from the Lord
14,700 are killed by a plague
The people cry for water; Moses is given instructions for how to get it, but
strikes the rock. Judgment at the waters of Meribah (Num 20)
35
History in the Law Books
On the 20th day of the 2nd month of the 2nd year (c. 1445 BC), the Israelites
leave their encampment near Mount Sinai, bound for the promised land
(Num 10)
Twelve spies are sent into the land, one from each tribe. Caleb is from the tribe
of Judah; Joshua is from the tribe of Ephraim (Num 13)
The spies report; all except Caleb and Joshua are pessimistic.
The people are afraid and want to return to Egypt. God judges them for their
disobedience: they are condemned to wander in the wilderness for forty
years. Moreover, the entire generation that was delivered out of Egypt shall
die in the desert; they will not inherit the promised land (Num 14)
Korah, a Levite, leads a rebellion (Num 16)
250 men are consumed by fire from the Lord
14,700 are killed by a plague
The people cry for water; Moses is given instructions for how to get it, but
strikes the rock. Judgment at the waters of Meribah (Num 20)
Passage through Edom denied. Aaron dies. Victory in battle with Canaanite
King Arad (Num 21)
36
History in the Law Books
On the 20th day of the 2nd month of the 2nd year (c. 1445 BC), the Israelites
leave their encampment near Mount Sinai, bound for the promised land
(Num 10)
Twelve spies are sent into the land, one from each tribe. Caleb is from the tribe
of Judah; Joshua is from the tribe of Ephraim (Num 13)
The spies report; all except Caleb and Joshua are pessimistic.
The people are afraid and want to return to Egypt. God judges them for their
disobedience: they are condemned to wander in the wilderness for forty
years. More, the entire generation that was delivered out of Egypt shall die
in the desert; they will not inherit the promised land (Num 14)
Korah, a Levite, leads a rebellion (Num 16)
250 men are consumed by fire from the Lord
14,700 are killed by a plague
The people cry for water; Moses is given instructions for how to get it, but
strikes the rock. Judgment at the waters of Meribah (Num 20)
Passage through Edom denied. Aaron dies. Victory in battle with Canaanite
King Arad (Num 21)
The Bronze snake erected to save the people (Num 21; John 3:14,15)
37
History in the Law Books
Moses has kept a journal of the Israelites’ travels during the 40 years in the
desert (Num 33)
38
History in the Law Books
Moses has kept a journal of the Israelites’ travels during the 40 years in the
desert (Num 33)
Edom’s King Balak fears the Israelites, summons a seer, Balaam (Num 22-24)
39
History in the Law Books
Moses has kept a journal of the Israelites’ travels during the 40 years in the
desert (Num 33)
Edom’s King Balak fears the Israelites, summons a seer, Balaam (Num 22-24)
Israelite men seduced to idolatry by Midianite women. 25,000 die in plague
sent as punishment (Num 25)
40
History in the Law Books
Moses has kept a journal of the Israelites’ travels during the 40 years in the
desert (Num 33)
Edom’s King Balak fears the Israelites, summons a seer, Balaam (Num 22-24)
Israelite men seduced to idolatry by Midianite women. 25,000 die in plague
sent as punishment (Num 25)
God orders the Israelites to destroy the Midianites (Num 31)
41
History in the Law Books
Moses has kept a journal of the Israelites’ travels during the 40 years in the
desert (Num 33)
Edom’s King Balak fears the Israelites, summons a seer, Balaam (Num 22-24)
Israelite men seduced to idolatry by Midianite women. 25,000 die in plague
sent as punishment (Num 25)
God orders the Israelites to destroy the Midianites (Num 31)
God orders Moses to take a Second census of the people before they enter the
promised land, to conquer it (Num 26)
42
History in the Law Books
Moses has kept a journal of the Israelites’ travels during the 40 years in the
desert (Num 33)
Edom’s King Balak fears the Israelites, summons a seer, Balaam (Num 22-24)
Israelite men seduced to idolatry by Midianite women. 25,000 die in plague
sent as punishment (Num 25)
God orders the Israelites to destroy the Midianites (Num 31)
God orders Moses to take a Second census of the people before they enter the
promised land, to conquer it.
There are 1,820 fewer men over 20 (fighting men now number 601,730) but
1,000 more Levites (23,000). (Num 26)
43
History in the Law Books
Moses has kept a journal of the Israelites’ travels during the 40 years in the
desert (Num 33)
Edom’s King Balak fears the Israelites, summons a seer, Balaam (Num 22-24)
Israelite men seduced to idolatry by Midianite women. 25,000 die in plague
sent as punishment (Num 25)
God orders the Israelites to destroy the Midianites (Num 31)
God orders Moses to take a Second census of the people before they enter the
promised land, to conquer it.
There are fewer men over 20 (fighting men now number 601,730) but more
Levites (23,000). (Num 26)
Joshua, who has been Moses’ faithful protégé for the 40 years in the desert, is
named his successor (Num 27)
44
History in the Law Books
Moses has kept a journal of the Israelites’ travels during the 40 years in the
desert (Num 33)
Edom’s King Balak fears the Israelites, summons a seer, Balaam (Num 22-24)
Israelite men seduced to idolatry by Midianite women. 25,000 die in plague
sent as punishment (Num 25)
God orders the Israelites to destroy the Midianites (Num 31)
God orders Moses to take a Second census of the people before they enter the
promised land, to conquer it.
There are fewer men over 20 (fighting men now number 601,730) but more
Levites (23,000). (Num 26)
Joshua, who has been Moses’ faithful protégé for the 40 years in the desert, is
named his successor (Num 27)
The tribes of Gad, Reuben, and half of Manasseh want to take up land (Gilead)
east of the Jordan river, and Moses allows it (Num 32)
45
History in the Law Books
Moses has kept a journal of the Israelites’ travels during the 40 years in the
desert (Num 33)
Edom’s King Balak fears the Israelites, summons a seer, Balaam (Num 22-24)
Israelite men seduced to idolatry by Midianite women. 25,000 die in plague
sent as punishment (Num 25)
God orders the Israelites to destroy the Midianites (Num 31)
God orders Moses to take a Second census of the people before they enter the
promised land, to conquer it.
There are fewer men over 20 (fighting men now number 601,730) but more
Levites (23,000). (Num 26)
Joshua, who has been Moses’ faithful protégé for the 40 years in the desert, is
named his successor (Num 27)
The tribes of Gad, Reuben, and half of Manasseh want to take up land (Gilead)
east of the Jordan river, and Moses allows it (Num 32)
Directions and preparations for the conquest of Canaan
46
History in the Law Books
Moses has kept a journal of the Israelites’ travels during the 40 years in the
desert (Num 33)
Edom’s King Balak fears the Israelites, summons a seer, Balaam (Num 22-24)
Israelite men seduced to idolatry by Midianite women. 25,000 die in plague
sent as punishment (Num 25)
God orders the Israelites to destroy the Midianites (Num 31)
God orders Moses to take a Second census of the people before they enter the
promised land, to conquer it.
There are fewer men over 20 (fighting men now number 601,730) but more
Levites (23,000). (Num 26)
Joshua, who has been Moses’ faithful protégé for the 40 years in the desert, is
named his successor (Num 27)
The tribes of Gad, Reuben, and half of Manasseh want to take up land (Gilead)
east of the Jordan river, and Moses allows it (Num 32)
Directions and preparations for the conquest of Canaan
Drive out all the inhabitants
47
History in the Law Books
Moses has kept a journal of the Israelites’ travels during the 40 years in the
desert (Num 33)
Edom’s King Balak fears the Israelites, summons a seer, Balaam (Num 22-24)
Israelite men seduced to idolatry by Midianite women. 25,000 die in plague
sent as punishment (Num 25)
God orders the Israelites to destroy the Midianites (Num 31)
God orders Moses to take a Second census of the people before they enter the
promised land, to conquer it.
There are fewer men over 20 (fighting men now number 601,730) but more
Levites (23,000). (Num 26)
Joshua, who has been Moses’ faithful protégé for the 40 years in the desert, is
named his successor (Num 27)
The tribes of Gad, Reuben, and half of Manasseh want to take up land (Gilead)
east of the Jordan river, and Moses allows it (Num 32)
Directions and preparations for the conquest of Canaan
Drive out all the inhabitants
Destroy the rampant idolatry in the land
48
History in the Law Books
Moses has kept a journal of the Israelites’ travels during the 40 years in the
desert (Num 33)
Edom’s King Balak fears the Israelites, summons a seer, Balaam (Num 22-24)
Israelite men seduced to idolatry by Midianite women. 25,000 die in plague
sent as punishment (Num 25)
God orders the Israelites to destroy the Midianites (Num 31)
God orders Moses to take a Second census of the people before they enter the
promised land, to conquer it.
There are fewer men over 20 (fighting men now number 601,730) but more
Levites (23,000). (Num 26)
Joshua, who has been Moses’ faithful protégé for the 40 years in the desert, is
named his successor (Num 27)
The tribes of Gad, Reuben, and half of Manasseh want to take up land (Gilead)
east of the Jordan river, and Moses allows it (Num 32)
Directions and preparations for the conquest of Canaan
Drive out all the inhabitants
Destroy the rampant idolatry in the land
God delineates the borders of the Promised Land
49
50
51
52
History in the Law Books
On the 1st day of the 11th month of the 40th year, Moses spoke to the Israelites
who were poised to enter the Promised Land, recounting their 40-year
sojourn in the wilderness (Deut 1:1-4:40)
53
History in the Law Books
On the 1st day of the 11th month of the 40th year, Moses spoke to the Israelites
who were poised to enter the Promised Land, recounting their 40-year
sojourn in the wilderness (Deut 1:1-4:40)
A few days later, Moses spoke again emphasizing the need for obedience to
the Law (Deut 4:40-11:32)
54
History in the Law Books
On the 1st day of the 11th month of the 40th year, Moses spoke to the Israelites
who were poised to enter the Promised Land, recounting their 40-year
sojourn in the wilderness (Deut 1:1-4:40)
A few days later, Moses spoke again emphasizing the need for obedience to
the Law (Deut 4:40-11:32)
Moses emphasized the two-fold purpose of the Law:
To bring the people into a proper relationship with God
To regulate their conduct toward orderly and beneficial Living
55
History in the Law Books
On the 1st day of the 11th month of the 40th year, Moses spoke to the Israelites
who were poised to enter the Promised Land, recounting their 40-year
sojourn in the wilderness (Deut 1:1-4:40)
A few days later, Moses spoke again emphasizing the need for obedience to
the Law (Deut 4:40-11:32)
Moses emphasized the two-fold purpose of the Law:
To bring the people into a proper relationship with God
To regulate their conduct toward orderly and beneficial Living
In this second address to the people, Moses expounds on the principle laws.
Most are set forth in the form of statutes, others as case decisions or ethical
duties (Deut 5 ff; Ex 22 ff; Lev 19 ff; other)
56
Download

History in Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy