Get out your spiral and get ready to take notes! Chapter Introduction Section 1: The Early Years Section 2: The War Continues Section 3: The War Moves West and South Section 4: The War is Won Visual Summary The Early Years Essential Question What challenges did the American revolutionaries face at the start of the war? The War Continues Essential Question How did the United States gain allies and aid during the Revolutionary War? The War Moves West and South Essential Question How did fighting in the West and South affect the course of the Revolutionary War? The War is Won Essential Question How did the battle of Yorktown lead to American independence? What challenges did the American revolutionaries face at the start of the war? Reading Guide Content Vocabulary • mercenary • recruit Academic Vocabulary • transfer • previous Reading Guide (cont.) Key People and Events • Hessian • Lemuel Hayes • Molly Pitcher • Peter Salem • General William Howe • Benedict Arnold • Nathan Hale • General Horatio Gates The Opposing Sides The British and American forces each had advantages and disadvantages during the war for American independence. The Opposing Sides (cont.) • British advantages in the war included: – The strongest navy in the world – An experienced and well-trained army – Great wealth – A much larger population The Opposing Sides (cont.) • American disadvantages in the war included: – The absence of a regular army and strong navy – A short supply of weapons and ammunition – Some colonists, such as the Loyalists, did not support the war for independence. The Opposing Sides (cont.) • American advantages in the war included: – The ability to fight on their own ground – Determination to gain freedom from Britain – The British relied on Hessian mercenaries to fight for them. – George Washington as a leader The Opposing Sides (cont.) • Because Colonists were unwilling to transfer power to their own Continental Congress, Congress experienced difficulty enlisting soldiers and raising money to fight the war. • The Congress established the Continental Army but depended on the states to recruit soldiers. The Opposing Sides (cont.) • The best officers in the Continental Army were veterans of previous wars. • Some women, such as Molly Pitcher, fought with the Patriot forces. One of the Patriots’ greatest advantages was which of the following? A. A larger population B. Mercenaries fighting on their side C. A stronger navy D. George Washington as their military leader A. B. C. D. A B C D Patriot Defeats and Victories After suffering defeat at the Battle of Long Island, the Americans rallied and won victories at Trenton and Princeton. Patriot Defeats and Victories (cont.) • The British commander, General William Howe, hoped the sheer size of his army would convince the Patriots to give up. • Before being hanged as a spy, Patriot Nathan Hale said, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.” • As many as 5,000 African Americans—such as Lemuel Hayes and Peter Salem— joined the Patriots. Patriot Defeats and Victories (cont.) • On Christmas night 1776, Washington and 2,400 troops crossed the Delaware River and surprised the enemy at Trenton the next day. Historians estimate that how many African Americans joined the Patriots to fight? A. 500 B. 1,000 C. 5,000 D. 10,000 A. B. C. D. A B C D A British Plan for Victory The British plan to separate New England from the Middle Colonies was foiled at the Battle of Saratoga. A British Plan for Victory (cont.) • The British wanted to gain control of the Hudson River, which would separate New England from the Middle Colonies. • The British captured Philadelphia but were stopped in New York by American forces led by Benedict Arnold. • In the Battle of Saratoga, American troops under the command of General Horatio Gates surrounded the British troops and their plan to separate the colonies failed. At which battle was the British plan to separate the colonies foiled? A. The Battle of Saratoga B. The Battle of Trenton C. The Battle of Philadelphia D. The Battle of Burgoyne A. B. C. D. A B C D How did the United States gain allies and aid during the Revolutionary War? Reading Guide Content Vocabulary • desert • inflation Academic Vocabulary • aid • issue Reading Guide (cont.) Key People and Events • Bernardo de Gálvez • Marquis de Lafayette • Friedrich von Steuben • Juan de Miralles • Judith Sargeant Murray • Abigail Adams Gaining Allies Even with aid from other nations and individuals, the Patriots had difficulty financing their war for independence. Gaining Allies (cont.) • Realizing that the Americans had a chance of defeating Britain, the French declared war on Britain and sent money, equipment, and troops to aid the American patriots. • Spain also declared war on Britain in 1779 and the Spanish governor of Louisiana, Bernardo de Gálvez, raised an army. Gaining Allies (cont.) • Many men deserted the Continental Army during a winter of terrible suffering at Valley Forge. However, the Continental Army did survive the winter. • Among the leaders at Valley Forge was a French noble, the Marquis de Lafayette. • Friedrich von Steuben, a former army officer from Prussia, also came to help General Washington. Gaining Allies (cont.) • Juan de Miralles arrived in Philadelphia in 1778 as a representative of Spain. • To pay for the war, the Congress and the states printed hundreds of millions of dollars’ worth of paper money, which led to inflation. What is the main reason that European nations helped the Americans fight for independence? A. They knew America would become a superpower one day. B. The American politicians promised them money in return. C. They admired their cause. D. They disliked the British. A. B. C. D. A B C D Life on the Home Front The ideals of liberty and freedom that inspired the American Revolution carried through to the issues of women’s interests and slavery. Life on the Home Front (cont.) • The ideals of liberty and freedom that inspired the American Revolution also caused some women to question their place and treatment in American society. – Judith Sargeant Murray argued that women’s minds are as good as men’s. – Abigail Adams also stood up for women’s interests. Life on the Home Front (cont.) • The Revolutionary War ideals also inspired some white Americans to question slavery; however, the issue of slavery would remain unsettled for many years. • Loyalists who remained in the United States faced difficult times. Which of the following states did NOT attempt to abolish slavery around the time of the American Revolution? A. Vermont B. Virginia C. New Hampshire D. Pennsylvania A. B. C. D. A B C D How did fighting in the West and South affect the course of the Revolutionary War? Reading Guide Content Vocabulary • blockade • privateer • guerrilla warfare Academic Vocabulary • impact • sustain Reading Guide (cont.) Key People and Events • Joseph Brant • George Rogers Clark • John Paul Jones • Battle of Moore’s Creek • General Charles Cornwallis • Francis Marion • Nathanael Greene War in the West The British, along with their Native American allies, led attacks against settlers in the West. War in the West (cont.) • Some Native Americans helped the Patriots, but more—including Mohawk chief Joseph Brant—sided with the British, who seemed less of a threat than the Americans. • George Rogers Clark’s victory at Vincennes strengthened the American position in the West. With whom did most Native Americans side during the American Revolution? A. Britain B. America A. A B. B Glory at Sea The American navy and American privateers had some successes against the powerful British navy. Glory at Sea (cont.) • Britain’s navy formed a blockade, preventing supplies and reinforcements from reaching the Continental Army. • Because the American navy was too weak to operate effectively, the Second Continental Congress authorized approximately 2,000 ships to sail as privateers. • A daring American naval officer, John Paul Jones, raided British ports and became a naval hero to the American Patriots. Of the thirteen American warships built to fight the British, how many actually made it to sea? A. One B. Two C. Five D. Ten A. B. C. D. A B C D Struggles in the South Great Britain hoped that a strong campaign in the South would help the war. Struggles in the South (cont.) • In 1776 the Americans crushed Loyalists at the Battle of Moore’s Creek, near Wilmington, North Carolina. • Hoping to use their sea power and the support of the Loyalists to win decisive victories, General Charles Cornwallis commanded the British forces in the Southern states. Struggles in the South (cont.) • Francis Marion successfully used the hitand-run technique of guerrilla warfare against the British in South Carolina. • In October 1780, Nathanael Greene’s army was forced to retreat from Guilford Courthouse in North Carolina, but the British sustained great losses in the process of fighting. Francis Marion, a successful guerrilla leader, was known by what nickname? A. Hiding Francis B. Merry Marion C. The Swamp Fox D. The Mountain Man A. B. C. D. A B C D How did the Battle of Yorktown lead to American independence? Reading Guide Content Vocabulary • ratify • ambush Academic Vocabulary • strategy • pursue Reading Guide (cont.) Key People and Events • Comte de Rochambeau • François de Grasse • Battle of Yorktown • Benjamin Franklin • John Adams • John Jay • Treaty of Paris Victory at Yorktown Washington’s complicated battle plan led to the important American victory at Yorktown. Victory at Yorktown (cont.) • General Washington changed his battle plan when he learned that Admiral François de Grasse, the French naval commander, was heading toward Chesapeake Bay instead of New York. • Washington’s secret strategy was to attack the British at Yorktown, Virginia, with the help of French soldiers commanded by Comte de Rochambeau. Victory at Yorktown (cont.) • The Patriots won the Battle of Yorktown which led to the British surrender. Which song was played as the British marched between rows of French and American troops to hand over their weapons? A. “The National Anthem” B. “The Battle Hymn of the Republic” C. “Yankee Doodle” D. “The Noble Duke of York” A. B. C. D. A B C D Independence The Patriots’ spirit and resolve helped them win independence. Independence (cont.) • The Patriot victory at Yorktown convinced the British that the war was too costly to pursue. • The Americans sent Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay to Paris to negotiate a treaty with the British. • The American Congress ratified the preliminary treaty in April 1783, and the final Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3, 1783. Independence (cont.) • Washington urged Congress to fund the American soldiers’ pensions, preventing a revolt, and then resigned and retired to Mount Vernon, Virginia. • There are several reasons why the Americans won the Revolutionary War: – They fought on their own land while the British had to bring troops and supplies from thousands of miles away. Independence (cont.) – They knew the local terrain and where to lay an ambush. – They had help from other nations, such as France and Spain. – The Revolution was a people’s movement with the outcome depending on the determination and spirit of the Patriots. • The American Revolution inspired the French Revolution and revolution in the French colony of Saint Domingue. Which of the following is NOT a provision of the Treaty of Paris? A. The Loyalists would have a year to move to British territory. B. Britain would withdraw its troops from American territory. C. Americans could fish in the waters off the coast of Canada. D. British merchants could collect debts the Americans owed them. A. B. C. D. A B C D mercenary paid soldier who serve in the army of a foreign country recruit to enlist soldiers in the army transfer to move from one place to another previous earlier, coming before desert to leave without permission inflation a continuous rise in the price of goods and services aid to help issue point or matter of discussion blockade cut off an area by means of troops or warships to stop supplies or people from coming in or going out; to close off a country’s ports privateer armed private ship licensed to attack merchant ships guerrilla warfare a hit-and-run technique used in fighting a war; fighting by small bands of warriors using tactics such as sudden ambushes impact effect or influence sustain to suffer or experience ratify to give official approval to ambush a surprise attack strategy plan of action pursue to continue This slide is intentionally blank.