19TH CENTURY NATIONALISM THE REVOLUTIONS OF 1830 AND BEYOND GREECE • THE WAR FOR GREEK LIBERATION: Why was the liberation of Greece from Ottoman control a facet of the romantic movement? GREECE • A BRIEF RE-CAP: Greece had been part of the Byzantine Empire. It suffered invasions by Goths, Huns, Slavs from the 5th to the 7th centuries. Urban life was and Greek civilization was essentially brought to an end. In the late 11th century Greece was invaded by Normans from Sicily. GREECE • During the Crusades, western princes occupied all of Greece (except for the rugged interior), and divided it into states ruled either by themselves or under the control of the commercial republics of Venice and Genoa. This domination continued until the Ottoman Turkish invasion and conquest in 1456. Greece remained part of the Ottoman Empire for nearly 400 years. GREECE • 1821: Revolt began under the leadership of Alexander Ypsilanti. The Concert of Europe officially backed the Ottoman Empire, but, in 1827 Britain, France, and Russia entered the war; Greece achieved independence in 1830 and was presented (1833) by these powers with a king from Bavaria, Otto. GREECE ITALY • RISORGIMENTO: ''Resurgence''; dream of a unified nation that would exceed the glory of ancient Rome and the Renaissance. ITALY • A. 1820: Revolts break out in protest against foreign control. These were quickly put down by Austrian forces. • B. Young Italy: organization formed by Mazzini in 1826 for the unification of Italy. SPAIN • In 1820 Spanish army officers revolted against the King, Ferdinand VII who was a harsh ruler. They forced him to restore an earlier, more liberal constitution. The Great Powers sent in a French army in 1823. The revolution leaders were punished and Ferdinand was restored to power. VIVA LA FRANCE • A. Louis XVIII (1815-1824): The restoration Bourbon monarch instituted the Constitutional Charter of 1814 which protected the people against a return to royal absolutism and aristocratic privilege. During his reign, the Royalist party, led by the king's brother Charles, Count of Artois, worked to restore absolutism. When Louis XVIII died in 1824, his brother succeeded as Charles X and tried to re-establish the old order and repudiated the Constitutional Charter in 1830. VIVA LA FRANCE • B. Bye-Bye Charles X: Charles abolished freedom of the press, deprived the middle class of the right to vote, reduced the power of the legislature. An immediate insurrection removed Charles X, the last Bourbon king, from the throne. The Revolution of 1830 in France is also called the July Revolution. VIVA LA FRANCE • C. Hello, Louis Philippe (1830-1848): This successor and cousin to Charles X had fought with the revolutionaries in 1792. He was nicknamed the ''Citizen-King'' because of his manner and dress and to distinguish him from the absolutist Charles X. VIVA LA FRANCE • He accepted the Constitutional Charter, recognizing the rights of a free press and endorsing the extension of the suffrage to the upper middle class. However, he worked to protect the rich upper middle class as represented by the Chamber of Deputies by upholding a high tariff and not allowing labor unions. The lower classes had no part in the government. BELGIUM • Joined with Holland by the Vienna Settlements, the Belgians resisted the centralizing efforts of the Dutch government. Disturbances broke out in Belgium, August, 1830. The leaders asked for Belgian self- government. Faced with Dutch troops, the Belgians declared their independence, formed a national assembly wrote a constitution. BELGIUM • 1831, the National Assembly elected the son of Louis Philippe to be king but dad told him to say no. Then the Assembly elected Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, who was the uncle of the young Victoria. The English stepped in to negotiate a settlement and in the Treaty of 1831, Belgium was set up as a permanently neutral state. NOT IN GREAT BRITAIN • Political, economic and social problems abounded in England in the first quarter of the 19th century. In the cities working and living conditions were poor. Employment was uncertain and wages were low for long hours of work. Politically, only wealthy property owners could vote: Catholics and non-Anglicans could not hold public office, elections were expensive and often corrupt. Rotten boroughs and pocket boroughs made a mockery of representative government. TORY PARTY • Controlled by the aristocracy, this party feared liberalism and worked to repress it. • 1. Corn Laws (1815): passed by Parliament to protect English landowners by prohibiting the importation of foreign grain unless the domestic price rose above a certain level. Protests by urban workers were supported by radical intellectuals. The 1819 Peterloo Massacre (11 died) and similar disturbances aroused Parliament to repressive action TORY PARTY • 2. Six Acts (1819): Parliament's response to the protest of the Corn Laws, these laws eliminated all mass meetings. • 3. Shaken up by the French Revolution of 1830 and the subsequent riots and demonstrations within England: Tories became more amenable to reform. REFORM BILL OF 1832 • Introduced by the Whigs. Supported by British liberals who wanted to end the inequalities of industrialization by redistributing political power. (rural areas had representation, new industrial cities did not). Agitation by the growing middle class led to the passage of this law which expanded the suffrage to most Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey middle class males. REFORM BILL OF 1832 • 1. The House of Commons emerged as the major Legislative body. • 2. The new industrial areas of the country gained representation in the House of Commons. • 3. Many ''rotten boroughs'' were eliminated. William Pitt the Younger FACTORY ACT OF 1833 • Forbade the employment in textile mills of children under nine and restricted the labor of those 7-13 to 48 hours per week. THE CHARTIST MOVEMENT • The People's Charter, drawn up in 1838, demanded universal male suffrage, a secret ballot, annual elections, voting districts with equal population: abolition of property qualification for membership in Parliament payment of stipends to those elected to the House of Commons. THE CHARTIST MOVEMENT • The Chartists presented their charter in 1839, 1842, and 1848. It was rejected each time by Parliament. But the Anti-Corn law League succeeded in getting the Corn Laws repealed in 1846 and free trade established. William Lovett Bi-partisan Reform • Both the Tories and the Whigs supported reform legislation by 1846. • 1. Ten Hours Act (1847): limited the workday for women and young people in factories to ten hours. Robert Peel John Russell, 1st Earl Russell IRELAND • Reform efforts did not extend to Ireland, where potato crops failed in 1846, 1848, and 1851, causing the Great Famine. With the support of the English government, the landowners evicted their tenants who could not pay their rents. LESSONS FROM IRELAND • Britain honed imperialism skills in Ireland – Control land and resources – natives have no access to resources, must pay for land’s bounty – Divide and conquer – introduce an enemy to the native population (often by redrawing traditional boundaries). Conquering country becomes “necessary” to maintain peace – Deny educational opportunities – Deny use of culture • Natives may not speak own language, practice native religion McMahon MacMathghamha PRUSSIA • A. Post-Congress of Vienna: liberal and nationalist movements circumscribed by the 1819 Carlsbad Decrees (members of the German Confederation were required to root out subversive ideas in their universities and newspapers; a permanent committee of spies was established to investigate and punish any liberal or radical organizations.) PRUSSIA • B. Middle Class Aspirations: wish to create a unified liberal Germany. PRUSSIA • C. Working Class Aspirations: inspired by events in France they demanded and received a liberal constitution. However, their demands for suffrage and socialist reforms incited fear among the aristocracy RUSSIA • A. Alexander I (18011825): son of Paul I whose mental instability precipitated a palace coup in 1801. • 1. Reform: Alexander spent the first years of his reign trying to reform the administration and expanding educational facilities. The government was bureaucratized and officials were better trained. RUSSIA • 2. Napoleonic Wars: The wars were costly for Russia, but she did gain Finland and some lands in the Caucasus. In addition, the scorched earth policies employed necessitated economic investment in rebuilding and encouraged entrepreneurial initiatives by peasants and urban commoners. There was a rapid expansion of textile manufactures and the building trades, generating capital and resources for later Russian industrialization. RUSSIA RUSSIA • 3. Unrest: Members of the educated elite, seeking more liberalism for Russian society clashed with Alexander's government which became more restrictive as dissidents pressed for reform. Secret societies were organized under the leadership of progressive officers, and, on the sudden death of Alexander I late in 1825, they tried to take over the government. This Decembrist Revolt traumatized Alexander's successor, his brother Nicholas I, into a policy of reaction and repression. Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia RUSSIA • B. Nicholas I (1825-1855) • 1. Strict censorship did not prevent this period from becoming the Golden Age of Russian literature featuring the works of Alexander Pushkin, Fyodor Dostoevsky, and Leo Tolstoy. The literary flowering encouraged widespread discussion of Russia's identity, future, and relationship to western Europe. RUSSIA • 2. Technical and professional training was supported by Nicholas. By the end of his reign Russia was home to a number of well- trained professionals. • 3. Codification of the Laws: 1833 • 4. Economic Achievements: The building of railroads was initiated, the currency was stabilized, and protective tariffs were introduced. As private enterprise grew the backward nature of Russia's agrarian economy based on serflabor became more evident. RUSSIA • 5. Foreign Involvement: Russia helped to secure Greek independence and limited Turkish power in the Black Sea. Nicholas crushed the Polish insurrection of 1831-33 and helped Austria subdue the Hungarians in 1849. At the end of his reign Nicholas embroiled Russia in the Crimean War (1853-56).