WARM-UP: 1.4 According to the theory of mercantilism maintained by British colonialists before the American Revolution, colonies existed solely for the economic benefit of the mother country. Why would it be beneficial for Britain to permit the selling of colonial goods and crops in Britain only, and not in other countries? Do you think restricting the sale of goods and crops was a win-win situation for both Britain and the colonies? Explain. WHAT DO YOU SEE IN THIS CARTOON? LIST THE THINGS YOU SEE. CARTOON ANALYSIS-LEVEL ONE Level One List the objects or people you see in the cartoon Identify the cartoon caption and/or title. Locate 3 words or phrases used by the cartoonist to identify objects or people within the cartoon. Record any important dates or numbers that appear in the cartoon. CARTOON ANALYSIS LEVEL TWO Level Two Which of the objects on your list are symbols? Which words or phrases in the cartoon appear to be the most significant? Why do you think so? What List do you think each symbol means? adjectives that describe the emotions portrayed in the cartoon. CARTOON ANALYSIS LEVEL THREE Level Three Describe the action taking place in the cartoon. Explain how the words in the cartoon clarify the symbols. Explain the message of the cartoon. What special interest groups would agree/disagree with the cartoon’s message? Why? FOUNDATION OF THE NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES Unit One Pre-1760 UNIT THEMES 1. The emergence of American cultural traits 2. Regional patterns and how they evolved 3. The push-pull factors bringing colonists to the new world 4. Comparison and contrast of regional economic, social and political patterns 5. Puritanism, Anglicans and religious freedom 6. Evolution of democracy, legacy of undemocratic practices NEW WORLD BEGINNINGS:CHAPTER 1 225M yrs ago=Pangea 10M yrs ago=NA formed Bering Strait, hunters & gatherers Pueblos, Iroquois, Mound Builders, Mayans, Incas, Aztecs, & the Sioux Indians revered land Slowly, Europeans began to proliferate (1400s) It was a post-Marc Polo world! Far East sea route opens NEW WORLD CONT. ? Then, a-ha! Chris Columbus decides to go west b/c of dangers in eastward travel Inadvertently discovered America Portuguese 1st to settle in America; Spanish later become dominant Conquistadores swept thru SA, destroying Aztecs & Incas Although Spain in control, other countries began to challenge their dominance THE PLANTING OF ENGLISH AMERICA CHAPTER 2 England’s Imperial Stirrings North America Mainly Spanish in charge Spain really only in Santa Fe France founded Quebec Britain started Jamestown In 1500s, Britain couldn’t because of in-fighting King Henry VIII split from Roman Catholic Church, creating English Protestant Reformation When Elizabeth I becomes queen, Britain goes Protestant creating a rivalry with Catholic Spain Because of religion conflicts, Ireland seeks Spain’s help in revolting against Britain. British crush the revolt, spurring an attitude of contempt for natives ELIZABETH ENERGIZES ENGLAND Colonization •Spain completely defeated by Britain--the Spanish Armada :( •After Drake made it around the globe, Lizzie I knights him (on his ship!) •Colonization doesn’t go as well as they hoped •Britain and Spain kiss & make up; sign a peace treaty in 1604 ENGLAND ON THE EVE OF THE EMPIRE & ENGLAND PLANTS THE JAMESTOWN SEEDLING Reasons for Immigration In 1500s, Britain’s population mushrooming Farmers were enclosing land for farming Puritanism took a strong hold in hidden coasts Youth began to seek fortunes in colonies, like America Joint-stock companies take off Jamestown Virginia Company receives charter from King James I to settle (1606) Guaranteed same rights as British citizens 5/24/1607=100 English settlers disembarked from their ship & founded Jamestown (40 perished) Captain John Smith gets colonists into shape (1608) Few survive circumstances ANALYZE THE CARTOON ANALYZING THE DBQ: APPARTS A=Author who created the source? What do you know about the author? What is the author’s point of view? P=Place & time where & when source was produced. How does it affect the meaning? P=Prior knowledge beyond info about the author & context of its creation. What do you know that would help you further understand the primary source? A=Audience. For whom was the source created & how might this affect the reliability of the source? R=Reason. Why was the source produced & how might this affect the reliability of the source? T=The Main Idea. What point is the source trying to convey? S=Significance. Why is this source important? Ask yourself, “So what?” DOCUMENT ACTIVITY Letters, diaries, and court transcripts of the early English colonists tell us a great deal about colonial life in North America. With a partner, using the document provided, as well as the information from your textbook, categorize the colonial experience especially in terms of their motivations for settlement; their struggle for survival; their religious convictions; and their relations with the Native Americans. CULTURAL CLASH IN THE CHESAPEAKE The Indians Begin to Lose Power In the beginning, Powhatan tried to become allies w/ colonists Colonists would raid & steal, so relationship deteriorated, then war 1st Anglo-Powhatan War ends (1614) w/ peace by Pocahontas’ marriage to John Rolfe 1622: Nat. Am. Attacked, killing 347 colonists, include. John Rolfe 2nd Anglo-Powhatan War ends (1646) w/ banishment of Chesapeake VIRGINIA: CHILD OF TOBACCO Tobacco Info Created a greed for more and more land b/c it depletes soil & ruins land King James I did not like it Virginia began selfgovernment w/ House of Burgesses in 1619 Slavery comes to colonies same year, 1619…coincidence? MARYLAND: CATHOLIC HAVEN Religious Diversity Founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore 2nd plantation colony Persecuted Catholics safe there Poorer people were Protestants, creating some friction MD prospered w/ tobacco, like Virginia Many indentured servants Slavery popular late 1600s Religious statute guaranteed toleration to all, but death penalty to Jews, atheists, and others who didn’t believe in the divinity THE WEST INDIES: WAY STATION TO MAINLAND AMERICA As British were colonizing in VA, also settling in the West Indies Mid-1600s, England claimed most of West Indies, incl. Jamaica (mon!) B/c they grew lots of sugar, they needed workers (slaves) to operate plantations Created slave “codes” to define legal status COLONIZING THE CAROLINAS Finally created in 1670 (named after Charles II) Most original colonists Beheaded Rejected came from Barbados or were squatters Rice principle crop (& African slave trade began) Developed resistance to authority b/c so far away from any 1712, North & South divided Restored LATE-COMING GEORGIA: THE BUFFER COLONY Intended to be a buffer BUT NO between the British & hostile Spanish settlements in Florida Founded in 1733 by philanthropists; it was the last colony founded Named after King George II; meant to be a haven for the “wretched souls in debt” James Oglethorpe (founder), fought Spanish, used his own $$ to help the colony All Christians except Catholics were free; missionaries tried to convert the Indians G…r….e….w…………………s…l… PLANTATION COLONIES Slavery found in all Growth of cities stunted by forests Establishing churches & schools difficult South=rice & tobacco All allowed some type of religious toleration Confronted Native Americans often DEFINE THE FOLLOWING: 1. Treaty of Tordesillas 2. Joint-stock companies 3. Lord de la Warr 4. Act of Toleration 5. Peter Stuyvesant 6. Navigation Laws 7. Bacon’s Rebellion 8. Halfway Covenant 9. Great Awakening 10. Catawba Nation 1. 1494=Pope divided lands in SA; Portugal got east; Spain, west 2. Gathered $$ from middle class to support finance colonies 3. Declared war; Anglo-Powatan War; used “Irish tactics” 4. All Christian religions free in MD (sheltered Catholics) 5. Dutch General; Gov. of New Netherlands, lost to English 6. No trade w/ other countries, only England 7. 1676: Against those friendly to Indians. Jamestown torched 8. Allowed partial membership rights to those not yet converted to Puritanism 9. 1730s/40s: Religious revival 10. Remaining Indian tribes joined together; caused by force ANALYZE TEXT OF THE CARTOON A VIEW of the OBELISK erected under LIBERTY-TREE in BOSTON on the Rejoicings for the Repeal of the ---Stamp Act 1766. 1. America in distress apprehending the total loss of Liberty. 2. She implores the aid of her Patrons. 3. She endures the Conflict for a short Season.4. And has her Liberty restord by the Royal hand of George the Third. Above each allegory are ten lines of verse and portraits of four supposed friends of American liberty, including the Duke of York, Marquis of Rockingham, Queen Charlotte, George III, Gen. Henry Seymour Conway, Isaac Barre, William Pitt, the Earl of Dartmouth, William Beckford, Charles Townshend, Lord George Sackville, Dennis de Berdt, John Wilkes, and the Earl of Camden. At the bottom of the print is the legend, "To every Lover of Liberty, this Plate is humbly dedicated, by her true born Sons, in Boston New England." REVIEWING THE DBQ Highlight the main sections of your essay. Yellow for Thesis Statement Blue for Outside Facts Green for Analysis or Insight Orange for Information from the Documents Red for Incorrect Information PROMPT:THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE CLAIMS THAT BRITISH RULE WAS OPPRESSIVE WHILE SOME HISTORIANS HAVE CALLED THE AMERICANS OF THE 1760S AND 70S “THE FREEST PEOPLE ON EARTH.” WHICH INTERPRETATION DO YOU FEEL IS MORE ACCURATE? USE THE DOCUMENTS AND YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF U S HISTORY TO ANSWER THE QUESTION. Document D “Now one of the most essential branches of English liberty is the freedom of one's house. A man's house is his castle; and while he is quiet, he is as well guarded as a prince in his castle. This writ, if it should be declared legal, would totally annihilate this privilege. Custom-house officers may enter our houses when they please; we are commanded to permit their entry. Their menial servants may enter, may break locks, bars, and everything in their way; and whether they break through malice or revenge, no man, no court can inquire. Bare suspicion without oath is sufficient. This wanton exercise of this power is not a chimerical suggestion of a heated brain.” James Otis, In Opposition to Writs of Assistance, The World's Famous Orations, Vol.1, Pg.27. TAKE IT APPART (HEE HEE HEE) To what extent was the religious movement called The Great Awakening of 1739-1745 the philosophical and intellectual cornerstone of the political thought that would justify the American Revolution? “The Great Awakening.... was "the first major inter colonial crisis of the mind and spirit” in eighteenth century America. No previous occurrence in colonial history compared with it in scale or consequences. True, the flood tide of evangelical fervor soon subsided, but nothing could quite restore the old cultural landscape. The unitary ideal of the seventeenth century continued to be eroded in the post-Awakening years by further church separations. Moreover, as the Reverend William Shurtleff noted in 1745, the "dividing Spirit is not confined to those that are Friends" of the revival. Nor was it confined to the religious sphere. That "dividing Spirit" would be manifested everywhere after midcentury in the proliferation of religious and political factions.” From Patricia U. Bonomi, Under the Cape of Heaven: Religion, Socie1y, and Politics in Colonial America (Oxford University Press, 1986). Copyright: 1986 by Patricia U. Bonomi. Reprinted by permission of Oxford University Press, Inc. Notes omitted. ANALYSIS The first cartoon appeared in Ben Franklin's newspaper The Pennsylvania Gazette on May 9, 1754. It appeared as part of an editorial by Franklin commenting on 'the present disunited state of the British Colonies.' The woodcut drawing entitled 'Join or Die' pictures a divided snake in eight pieces representing eight colonial governments. The drawing was based on the popular superstition that a snake that had been cut in two would come to life if the pieces were joined before sunset. The drawing immediately caught the public's fancy and was reproduced in other newspapers. REVIEWING THE PROMPT Write your thesis in large letters on a white sheet of paper. When complete, place on the board with a magnet. When completing a prompt, ask yourself these questions: What is the essence of the question? What key terms need to be defined? Are the date parameters stated? Have you constructed your “database”? ANALYZING A DOCUMENT: APPARTS A = Author Who created the source? What do you know about the Author? What is the author's point of view? P = Place and Time Where and when was the source produced? How might this affect the meaning of the source? R = Reason Why was this source produced and how might this affect the reliability of the source? T = The Main Idea What point is the source trying to convey? S = Significance Why is this source important? Ask yourself, "So what?" in relation to the question asked. P = Prior Knowledge Beyond information about the author and the context of its creation, what do you know that would help you further understand the primary source? A = Audience For whom was the source created and how might this affect the reliability of the source? PRACTICING APPARTS ANALYZE A DOCUMENT With a partner, you will receive a packet of documents. Your job is to go through and analyze one document (which will be assigned) using APPARTS. When completed, we will share out all documents. WRITING ASSIGNMENT 1. Using the information from class discussion, rewrite your original thesis statement so that it is more effective. 2. List the evidence you will use in each of three paragraphs to support your thesis. The evidence should encompass information from the documents and your knowledge of the period. 3. Write one of the supporting paragraphs using the relevant evidence. REVIEWING THE ZINN ESSAY Rubric used was basic. Each section was curved. Any questions? Reviewing a thesis. DEFINE THE FOLLOWING: Spanish Armada Squatter Anne Hutchinson Headright System Michel-Guillaume de Crevecour DEFINITIONS Spanish Armada Squatter Religious dissenter; created crisis in Mass. Bay Colony; later called the heresy of Antinomianism (Christians not bound by moral law). Banished; settled at Pocasset Headright System person who settles on land w/o right/title Anne Hutchinson “Unbeatable” group of ships sent by Spain to invade England (1588). Defeated by English “sea dogs”; marks beg of English naval power Way to attract immigrants; gave 50 acres of land to anyone who paid their way/owner that paid immigrants way; southern Michel-Guillaume de Crevecour French settler in 1770s; posed question of what “America” is made up of JOURNAL 9/12/08 A religious revival called the Great Awakening swept across the colonies in the 1730s and 1740s, taking the colonists by storm. With their “hellfire and brimstone” sermons, preachers ignited scores of followers, some of whom tried to convert the Native Americans and the slaves. A divide separated the older, more traditional clergy and the people who participated in the Great Awakening. The traditionalists were taken aback by the new methods of preaching and by the passionate responses of the people who experienced revival. Why do you think the traditionalists reacted as they did? UNIT THEMES 1. The emergence of American cultural traits 2. Regional patterns and how they evolved 3. The push-pull factors bringing colonists to the new world 4. Comparison and contrast of regional economic, social and political patterns 5. Puritanism, Anglicans and religious freedom 6. Evolution of democracy, legacy of undemocratic practices REVIEW Write 5 main ideas down. What are you still confused about? PROMPT ANALYSIS FORMAT What is the essence of the question? What key terms need to be defined? Are the date parameters stated? Have you constructed your “database”? Analyze using APPARTS. Provide your insight. WRITE A CLEAR THESIS!!! Provide support using insight, documents, a factual information. If you can, write a conclusion. ACTIVITY Find a partner to work with. In pairs, I will give you a DBQ or FRQ. With your partner, analyze the prompt and/or documents. Go through APPARTS and Levels 13 on each document. Together, formulate a thesis statement for that prompt. WARM-UP 1.6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Choose 2 of the following questions to answer. Put the number down of the questions you’re answering. What were the characteristics of communities that emerged in Puritan New England? How was the family central to the Puritan community? How did the experience of America affect the patriarchal family? Why did people accuse someone of witchcraft? Who were the typical accused? typical accusers? Why did "witchcraft" seem to appear so suddenly in Salem, MA in 1692? Were there any political / economic / cultural reasons?How did the witchcraft hysteria of the 1680s and 1690s result from a "gap between the expectations of a united community and the reality of a diverse and divided one?"