JESUS CHRIST: GOD’S REVELATION TO THE WORLD CHAPTER 4 THE PENTATEUCH, CREATION, COVENANT, AND THE EXODUS The Writing of the Pentateuch Traditionally, Moses has been named the author of the Pentateuch. However, scholarship shows that the Pentateuch reached its final form after centuries of retelling, adapting, and reinterpreting oral tradition. Sources of the Pentateuch NOT A SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATION OF THE UNIVERSE YAHWIST—vivid, earthy style of writing with an anthropomorphic view of God ELOHIST—emphasis on prophesies; Abraham is central figure DEUTERONOMIST— emphasis on morality and the Law; highlights Moses’ speeches PRIESTLY—census lists, genealogies, numbers, dates, proper ways to worship USED POPULAR IMAGES TO CONVEY RELIGIOUS TRUTH The Creation Stories 1st—forceful, stately, grand; awesome dramatic act by glorious, majestic God 2nd—lighter in tone, down-to-earth; paints picture of anthropomorphic God BOTH REVEAL IMPORTANT TRUTHS ABOUT GOD, CREATION, AND HUMAN BEINGS The First Creation Story There is only one God. God planned creation. Everything that God made is good. The Sabbath is a special day of rest and worship. The Second Creation Story Portray God as a potter who molds Adam’s body Very intimate Creation of Eve from Adam’s rib shows the equal dignity of women and men YHWH wants the couple “to become one,” to enter into a close relationship that mirrors God’s own relationship with them Why include two Creation Stories in the Bible? Goodness, love, intimate God Aweinspiring, great, mysterious, powerful Sin Enters the World The story of Fall explains why human beings are not always happy and do not live forever. The Serpent became the symbol of evil. Sin comes from the free will of human beings “Adam and Eve committed a personal sin, but this affected the human nature that they would then transmit in a fallen state.” The Protoevangelium “I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers; He will strike at your head, while you strike at his heel.” (Gn 3:15) Covenant with Abraham Relied solely on God’s fidelity This covenant was tested when God asked Abraham to sacrifice his son, Isaac, but the Lord’s messenger stopped the sacrifice. Abraham is a model of faith. The Patriarch Israel Jacob secured his father’s inheritance over his twin brother Esau. God repeated the covenant to Jacob in a dream on the road at Bethel; years later, Jacob wrestled a stranger who gave Jacob a new name, Israel— “one who contends with God.” Included in Jacob’s family were his twelve sons from whom came the Twelve Tribes of Israel. Joseph, the Favored Son JOSEPH Beloved son who had jealous brothers Ended up in Egypt because of his brothers’ treachery Judah convinced the others to sell Joseph for twenty pieces of silver Faithful to his master, falsely accused, and imprisoned Forgave his brothers and saved them from famine JESUS Beloved Son of God of whom Herod was jealous Holy Family ended up in Egypt to flee King Herod Judas betrayed Jesus for thirty pieces of silver Faithful to his Father, falsely accused, and underwent his Passion, Death, and Resurrection Forgave his executioners and saved all humanity The Exodus and the Giving of the Law Foundational event in the history of the Chosen People The Prophet Moses Central figure in the Old Testament God appeared to Moses in a burning bush that was not consumed by the fire. God instructed Moses to lead the Chosen People to freedom. The Passover YHWH instructed the Chosen People to celebrate a sacred meal to remind of God’s deliverance. Each Mass commemorates Jesus’ sacrifice and saving actions on the cross and makes it present. CENTRAL TO BOTH THE JEWISH AND CHRISTIAN FAITHS The Sinai Covenant Bound God and the Chosen People in a personal loving union Revealed God’s special love and mercy for them Stipulated how God’s People were to respond to his love THE TEN COMMANDMENTS SUMMARIZE THE LAW “You shall be my people, and I will be your God” The Exodus and the Giving of the Law Challenges in the Desert The people grew frustrated with Moses and made a golden calf to worship. Numbers records the “murmuring” of the People against Moses. It took forty years before the Chosen People could enter the Promised Land. Other Themes from Leviticus and Deuteronomy Leviticus stresses the theme of God’s holiness and our need to worship him with love. Deuteronomy centers on God’s love of Israel and exhorts the nation to choose between obedience to God and the Law.