New World Beginnings 33,000 B.C. to 1789 Chapter 1 Native American Worlds The first Americans migrated from Asia between 13,000 B.C. - 11,000 B.C. across a land bridge between Siberia & Alaska following herds of big game Horticulture Native Americans developed horticulture around 3000 B.C. The Agricultural surplus led to the development of wealthy societies in Mexico, Peru, and the Mississippi River Valley How did horticulture change Native American culture? (discuss w/ partner) The Mayans The flowering of civ. began among the Mayan people of the Yucatan peninsula They built large religious/urban centers, pyramids, advances in astronomy, predicted solar & lunar eclipses, & a more advanced calendar than Europeans at the time. By 800 A.D. Mayan civilization declined The Aztecs A 2nd major civilization, the Aztecs, built city of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City) in 1325 A.D. & established a hierarchical social order & subjugated most of central Mexico Priests/Warrior-nobles ruled over 20 clans of commoners Aztec = strong political/military institutions & were difficult to challenge After the next slide, with a partner, explain some of the accomplishments of the Mayans and Aztecs. The Aztec Rain & Lightening God Cocijo Indians North of the Rio Grande These groups = less coercive, smaller and composed of clans Plains Indians depended on the Buffalo Arapaho, Hopewell, and Sioux were among some of the tribes in Plains In So.West the Hohokan, Mogollon, cultures dev. In 600 A.D., & Anasazi in 900 A.D. Drought brought on collapse of these cultures Traditional European Society in 1450 90% of population in Europe in 1450 = peasants – mortality rates = high Co-operative farming – bartered for supplies Most peasants wanted to be yeoman farmers (vs. serfs/peasasnts) to have a more comfortable lifestyle, few were able to European life followed seasonal pattern, like Native Americans The Power of Religion Roman Catholic Church served as one of the great unifying forces in Western Euro. Society – Church provided authority & discipline Christian doctrine permeated peasant lives; to avoid famine & plague, Christians offered prayer & turned to priests for advice Rulers crushed other religions or heretics and between 1096 and 1291, successive armies of Christians embarked on Crusades; Muslims were the prime target for Crusaders Europe encounters Africa & the Americas, 1450-1550 Contact with Arab scholars, combined w/ reintroduction of Greek/Roman ideas, propelled Europe into a “rebirth” of learning known as the renaissance Civic humanism, which celebrated virtue and public service, was sponsored by the new ruling class of merchants The new found wealth of the nation states propelled Europe into expansion’ Portugal led European expansion overseas, and Spain soon followed; Explorers came in contact with West Africa in the 1400s. Many African societies were hierarchical; ruled by princes similar to Aztec/Mayan; most farmed & lived w/ extended families. Identified themselves according to lineage; ie – the Mande along the upper Niger With a partner, compare and contrast Native American culture, European culture, and African culture. The Protestant Reformation and the Rise of England Began in Germany in early 1500’s when Martin Luther posted his 95 theses on a church in Wittenburg – his major problem w/ the church = sale of indulgences New religious doctrines, increased literacy, & corruption in the Church divided society into Catholics and Protestants John Calvin introduced idea of predestination – idea God determines who will be saved before they are born Calvinists & Lutherans won converts across Europe Henry the VIII Henry VIII (in 1533) wanted to divorce his wife Catherine and the Catholic pope denied his request The king broke with the Catholic Church and established the Church of England, or the Anglican Church and made himself Head of the Church Elizabeth I, Henry VIII’s daughter, combined Lutheranism and Calvinism and firmly established Protestantism in England, while his other daughter, Mary, held on to Catholicism Some Protestants wanted to further purify the Church of England and called themselves Puritans With a partner, explain how the reformation started in Germany and in England. How did it impact the Catholic Church? The Dutch & English Challenge Spain King Phillip II wanted to eliminate Protestantism from the Netherlands In 1581 the 7 northern provinces of the Spanish Netherlands declared their independence and became Holland In 1588 the Spanish Armada sailed to re-impose Catholic rule on England and was defeated Dutch republic became leading commercial power in Europe England’s economy stimulated by rising population and mercantilism The Social Causes of English Colonization The “price revolution” and inflation caused social changes in England In 2 generations the price of goods tripled The Enclosure Movement forced many peasants off their lands The House of Commons gained influence & rich commoners and small property owners had a voice – consequences for English and American political history Religious differences between Anglicans and Puritans caused much tension prompting many Puritans to leave England. What were some motivating factors behind English colonization?