Slide 1

Exploring the first century
1 Cor. 9: 1-10 Don’t muzzle an ox …
There was a wide variety of people who spoke
different languages.
Pilate recognized this. Luke 23:38
• Greek – from the Greeks
• Latin – from the Romans
• Hebrew – from the Jews
Mathew – Hebrews
Mark – Romans
Luke – Greeks
John – Universal
• Tax collector Mat. 9:9
• More references to money in Mat. than the
other three gospels
• Jesus made a bold choice with the tax collector
The 2 fold message of Mathew
1. Prove to the Jews that Jesus was the son of
• Matthew alludes to the OT frequently
About 50 direct quotes from the OT
About 75 reverences to OT events
Talks about the kingdom in more than 35
Refers to Jesus as the promised son of David 9
2. To encourage the Jew that they can be apart
of the new Israel
• The old way would be done away with Mat.
• One is not a Jew outwardly but inwardly Rom.
• Everyone who obeys can be a part of the new
system Gal. 3:26-29
Matthew records many of Jesus’ Words.
He records several of his major speeches
1. Sermon on the mount Mat. 5 – 7
2. The Olivet discourse Mat. 24.
3. He records 20 of Jesus’ miracles 3 of which are
unique to Mat.
4. He records at least 14 parables of Jesus
Matthew also talks about the Gentiles Mat. 8:11,
He also makes universal statements Mat. 28:1920
Act 12:12; Col. 4:10; 1Pet. 5:13
Many believe that Mark wrote his letter under the
influence of Peter
You can tell a difference between Mark’s letter
and Matthew’s.
1. He explained the Hebrew tradition in Mark 7:2
2. He uses some Latin language in Mark 12:42
• quadrans or farthing is Latin term for a certain
3. Mark only refers to the OT 19 times.
Many believe that Mark was written to encourage
the Christians in Rome who were being
He records 1 major speech of Jesus Mark 13:37ff
The Olivet discourse.
Mark emphasizes Jesus as a servant who came to
do God’s will.
• He uses the word “servant” 14 times describing
Jesus’ activities
Mark is dogmatic about Jesus being the Son of
1. Testimony of God Mark 1:11; 9:7
2. Testimony of Jesus Mark 13:32; 14:61-62
3. Testimony of demons Mark 3:11; 5:7
4. Testimony of the Roman Centurion Mark 15:39
About 40% of Mark records Jesus’ final journey
to Jerusalem and the events surrounding his
Luke was a physician Col. 4:14
He had been with Paul on several occasions
Acts 16:10; 2 Tim. 4:11; Phm. 1:24
Luke was also writing to the non-Jew
1.He explains that Capernaum is a city in Galilee
Lk. 4:31
2.He explains that the country of Gerasenes is
over against Galilee Lk. 8:26
3.He explains the town of Emmaus was 7 miles
from Jerusalem Lk. 4:13
4.All these things were common knowledge to
Jews of Palestine.
Luke writes to an individual Luke 1:1-4 but his
message is meant for a broader audience
There are many things that Luke writes that are
pointed directly at the Greeks.
The Greeks also known as Hellenist were really
into humanity, especially in the field of
philosophy and science.
Luke focuses on Christ humanity and His perfect
1.He gives the most complete record of Jesus
birth and childhood Luke 1, 2.
2.He traces Christ lineage all the way back to
3.He captures Jesus human traits in Luke 19:41,
4.He points out many of Jesus’ prayers. Out of the
15 prayers of Jesus recorded in the 4 gospels
Luke records 11 of them.
Luke had an in-depth knowledge of Jesus
• He records 20 miracles 6 are unique to Luke and
he treats them as a historical reality
• Since Luke was a doctor there must have been
overwhelming evidence of the virgin birth for him
to argue it so strongly in Luke 1:26-38
Luke’s message was for the Gentiles
Luke 2:10, 2:32, 4:25-27, 10:25-37
Who was John? Mark 1:19, 5:37, John 13:23,
The main thrust – John 20:30-31
John argues Jesus’ deity more than any other
book. John 1:1, 10:30, 20:28
This book contains many “I am” statements.
1. I am the bread of life 6:35
2. I am the light of the world 8:12
3. I am the door 10:7
4. I am the good shepherd 10:14
5. I am the resurrection and the life 11:25
6. I am the way, the truth and the life 14:6
7. I am the true vine 15:1
8. The absolute “ I am” 8:58 showing his timeless
Three primary written languages of the Bible
• Hebrew
• Aramaic
• Greek
The Hebrew language
• Semitic language – a family language
• Comes from the Canaanite language
The OT refers to it own language in 2 ways.
1. Isa. 19:18
2. 2 Kings 18:26, 28; Neh. 13:24; Isa. 36:11
3. It wasn’t called Hebrew until around 130 B.C.
The NT refers to it this way.
Jn. 5:2, 19:13; Acts 21:40
Aramaic language is also a Semitic language
A small part of the OT is written in Aramaic
• Parts of Ezra, Nehemiah, and Daniel
• Two words in Gen. 31:47
It was used in the NT
Mark 5:41, 15:34, Gal. 4:6
The Greek language
• NT is written in Koine Greek which spans from
330 B.C. to 330 A.D.
There are 2 Greek words that are translated into
“other” or “another”
Allos – denotes a numerical distinction and means
a “other” or “another” of the same kind.
Heteros – means an “other” or “another” of a
different kind.
Example of Allos John 14:16
Example of Heteros Luke 23:32
Sects of the Jewish religion
The Grecian Empire influenced the Hebrews 332 –
167 B.C.
Mattathias Maccabeus and his 5 sons rebelled
against Paganism.
They had independence 167 – 63 B.C.
• Hellenist – Those sympathetic to the Greek way
• Hasidim – Conservatives set to defend the Law
of God and the traditions of Judea
• Maccebeians – leaders of the Jewish revolt.
Pharisee – separated
• The developed from the Hasidim
• In the 1st century they numbered around
• Paul describes them in Acts 26:5
• They kept the Law of Moses and the oral
traditions but they had great zeal for tithing
and purification. Mark. 7:1-8; Mat. 23:23-26.
• Tradition of the Elders refers to the oral
tradition which is recording in a book called
the Mishna which was a collection of the oral
traditions from 200 B.C – 135 A.D.
• They would vote for a tradition to become a
binding law.
• They believed in the resurrection and in
angels Acts 23:6-9
• They were self-righteous Luke 18:9-14 and
showoffs Mat. 6:1-17, 23:1-12
• They were ordinary people they seemed to
exercise control over many of the
synagogues but they were a minority in the
temple and the Sanhedrin council.
• They were very active in opposing Jesus and
plotting for his death.
• Also known as lawyers or teachers of the Law
• They were associated with the Pharisees
Mat. 12:38; Mark 7:5; Lk. 6:7
• They had a lot of power and influence
• Training began at 14 and ended at 40.
• They were prominent in the Sanhedrin council.
Mat. 16:21
Sadducees – the righteous
•The Sadducees were the most powerful
•They were wealthy
•They rejected the oral traditions
•They thought the priest should only interpret the
•They were the majority in the high priest
position, the priesthood and the Sanhedrin
•They did not believe God was that involved with
They did not believe:
•Resurrection of the dead
•Immortality of the soul
•Rewards or punishments handed out after death
•Angels or spirits
•They tried to trap Jesus with “what if” questions
Mark. 12:18-27
•Jesus warned his disciples about their teaching
Mat. 16:6-12
•They opposed the church more than Pharisees
Acts 4:1-3; 5:17-18
•They played a big part in Jesus death Mat. 27:1
Zealots - one burning with zeal
• Passionate about politics and their
• They used violence to get there way
• Started by Judas of Gamala Acts 5:37
• Simon was a Zealot Lk. 6:15, Acts 1:13
Essenes - healer
• Started around 2 B.C.
• 4000 of them during the time of Christ
• More strict than Pharisees
• Operated like a monastery
• Some married but most were celibate
• Did not own personal property
• Shared with their community
• Kept to themselves, wore simple clothes and
ate simple meals
• Concerned about being ritually clean and
eating food that was ritually pure
• They took care of the sick and elderly
A typical day of the Essenes consisted of:
•Arising before sunrise for prayer
•They would work till midday
•Bathe to be ritually clean before they ate and
put on different clothes
•Then would work again until time for the
evening meal
Some of their beliefs:
•Believed in the immortal soul
•Rewarded or punished after death
•Believed in angels
•Worshiped God in their community instead of
the temple
•Did not believe that Jesus was the son of God
so they continued to look for the coming
How to become a member:
• You had to sell all your property
• You were given a white robe and a 1 year
probation period
• After 1 year you could use the community
water for purification
• Two more years of probation before you
could become a full member.
• Then you could take part in the community
• If you broke the rules during the 3 year
period you were banned
Herodians (followers of Herod)
• They were more politically than religious.
• They supported the Herod Dynasty.
• They were in good standing with the Romans
• Opposed the Pharisees but on many occasions
joined with them to try and trap Jesus. Mk. 3:6,
Mat. 22:15-16.
• Around 1 or 2 B.C. certain Jews claimed to be
sons of the priest Zadok
• They wanted to restore proper temple worship
• They failed so they setup their own religious
community in Damascus
• They were opposed to both Pharisees and the
They believed in the following:
• Accepted all the OT, rejected the oral
• Believed in the spirit world, future life, and
divine providence.
• They were self denying, and strictly kept the
Leviticle code.
• They were looking for the Messiah to come
and return Israel back to the right way.
Synagogue – A leading or bringing together.
• “Synagogue” is used 67 times in the NT
• Possibly originated at Babylonian captivity.
• Jews desired to have communion with God
Ps. 137
Oldest evidence of a synagogue
• A marble slab with an inscription dedicating a
synagogue to Ptolemy III ruled Egypt 246-221
• Oldest one found in Palestine was uncovered at
Masda near the Dead Sea built in the first
Synagogue of Masada
Synagogue of Herodion
Acts 13:14
Acts 14:1
Acts 17:1
Acts 17:10
Acts 13:5
Acts 9:2
Some of the synagogues Paul visited
Structure and organization of a synagogue.
•Typically rectangular in shape with a raised
platform for the speaker.
•There was a portable chest with the OT scrolls.
•They sat on stone benches along the walls.
•The best seats were the ones in front Mat. 23:6
•The younger ones sat in the back.
•The women were partitioned off from the men
•There was a special place for the lepers
•The synagogue ruler was in charge of the
•The synagogue was under the oversight of the
elders. Luke 7:3-5
A typical service would include:
• reciting scripture
• singing without the use of musical instruments
• reading of the law
• teaching/preaching
• giving of alms for the poor
They gathered ever Sabbath and ever 2nd and 5th
day of the week. (Sat., Mon. Thursday)
Order of worship:
1. Recital of the Shema
• Originally the Shema was Deut. 6:4 which was a
statement of faith but later more verses were
added Deut 6:4-9, 11:13-21.
• Jewish boys were required to memorize these
verses and say them every morning and every
• Jesus quoted the Shema and added Lev. 19:18
in Mat. 22:33-40.
2. Prayer
3. Reading of the scripture Luke 4:16-21
• Scripture was read standing up
• Teaching was usually done while sitting down.
• Sometimes they taught standing up. Acts 13:1416
4. Intermixed during their service they would
sing psalms and sometimes they would collect
alms for the poor.
They exercised discipline by not allowing some to
take part of the gathering. John 9:22
3 Temples
1. Solomon’s temple.
• David wanted to build it but God would not let
him 1Chron. 28:2-3.
• He provided most of the materials 1 Chron.
22:1-19; 28:1; 29:9.
• Solomon started construction during his 4th
year as king and finished it in 7 years. 1 Kings
• Details of the temple 1 Kings 5:1 - 9:25 and 2
Chron. 2:1 – 7:22.
• It was built according to the tabernacle
• Temple was destroyed around 586 B.C. by the
Babylonians 2 Kings 25:8-17.
2. Zerubbabel’s Temple
• The Jews return around 536 B.C. under the
leadership of Zerubbabel to rebuild the temple
Financed by the Persian government Ezra 1:2ff
• Took 20 years to complete Ezra 6:15.
•Plundered and desecrated during the interBiblical period
• Cleansed and rededicated by Judas Maccabeus
in 165 B.C.
• Ravaged again when Pompey invaded
Jerusalem in 63 B.C.
• Suffered more destruction when Herod the
Great conquered Jerusalem in 37 B.C.
3. Herod’s Temple
2 Greek words for the English word “temple.”
• Hieron – refers to the temple and all the outer
courts Mk. 11:11
• Naos – refers only to the sanctuary itself where
only the priest are allowed to enter. Luke 1:9
•Temple rebuilt 19 B.C. – 64 A.D.
•He employed 1000 wagons, 10,000 workmen
and thousands of priest to work the most sacred
•It took 1 ½ years to build the basic structure
•It took 46 years to complete the sanctuary John
•6 years after completion it was destroyed
•Jesus told them it would be destroyed Mat. 24
Tower of
Feasts and Holy Days
Sabbath – to cease or to abstain - 7th day of the
week - day of rest
• First mentioned in Exodus 16:22-30
Who was the Sabbath for?
The Hebrews only! Deut. 5:1-5, Ezek. 20:10-12,
Neh. 9:14. The Sabbath was never intended for
the Gentile.
• Every Jew was commanded to keep the Sabbath
Lev. 19:3, 26:2
The Sabbath reminded them of two things.
1. God rested on this day Gen. 2:2
2. Remind the Jews of their Bondage years Deut.
There were consequences for not keeping the
Sabbath Exodus 31:12-17
• No picking up sticks Numbers 15:32 – 36
• No lighting fires in your house Exodus 35:3
A special sacrifice was made on the Sabbath. Nub.
The Jews began to see the Sabbath as a burden.
Amos 8:5
They had to be reminded to keep the Sabbaths
• Nehemiah had to get inventive Neh. 13:15-22
• Jesus knew the Gates were closed Mat. 24:20
• Jeremiah had to warn the people Jer. 17:21-27
• Ezekiel warned the people Ezk. 20: 12-24
During Jesus time the Sabbath had been turned
into more that it was suppose to be.
• The Jews had made a rule that a person could
only walk 875 yards on Sabbath. Exodus 16:29
• If a house fell on a person they would not help
them out on the Sabbath
Jesus re-taught the true meaning of the Sabbath.
• The Sabbath was made for man Mk. 2:23-28
• It’s lawful to do good on the Sabbath Luke 6:511, Mat. 12:11-12
• It’s lawful to heal on the Sabbath Luke 13:10-17
• Jesus used circumcision as an example John
• Jeremiah predicted this change Jer. 31:31-34.
• When there is a change of covenants there is a
change of law. Heb. 7:12
• The 10 commandments belonged to the old
covenant 1Kings 8:9, 21
• The old covenant was made obsolete Heb. 8:13
• The obligation to keep the old covenant ended
at the cross Eph 2:14-16
• It was nailed to the cross Col. 2:14-17
If the Sabbath were still binding today could we
really be asked not to judge people about the
• We are dead to the Old Law Rom. 7:1-7
• The Law was temporary and was used to bring
us to Christ. Gal. 3:24-25
Sunday is the Lord’s Day Rev. 1:10.
“Lord’s Day” means that day belongs to him.
The only other time this term is used in reference
to the Lord’s Supper in 1 Cor. 11:20.
• The first century Christian used this term to
denote the first day of the week because this was
when the Lord was raised from dead. John 20:1
• The birth of the church happened of the first day
of the week Acts 2:1
• Pentecost always fell on a Sunday Lev. 23:15-16
• The 1st century Christian met on the first day of
the week Acts 20:7
• We are commanded to give on the 1st day of the
week. 1Cor 16:1-2
Please note the external evidence.
The Didache (c. A.D. 120) declares that “every
Lord’s day” the Christians gather themselves
together and “break bread” (ANF.VII.381).
The Epistle of Barnabas (c. A.D. 120), in
discussing such things as incense, new moons,
and sabbaths, says that the Lord “abolished these
things” in deference to “the new law of our Lord
Jesus Christ” (ANF.I.138). Later, it is affirmed:
“Wherefore, also, we keep the eighth day with
joyfulness, the day also on which Jesus rose
again from the dead” (I.147).
Justin Martyr (A.D. 140) declared that “on the day
called Sunday” the primitive Christians met for
worship. He further stated that this was the day
on which Christ was raised from the dead (I.186).
Clement of Alexandria (A.D. 194) spoke of the
one who “keeps the Lord’s day” as “glorifying the
Lord’s resurrection in himself” (ANF.II.545).
Tertullian (A.D. 200) argued that the “old law”
had been consummated; thus the “observance of
the Sabbath is demonstrated to have been
temporary” (ANF.III.155). Elsewhere he says that
“Sabbaths are strange” to Christians, and that
they share together “the Lord’s day” (70).
Eusebius (A.D. 324), known as the “father of
church history,” stated that sabbath-observance
does not “belong to Christians.” On the other
hand, he asserted that Christians “celebrate the
Lord’s days . . . in commemoration of his
resurrection” (26,113).
Noted historian Philip Schaff concludes: “The
universal and uncontradicted Sunday observance
in the second century can only be explained by
the fact that it had its roots in the apostolic
practice” (478-479).
Passover and the feast of the unleavened bread
• First feast of the year.
• Started on 14th day of Nisan ended on the 21st
• On the 14th the lamb was eaten in the evening
• 15th – 21st the unleavened bread was eaten
Details of the Passover Exodus 12: 1 - 28
• Lamb selected on the 10th day
• Sacrificed on the 14th day at evening
• Celebrated at home
• 1 lamb per household
• 2 small families could share the lamb
• Josephus said the family size had to be between
10 – 20 people
• Only small pieces of meat were eaten – Talmud
says the portion was the size of an olive
Details of the Lamb
• Without blemish, sound, and healthy
• A 1 year old male
• Killed on the 14th day
• Its Blood was to be applied to the doorpost and
Passover meal
• Roasted Lamb – not raw or boiled
• Bitter Herbs – reminds them of their bitter
experience in Egypt
• Unleavened Bread – the meal was to be eaten in
• It had to be eaten before morning
• Leftovers were burned
• A 2nd Passover was available Num. 9:7-14
• The Passover lamb was to be slain where God
says Deut. 16:5-6
Jesus and his disciples ate of the Passover meal
before His death and he instituted the Lord’s
Supper. Mat. 26:17-29; Mark 14:12-26; Luke
22:7-13; John 13:21-30; 1Cor. 11:23-26
Jesus became our Passover lamb John 1:36, 1:29;
1Cor. 5:7.
• The unleavened bread represents his body
• The fruit of the vine represents his blood
The Lamb
Without Blemish Ex. 12:5
Without Blemish Heb. 4:15, 1Pet.
Offered in its vigor of life
Offered in his vigor of life. Age 33
Best of the flock Exo. 12:5
Best from heaven John 3:16
Sacrificed before salvation of
Israel Ex.12:5 -13
Jesus sacrificed before we could be
saved Luke 23:44-46; Heb. 9:15-17
Blood sprinkled on door post
etc. Ex.12:7
Blood sprinkled on the heart Heb.
Humble & Submissive Isa. 53:7
Humble & Submissive Isa.53:7-8
Acts 8:32
Separated from the flock Ex.
Separated from sinners Heb. 4:15,
No bones to be broken Ex. 12:9
No bones broken John 19:32-36
The Lamb
Must be eaten Ex. 12:8
Must eat the bread of life John 6:51
Celebrated yearly Ex. 12:14-28
Celebrated weekly Acts 20:7
For the children of Israel Ex.
For the children of God Mat. 26:2629
Observed until the end of the
Jewish age Ex. 12:14
Observed until Jesus comes again
1 Cor. 11:26
What can you find wrong in this picture?
Trades & Crafts – Earning a living
God’s people are honest laborers Gen. 2:15, 3:18;
Exodus 20:9
Laziness is not the way to please God
Prov. 19:5,24; 26:13-16; Matthew 20:6; 1Tim.
5:11-13; 2 Thess. 3:6-15.
1. Gen. 2:15 Cain the agriculturalist
2. Gen. 4:2 Able the herdsmen or a shepherd
3. Gen 4:22 Tubal-cain the forger of every cutting
instrument of brass and iron.
Agriculture – the science, art and businesses of
cultivating the soil, producing crops, and raising
God’s people were to rely upon God.
The 3 main crops consisted of grain, grapes and
olives. Ps 104:10-24; Deut. 11:10-15
God warned about turning to false Gods for their
harvests Deut. 11:16-17
Farmers had to deal with many things
1. Sun scorching there crops
2. Swarms of grasshoppers Prov. 30:27, used to
describe invading armies Judges 6:5, 7:12;
Nahum 3:17
3. Erosion
The Gezer Calendar
The 2 months are olive harvest
The 2 months are planting grain
The 2 months are late planting
(Jan/Feb) *
The month is hoeing up of flax
The month is barley harvest
The month is harvest and
festivity (May)
This 2 months are vine tending
The month of summer fruit
* (Millet, peas, lentils, melons,
and cucumbers)
Grain crops
• Several grains mentioned in Ezek. 4:9
• The 2 most popular were wheat and barely
• Without the rains of Oct. and Nov. the ground would
be to hard to plow. Jer. 14:4.
• Working in the winter was hard Prov. 20:4
Sowing seed and plowing usually took place at the
same time
Plowing was usually done with 2 Oxen or sometimes
a castrated bull.
It was against the law to mix animals for pulling
Deut. 22:10.
This is the background of Paul’s statement in 2 Cor.
The plows had metal plowshares 1Sam. 13:20
This gives more meaning to Jesus’ statement
Luke 9:62
1. It takes dedication and concentration to serve
the lord
2 We should not look back. Ph. 3:13-15
Plowing was sometimes done in teams 1 Kings
Isa. 7:25
Spring time rains would come and then the
harvest Joel 2:23
It was permissible for you to pluck the grains of a
neighbors crop with your hands Deut. 23:25.
• Jesus and his disciples did this. Luke 6:1-2.
Flax was harvested first
• Cut at ground level by a hoe or mattock.
• Flax was used to make linen
Next was the barely harvest.
• Cut toward the top leaving the remaining stock
for the sheep to eat.
• They used sickles made of wood, jawbones of
animal with a flint rock attached to it, and metal.
The grain was very dry at harvest time and easy
to catch fire. Exodus 22:6
When the grain was cut it was tied into bundles
Gen. 37:7 and then usually hauled off by donkeys
or carts Gen 42:26-27
• The corners of a field were left for the poor
Lev. 23:22
• The poor were allowed to reap anything the
reapers missed Deut. 24:19-22.
Threshing – Separating the grain from the stock.
One method was beating the grain with a long
flexible stick. Examples Ruth 2:17, Judges 6:11,
Ps. 18:42.
1 Cor. 9: 1-14 Don’t muzzle an ox …
Sometimes threshing or trampling is used to
describe the destruction of a kingdom Dan. 7:23
Winnowing further separates the grain from the straw
Winnowing is used to describe how God will
separate the sinners from the saints Mat. 3:7-12;
Luke 3:17
Parable of the tares and wheat. Mat. 13:24-30
Tare or Darnel
• Does not exclude loving church discipline 1Cor.
5, Rom. 16:17, 2 Thess. 3:6
• Sifting concerning the devil and Peter. Luke 22:31
• They stayed the night to protect their grain
Earthen Vessels
One example of grain storage
Dry pits or cisterns - in a room attached to the house and
even barns Deut. 28:8; Prov. 3:10, Mat. 13:30; Luke
Public silos were also used Gen. 41:48
10% of their produce went to God. Lev. 27:30-32:
Deut. 14:22-29
Examples. Mat. 13:1-9, 18-23; Gal. 6:7-10; James
5:7; 2 Tim. 2:6.
• Noah was the first to cultivate a vine after the
flood Gen. 9:20
• Grapes grew abundantly in the promise
land Num. 13:23
• Every Jew desired to have a vine
• Small villages would grow a vineyard together
• Some vineyards were leased out
• Jesus uses the vineyard to teach the Jews a
lesson Mat. 21:33-44
Building a vineyard Isa. 5:1-2
• It was located on a hill for good drainage
• The dug up stones were used to make a terrace
• They would plant the best vines
• They would build a watchtower
Watch tower found in the fields of Samaria
This watchtower served 2 purposes
1. It gave the family a place to stay
2. It served as a look out post
• They had to watch out for other people. A great
example of this is Ahab in 1 Kings21:1.
• It was ok for strangers to eat from your vine
Deut. 23:24
• Watchtowers cost money and Jesus uses this as
an illustration Luke 14:28-30
• Those who could not afford a watch tower
would make due with a tent.
Isaiah uses the vineyard to make his point about
the rebellious Jews. Isa 5:3-7. Also see Moses
statement Deut. 32:32-33
Once the vines were established they would be
pruned during the winter. The weak, broken, or
diseased branches would be removed.
This process was called “cleaning the vine” and
Jesus uses this illustration in John 15:1-8
The vintage or harvest time began in July and
ended in Sept.
Vineyard in Hebron
A lack of happiness during the harvest time is
described as a judgment from God Isa. 16:9-10
Grapes were used in a number of ways.
• Eaten fresh
• Used for fresh grape juice Gen. 40:11
• Used as a sweet wine.
• Made into raisins.
• David received large quantities of raisins on
several occasions. 1Sam 25:18; 2Sam. 16:1,
1Chron 12:40.
• They boiled them down into a thick syrup called
• The majority of the grapes were made into
juice. They would use a winepress.
Roman Lamp
This imagery is
used to describe
wrath in
Isa.63:3-6, Rev.
Fermented and unfermented wine
Unfermented wine:
• Some used special filters
• Some boiled it
• Another method was to keep the wine at 40
degrees or below.
Fermented wine:
• It was left to ferment for 6 weeks
• Sludge called lees would form at the bottom
• The wine was then poured into another
container leaving the sludge behind
• A clay jar would be sealed but a small whole by
the handle would allow the wine to continue to
Roman wine bottle
Wineskins were also used
Jesus uses the wineskin to
illustrate the difference
between the OT and NT.
Luke 5:37-39; Mat. 9:17
Jesus questioned about fasting
Mat. 9:14-17; Mk. 2:18-22; Lk. 5:33-39
What do these 3 parables mean?
Mark 2:18 The disciples of John and of the
Pharisees were fasting. Then they came and said
to Him, "Why do the disciples of John and of the
Pharisees fast, but Your disciples do not fast?“
According to Matthew John’s disciples ask the
Pharisees were probably the driving force behind
this situation (Mat. 12:14;Mk. 3:6)
Fasting, in a Biblical sense was abstaining from
food and drink for many reason such as:
• Times of sorrow and grief (1 Sam. 31:13; 2 Sam.
1:12, 12:16, Ne. 1:4)
• Accompanied with repentance (1 Sam. 7:6;
Jona. 3:5; Acts 9:9)
• Great religious events (Ex. 34:28; Mat. 4:2; Acts
• Personal service toward God (Luke 2:37; Acts
10:30; 1Cor. 7:5)
• Times of making important decisions (Acts
Fasting was part of Paul’s ministry as well (2 Cor.
Physical and spiritual benefits of fasting:
• Benefits your health, by allowing your body to
cleanse itself of it toxins.
• Is honored by God when done as token of
sincere dedication.
• Can help a person to learn more self-discipline.
• Causes you to focus more on what you fasting
• Causes you to appreciate those things you have
abstained from.
Fasting is voluntary under the new covenant
Commanded under the old covenant once a year
on the Day of Atonement.
Leviticus 23:27 "Also the tenth day of this
seventh month shall be the Day of Atonement. It
shall be a holy convocation for you; you shall
afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by
fire to the LORD. (Lev. 16:31)
“afflict your souls” includes fasting (Isa. 58:3-5)
“souls” includes: self, life, creature, person,
appetite, mind, living being, desire, emotion,
The Day of Atonement was called “the day of
fasting” (Jer. 36:6) or “the fast” (Acts 27:9)
which occurred in our October or September
Two different Groups
John’s disciples
Made up their own laws
including their own spin
on fasting
Their fasts were
probably sincere
as they followed
John’s example
Mat. 11:18
The fasted twice a week
Luke 18:12
Most of what they did
was for show Mat. 25:1-5
John was in prison
Mat. 4:12
They would not be able to tell if Jesus disciples
were fasting or not from their outward
appearance Mat. 6:1-18
Mat. 9:15 And Jesus said to them, "Can the
friends of the bridegroom mourn as long as the
bridegroom is with them? But the days will come
when the bridegroom will be taken away from
them, and then they will fast.
A typical wedding feast lasted about seven days
during which time friends of the bridegroom
stayed with him (Judges 14:10-11).
• It was a time of joy and feasting
• Even the Pharisees and other Jews would
refrain from fasting during these seven days
• John’s disciples would have been reminded of
what John said in (John 3:22-35).
• Jesus is the bridegroom!
The three parables
1. Luke 5:36 Then He spoke a parable to them:
"No one puts a piece from a new garment on an
old one; otherwise the new makes a tear, and
also the piece that was taken out of the new does
not match the old.
2. 37 "And no one puts new wine into old
wineskins; or else the new wine will burst the
wineskins and be spilled, and the wineskins will
be ruined. 38 "But new wine must be put into
new wineskins, and both are preserved.
3. 39 And no one after drinking old wine desires
new, for he says, 'The old is good.'"
Putting the new cloth on the old garment
• Most of the garments were made of wool
• Wool must be shrunk first
• Putting a new un-shrunk garment on old one
will cause it to tear a bigger hole when it gets
• You cannot mix the new with the old
Putting new wine into old wineskins
• Old wineskins are stretched out and brittle
• Yeast residue left behind will cause the new
wine to ferment faster and the old wineskin will
break from the gasses
• The new does not mix with the old
A person drinking old wine won’t desire to drink
new wine because he is happy with what he has.
• When a person is satisfied with where they are
or with what they have, they will have little
desire to try something new or different.
Two ways of looking at these three parables.
The simplistic approach.
Jesus answer the question with the wedding feast
then uses the 3 parables to point out how
ridicules it would be for his disciples to fast.
For them to fast would be like:
putting a new garment onto an old one
putting new wine into an old wineskin
A man desiring new wine when he satisfied with
his old wine.
The second view
After Jesus answers the question using the
wedding feast, He prophecies about His future
The first 2 parables go hand and hand teaching
that the new and the old do not work together.
Jesus is saying that His new teaching and
covenant that He will establish at the time His
disciples are fasting will not mix with the old Law
or their man-made traditions.
Jesus did not come to patch up the old law He
came to establish a new one (Deu.18:15,18-19)
(Jer. 31:31-34).
Other passages (Mat. 26:28; Heb. 8:6-7,13, 9:15,
Jesus fulfilled the Law (Mat. 5:17-18; Lk. 24:44)
and He nailed the old covenant to the cross at his
death (Col. 2:14).
In the 3rd parable Jesus is teaching that many
including the Pharisees and John’s disciples are
not going to immediately desire the new
teachings of Christ or the new convent that He
will establish because they are satisfied with the
old Law and their man-made traditions.
Some were still following John’s teaching for
awhile but they accepted the gospel when they
heard it (Acts 18:24-28, 19:1-5).
Some Christians tried to mix the new wine or new
covenant with the old wineskin or old
covenant/man-made traditions (Acts 15:1; Gal.
Peter and Paul warns us not to do this (Gal. 1:89; 2 Pet. 2:18-22).
As Christians today we should not try and mix our
old way of life or man’s traditions with the new
wine of Christ.
The symbolism of
the vine stood for
the religious life of
Israel itself.
Ps. 80:8-11; Isa.
Carving of a bunch of
grapes from a synagogue
in Capernaum
Jesus is the ONLY true vine that gives life. John
Olive Tree:
. Slow growing
. Reached 18 – 20 feet in height
. Lived approximately 1000 years
. Best years of production 25 – 100 years
. Harvested in Sep – Oct.
Olive Orchard
Gnarled olive tree in the
Garden of Gethsemane,
It’s wood was used in
Solomon’s temple
1 Kings 6:23, 31-33
This was a beautiful tree
to the Jews.
Ps. 128:3, 52:8;
Jer. 11:16;
Hos. 14:6; Job. 15:33
New shoots came up
from the roots. Isa. 11:1
The grafting process
They would cut it close to
the ground.
The wild
Olive stock
Paul teaches the Gentiles a valuable lesson from this
common knowledge in Rom. 11:13-24
Two methods for harvesting the Olives:
1. Beating with a stick Deut. 24:20
2. Shaking the tree Isa. 17:6
Some were eaten for breakfast but most were
made into oil.
One tree produced about 22 Gallons of oil.
There were several methods for extracting the oil
Used to crush the olives. The Best oil
came from this initial step.
Remaining pulp was put into “mash sacks”.
Oil collected here
Mash Sack
Painting depicting the olive process
The oil could also be trodden like grapes were
Micah 6:15
The oil had many uses:
1. Used to cook with. Ezek 16:13 and was part of
the meal offering. Lev. 2:1
2. It was used a fuel for lamps Mat. 25:3-4
3. When boiled with soda it formed soap.
4. Used to rub on the skin to make it shinny.
5. Used to anoint a person head.
6. Used to anoint objects that were consecrated
for God’s service.
7. It was used to anoint or consecrate prophets
1Kings 19:16, priest Lev. 8:12 and kings 1Sam.
16:13 for the service of God.
8. Used on leather shields 2:Sam 1:21
9. Used for medicinal purposes. Luke 10:34, Mark
Gethsemane in Mark 14:32 means “the oil press”
The fig tree
• Fig trees were valued for their fruit and for their
• It can reach a height of 30 feet in good soil.
• Becomes a bush in rocky soil.
• The leaves develop at the end of spring.
• Produces fruit 10 months out the year.
• The first rip figs are ready in June.
• The majority of them are ready in August.
• A small crop can be found in the winter.
• They can be eaten fresh or pressed into cakes or
preserved by drying (1Sam. 25:18;1 Chr. 12:40).
What the Bible says about fig trees:
1. The leaves were big enough to serve as a
covering for Adam and Eve. Gen 3:7
2. It was used as a symbol of security and
prosperity (1Kings 4:25; Mica 4:4; Zec. 3:10.)
3. The dried fruit was used for medicinal purposes
(2 Kings 20:7).
4. Jesus first saw Nathaniel under a fig tree (Jn.
5. Jesus taught several lessons using the fig tree.
Luke 13:6-9. The parable of Barren fig tree
• Fig trees were planted in vineyards.
• Under the OT the fruit could not be eaten until
the 4th year (Lev. 19:23).
• The fig tree takes cultivation to grow properly
• The man represents God and the tree represents
the Jewish nation.
• The vinedresser can represent Jesus as He
agonized over rebellions Jews Mat. 23:37.
• God did everything he could for his vineyard.
(Isa. 5:4; Rom. 10:21).
• The Jews rejected Jesus and they were cut
down by the Roman army at 70 A.D.
• John the Baptist prophesied of this Mat. 3:10
Lesson learned from the fig tree parable:
1. The need of repentance is always urgent
2. God expects us to be fruitful
3. God is longsuffering, and not willing that any
should perish (2 Pet. 3:9)
4. God toleration is not limitless as He will punish
the wicked ultimately as He did in Noah’s day.
(Gen. 6:5-7).
Mat. 24: 32-35 The Parable of the fig tree.
Just as you can see that summer is coming by
looking at the fig tree you can tell that the
destruction of Jerusalem is coming by observing
all these signs (Mat. 24:1-24).
Mk. 11:12-14, 20-24 The Withered fig tree.
• Jesus curses (pronounces doom upon) the
fruitless fig tree.
• He uses the withered fig tree to teach His
disciples about faith and prayer.
The Sycamore Tree
• Related to the fig tree
• Valued for its shade, fruit, and its timber
• Grown by the Egyptians and used to make their
coffins. Psalm 78:47
• David appointed someone over them 1 Chron.
• Reached a height of 30 to 40 feet.
Estimated at 1000 years old
• Produces fruit all year round but peeks in July to
• The fruit had to be pierced and oil rubbed on it
for it to ripen.
• This work was done many times by
sheepherders Amos 7:14-15
When the fruit was ripe it would be red or yellow.
Apparently it was a
good climbing tree as
well. Luke 19:1-10
Zacchaeus and Jesus
“If anyone will not work, neither shall he eat. ( 2
Thessalonians 3:10)”
“whoever does not teach his son a trade is as if
he brought him up to be a robber”
“Let not a man bring up his son to be a donkey
driver, nor a camel driver, nor a barber, nor a
sailor, nor a shepherd, nor a peddler; for their
occupations are those of thieves”
Some shepherds of the Bible:
1. Able (Gen. 4:2)
2. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Gen.13:7;26:20;30:36)
3. Rachel was shepherdess (Gen. 29:9)
4. Moses (Ex. 3:1)
5. David (2 Sam. 5:2)
6. Amos (Amos 1:1)
7. God was considered a Shepherd of Israel (Ezek.
8. Jesus is the chief shepherd (1Pet. 5:4)
Sheep were used for the following reason:
1. Wool for clothing. Once a year around spring
time sheep shearing was followed by a great
celebration. (1Sam. 25:2 Sam. 13:23ff)
2. Meat and for milk
3. For sacrifices (Lev. 1:10)
4. Their horns were used for oil containers and
trumpets (1 Sam. 16:1; Num. 29:1)
Goats were used for the following reasons:
1. Their milk was used to make a type of yogurt
and cheese (Prov. 27:27)
2. To eat (Luke 15:29).
3. For sacrifices and as a scapegoat (Lev. 1:10;
4. Its hair was woven into sackcloth for tent
coverings and coarse clothing (Ex. 26:7; 35:23,
5. Its skin was used for leather to make wine or
water bottle skins.
Sheep were curious animals but they are dumb.
1. They have to be constantly watched or they
can stray or fall off a cliff.
2. Sheep are not driven like cattle instead they
follow their Shepherd.
3. They rely upon their Shepherd to guide them
and to keep them safe.
4. We are God’s Sheep (Ps. 100:3).
5. We should allow God to direct our steps (Jer.
10:23; Pro. 3:5-7)
The Shepherd’s task was not easy.
When dogs were used (Job 30:1) they brought up
the rear.
God protects both (Isa. 52:12)
The rod was a heavy club with metal sticking out
of it.
The sling was made of goat skin and was used to
sling stones.
The staff was used to help the Shepherd get
around and control the sheep.
It was also used to:
• count them
• Mark them for a tithe to God (Lev. 27:32).
What we learn from the Shepherd:
1. Psalm 23 The Lord is our Shepherd.
2. John 10 Jesus is our Shepherd
3. Luke 15:3-6 We are important to God
4. Ezekiel 34 The Irresponsible Shepherd
5. 1 Peter 5:1-5. Elders are to Shepherd
6. Mat. 25:31ff The Sheep and the goats
Metal workers:
The iron age (1200 B.C.) is considered the
beginning of using iron, but it used before then.
Types of metals used Numbers 31:22
Archeological finds:
Iron beads, tips of spears, and other ornaments
found in early Egyptian remains (4000 – 3200
Iron dagger found in the tomb of Antolian who
reined from 2400 – 2200 B.C.
What the Bible says:
1. Tubal-cain Gen. 4:22
2. Plenty of Iron around Deut. 8:9
3. The children of Israel had iron tools Deut. 27:5
4. Iron axe heads 2 Kings 6:5-6
5. Spear tips 1 Sam. 17:7
6. Iron picks 2 Sam. 12:31
7. Iron bedstead for a Giant Deut. 3:11
8. Was to be put into the treasury of God Joshua
9. Used symbolically as strength Deut. 33:25.
10. In the NT used for gates Acts 12:10
11. Used symbolically in 1 Tim. 4:2 (seared with a
hot iron, branding cattle)
• Job describes the mining process in Job 28:1-11
• Gold was used the most. Example: Exodus 32:3-4
• Lead was melted Ezekiel 22:20 and used on writings
in rocks Job 19:24
• Tin was used to strengthen other metals Ezekiel
• Copper was used to make vessels Mark 7:4; 2 Tim
• Silver was available because Abraham had it Gen.
13:2 and it was used to decorate the tabernacle and
temple Exod. 26:19, 1 Chron. 28:14-17
• Gold, silver, and copper were used as money in NT.
Mat. 10:9, 29
These metals were used to describe the great
image that King Nebuchadnezzar saw in his
dream in Dan 2:31ff
The head of fine Gold –
The Babylonian Empire
The breast and arms of
silver – Medo-Persian
The belly of brass – The
Grecian Empire
The legs of iron and feet
part of iron and part of clay
– The Roman Empire
Jewelry made of silver
Vessels made from metal
Weapons made from bronze
First mentioning of fish being eaten. Numbers
Line fishing - Isa. 19:5-8; Mat. 17:24-27
Spear fishing – Job 41:7
Other OT verses – Ecc. 9:12; Jeremiah 16:16;
Hab. 1:14-15
A casting net was usually about 15 feet in
diameter. Mark 1:16-17; John 21:4-6.
A typical Seine was 8 feet broad. One side had
floats the other side weights.
It could be used by 1 boat or 2. Luke 5:4ff See
also Ezek. 26:5.
After fishing they would wash their nets and
repair them. Luke 5:2
Jesus used fishing and fish to teach.
1. He could make fishers of men Mat. 4:18
2. The judgment day Mat. 13:47-50
3. His death, burial and resurrection. Mat. 12:40
4. He could provide for many Mat. 14:15-21
5. He had the power to control the fish Mat.
6. He used fish to convince some to follow Him
Luke 5:3-11
7. He used it to teach about prayer. Luke 11:1-12
8. He used fish to show that He was raised from
the dead Luke 24:35-43
The basic principle behind making a pot.
1. Put the clay on the potter’s wheel
2. Use wet hands to shape the clay into what you
3. After you get the desired shape you could use
additions tools to put designs on the clay.
4. Then you let it dry.
5. Finally you fire it up.
The potter and his pottery are used to teach us a
lesson about God
1. God is our Potter Isa. 64:8
2. God is in control Jer. 18:1-11
3. God’s wrath Isa. 30:14, Jer. 19:10ff
4. God has formed us Isa. 29:16, Rom. 9:14ff
These verses in Romans 9 have been taken out of
context by some to teach false things.
The overall context is how the children of Israel
have been rejected by God and how they have
become vessels of dishonor.
• A great commentary of this concept is found in
Jer. 18:1-11.
• God doesn’t violate our free will.
• Everyone can be a vessel of honor. 2 Tim. 2:2021
• God doesn’t show partiality Acts 10:34; Rom.
• God can use whoever He wishes to show His
power and His justice
Weighing was serious business Lev. 19:35-37;
Proverbs 11:1,16:11,20:10.
The most common weights used in the Bible are:
• Gerah = .02 oz
• Shekel = .04 oz
• Mina = 1.5 lbs
• Talent – 75 lbs
Abram was considered rich Gen. 13:2
Examples of this type of barter:
1. Gen. 12:11-16 Abram paid off for his wife
2. Gen. 20: 9-16 Abraham paid off for vindication.
• 1000 shekels silver = 25 lbs
• $7 an oz in 2006 = $2800
3. Gen. 23:10- 18 Abraham buys a burial ground
4. Gen. 24: 21-22 A gift for the future wife of
• This was one expensive gift by today’s
• $600 per oz = $2480 in 2006
5. Gen. 37:28 sold for 20 shekels or 8 oz of silver
6. Exodus 21:32 The cost of a slave went up to 30
• 12 oz = $84
7. 1Kings 10:10-13 Queen of Sheba’s lavish gift
• 120 talents of gold = more than 4 tons and half
• $600 per oz = $86,400,000 in 2006
8. 1Kings 10:14 Solomon’s annual income 666
• 666 talents = more than 25 tons
• $600 per oz = $479,520,000 in 2006
“Sometimes it may be desirable to compare
ancient values with modern money, but such
comparisons are often misleading, especially
since the purchasing power of money in antiquity
was much higher than in the present era”
(Westminster Dictionary of the Bible, p.634)
Most scholars believe the first use of coins
happened around 600 or 700 B.C. in Asia Minor.
1. The Greek historian Herodotous writing in the
4th century B.C. said that the Lydians were the
first to use coins as money.
2. The first OT mention of using coins:
Ezra 8:27 20 bowls of gold worth 1,000 darics,
and two vessels of fine bright bronze as precious
as gold.
Ezra was written around 457 B.C.
Daric – gold coins weighing about 1/28 oz
Ezra 2:69 According to their ability they gave to
the treasury of the work 61,000 darics of gold,
5,000 minas of silver, and priests' garments.
7 different coins mentioned in the NT.
Drachme – Greek silver coin worth 18 to 19 cents
1. Used 1 time in the NT Luke 15:8-9
2. According to one Greek writer around 300 B.C
a Drachme was the price of one sheep or 1/5 of
an ox
Didrachmon – equivalent of 2 Drachme thus
valued at 36 cents
1. Used to pay the yearly temple tax.
2. According to Jewish history every male over 20
had to give this tax every year in March.
3. They adapted this from Exodus 30:11-16
4. Please note the example in Mat. 17:24-26
Stater – a silver coin equivalent to 2 Didrachmas
worth 72 – 80 cents.
1. Look at Mat. 17:27.
2. Most scholars believe this was the same coin
that Judas was paid with Mat. 26:15; 27:3-5.
3. If this is correct Jesus was sold out for about
22 – 24 dollars.
Denarius – A silver Roman coin the size of a dime
worth 18 cents mentioned 15 times in the NT.
1. It had an inscription of the Roman emperor
2. This coin was used to try and trap Jesus Mat.
22:16- 22
3. Archeologist have found coins showing 12
4. This was the normal daily wage for the
Palestine worker Mat. 20:1ff
5. Another example comes from John 12:1ff
300 denarii was considered a years worth of
6. Another example comes from Luke 10:35
According to one historian this was enough
money to lodge the stranger for 3 weeks.
Assarion – Roman copper coin worth 1/16 of
denarius – just a shade over 1 cent.
1. Mat. 10:29;Luke 12:6 Sparrows were sold 2 for
a penny or 5 for 2 pennies
Kondrantes – smallest of Roman coins about a
quarter of a cent
1. See. Mat. 5:25-26
Lepton – a small copper coin worth ½ of a
Kondrantes – 1/8 of a cent
1. It was usually inscribed with an agricultural or
religious scene so it could be directly deposited in
the temple treasury Mark 12:41ff
Money Changers:
• Some changed out money for the general public
• Others setup shop in the temple area
• They usually charged 10 to 12 percent interest
Jesus confronted them in the temple area at the
beginning and ending of His ministry John 2:1317 (see Ps 69:9) Mk. 11:15-17; Mat. 21:12-13; Lk.
19:45-46 (see Isa. 56:7; Jer. 7:11).
Money changers served as a bank.
This was not acceptable among the Jews because
of the Law of Moses. Exodus 22:25-27; Lev.
25:35-37; Deut. 23:19
You could make a profit from a foreigner Duet.
Jesus used the concept of a bank in 2 parables:
The parable of the Minas in Luke 19:23
The parable of the talents in Mat. 25:27
Transported goods.
Two types of travel – Land or Sea
Roman Road
Travel by sea
Solomon used the Sea to receive and trade goods.
1Kings 9:26.
Various items were traded by land and sea and
land Ezek. 27:17-24
Things clothes were made out of:
1. Animal skin.
• Esau’s skin was compared to a hairy garment
Gen. 25:25
• Elijah possibly wore a hairy garment 2 Kings 1:8
2. Flax
• It was grown in Egypt Ex. 9:31 and in Canaan
Jos. 6:2
• Earliest textile fibers used to make clothing
• The priest wore it Ex. 28:6, 15; 39:27-29
• Joseph wore it Gen. 41:42
• The virtuous women used it Proverbs 31:13
• Many other references to this kind of clothing 2
Sam. 6:14; Ezek. 16:10; Esth. 8:15
• Used symbolically of righteous acts Rev. 19:8
3. Wool
• Wool came from the sheep
• Women would weave into cloths for their
family. Prov. 31:13; Ezek. 34:3
• It was used for trading at Tyre Ezek 27:18
• Sometimes it washed white Isa. 1:18
• Other times it was dyed Heb. 9:19
Archeologist found evidence of massive
weaving and dying in the city of Debir.
They were not suppose to weave linen and wool
together. Deut. 22:11.
4. Sackcloth
• Sackcloth was strong rough cloth made from
the long hair of an oriental goat or a camel.
• Shepherds used it because of its durability and
because it was inexpensive.
• It was worn by people who were mourning or
during times of penitence.
1. Jacob mourned for Joseph Gen. 37:34
2. David commanded it at the death of Abner
2 Sam. 3:31
3. Ahab wore one as token of repentance 1 Kings
4. Nineveh wore it in response to Jonah’s
message Jon. 3:5-6
5. Prophets wore one as a symbol of their
message Isa. 20:2; Zech. 13:4;Mat. 3:4,11:8
Typical dress ware for men
Wearing just a tunic/under garment was
considered indecent. 1 Chron. 15:27-29; 2 Sam.
6:14, 20 See also John 21:7
• On a man the tunic came down to the knees or
the ankles.
• On a women it came down to her ankles
The outer garment was called a robe, coat, or
• Usually a square or rectangle piece of material
that was thrown over the shoulders or wrapped
around the body.
• Fringes were attached to the outer edge of their
mantel to remind them of the precept of the law
Num. 15:38,39; Deut. 22:12
• The Pharisees were known for enlarging
their borders to attract attention which Jesus
rebuked in Mat. 23:5.
• These mantels doubled as sacks to carry things
Ex.12:34; 2 Kings 4:42
What the gospels say about the inner and outer
• Mat. 5:40 Legal proceedings
• Luke 6:29 Robbery
• John 19:23-24 Jesus’ garments/ prophecy
fulfilled Psalm 22:18.
The girdle:
• A belt made of leather or a piece of rough
material folded to secure the inner or outer
garment sometimes called a sash.
• Sometimes used to hold money or other
possession. Mark 6:8
• Sometimes used to hold a weapon or tool 1Sam.
• Sometimes used to gird up the loins
Figurative references made to girding up the
• Job had to prepare himself for God’s wisdom
Job 38:3, 40:7
• Jesus used it to teach humility and servitude to
His disciples John 13:3-16
• Peter probably remembered this instance as he
penned 1 Peter 5:5
• Jer. 13:1-11 God used it to illustrate what He
was going to do to the children of Israel.
Women’s clothes were not the same as men's
Deut. 22:5.
Women’s tunic always went to the ankles and the
fringes usually covered their feet.
• Their clothes may have been dyed blue
• Their girdle was usual decorated
Possible depiction
of a poor women
and a rich one
• Sometimes men wore a hat or turban
• Sometimes women wore veils
Women were to dress in Godly manner 1Tim. 2:910; 1Pet. 3:3-4
1 Cor. 11:4-16. We must know the customs of
where we are.
1st century sandal
Note the following examples:
• Gen. 18:2 ff Abraham and the Lord
• Gen. 19:1 ff Lot and the angels
• 1 Sam. 25:40 ff Abigail and David
• Luke 7:36ff Jesus and Mary
• 1 Tim. 5:9-10 Enrolled widows
• John 13:3-16 Jesus washes his disciples feet
A house near Galilee made from black basalt
See Mat. 5:15 and Luke
15:8 ff
The roofs could be torn
apart fairly easily Mark
2:1 ff
The roofs were flat and leaked and turned green.
Prov. 27:15 and 2 Kings 19:26
The roofs were used for several things:
a. Preaching Mat. 10:27
b. Place of prayer or worship to God Acts 10:9
c. Place for drying out crops Jos 2:6
d. Place to sleep in the summer to stay cool
e. Place for guest to hang out
f. Had religious discussion there
g. Lodged strangers there
h. Setup tents there on the feast of the Tabernacles
Exodus 23:16
A law was made for the roof in Deut. 22:8.
Flat roofs could make an escape route Mat. 24:17
See Luke 11:5 ff
Jesus is always open to us Rev. 3:8
He is wants us to always be open to him Rev.
Upper rooms of in the OT:
1. King Eglon was killed in an upper room Judges 3
2. Daniel prayed from his upper room Dan. 6
Also in the NT we find upper rooms:
1. The Last Supper was in an upper room Luke 22:12
2. Jesus disciples met in an upper room Acts 1:13
3. Peter brought a women back to life in an upper
room in Acts 9
4. The church meet in upper room where Eutychus
feel asleep and fell out the window to his death Acts
The people of the Bible times were very hospitable.
Hospitable - lover of strangers.
1. O.T. example 2 Kings 4:8 ff
2. N.T. example Luke 10:38 ff.
is a beautiful bond between 1 man and 1 women
Mat. 19:4-6.
Two different types of marriage
1. Arranged
2. Unarranged – by choice
Arranged marriages:
Abraham finds a wife for Isaac. See. Gen. 24:1-4
• Gifts were given Gen. 24:53.
• Also known as the bride’s price Exodus 22:16-17
• Rebekah’s family made sure she was ok
with this arrangement as well. Gen 24:57-58.
Marriages by choice:
• Esau chose his own wife which grieved his
parents Gen. 26:34-35; 27:46
• Jacob also chose his own wife, but his was
• He wanted marry Rachel and had to work 7
years for her but he was tricked
• He had to work another 7 years for Rachel
however, he was allowed to take her as wife 1
week after his marriage to Leah Gen. 29:27
The bride’s father gave her a gift sometimes.
• Caleb gave his daughter some land Josh. 15:1519
• The Pharaoh gave his daughter the city Gezer 1
Kings 9:16
After the bride price was paid betrothal began
• Betrothal lasted 10 months to a year and 3
months for a widow.
Betrothal only ended because of death or adultery
See Mat. 1:18 ff.
• The groom prepares the home and the woman
and her family prepare the clothes and marriage
• A girl could marry at the age 12 years and 1 day
• A boy had to be 13.
• The groom was the main focus.
• They dressed up as if they were a king and queen
• The woman Psalm 45:13-15; Jer. 2:32; Isa. 49:18
• The man Isa. 61:10
• Both were accompanied by their friends
• Paper work was signed the bride was presented to
the groom
• That evening the brides virgin friends would escort
her to the groom’s house
• When the groom came they would escort him as
• The marriage would be consummated. Mat. 25:1ff
• The brides parents would take their bed sheet as
proof of her virginity. See Deut. 22:13-21
• The marriage feast would continue up to a week
Judges 14:12; Gen. 29:27 Also see John 2
Jesus used marriage to teach several lessons:
• The parable of the wedding banquet Mat. 22:2ff
• Being ready Luke 12:35ff
• Humility Luke 14:8 ff
• Love Eph. 5:22 ff
• The resurrection Mat. 22:23 ff
• Fasting Mat. 9:15
• We are betrothed to Christ 2 Cor. 11:2
Under the OT women were not allowed to initiate
The rules of divorce:
Deut. 24:1 Given a certificate of divorce.
Jesus explains in Mat. 19:3-9, 5:31-32
Under the OT it was lawful to kill those
committing adultery Lev. 20:10
Deut. 24:2-4 A women could return to her
husband if she had not remarried.
Paul teaches if it all possible be reconciled to
your wife or husband. 1Cor. 7:10-14
2 different ways that a man can never divorce
under the OT.
Deut. 22:28-29 rape
Duet. 22:13-19 falsely accusing
If at all possible we should avoid divorce
Mal. 2:16
God uses the concept of divorce to talk about His
relationship with His people. Jer. 3:6-13
“Rabbi Jehudah, the son of Tema, says: “At five
years of age, reading of the Bible; at ten years,
learning the Mishnah; at thirteen years, bound to
the commandments; at fifteen years, the study of
the Talmud; at eighteen years , marriage; at
twenty, the pursuit of trade or business (active
life); at thirty years, full vigour; at forty, maturity
of reason; at fifty, for counsel; at sixty,
commencement of agedness; at seventy grey age;
at eighty, advanced old age; at ninety, bowed
down; at a hundred, as if he were dead and gone,
and taken from the world.”” (Mishna aboth. v. 21)
• Children were considered a great blessing Deut.
28:4; Ps. 128:3
• The more children the more blessed you were
Ps 127:5
Many considered it a curse from God when the
could not have children.
• Rachel Gen. 30:1
• Hannah 1 Sam. 1:16
• Elizabeth Luke 1:25
Boys were preferred over girls
Customs a pregnant would follow:
• They would not take a hot bath in case it lead to
a miscarriage.
• They would not eat green vegetables, salt food,
or fat or it might affect the unborn child
• The baby was born at home with the help of a
midwife. Exodus 1:15-19
When the baby was born:
• They would cut the umbilical cord and tie it.
• They would wash their baby then rub salt all
over it.
• They would bound them up tightly with strips of
cloth know as swaddling cloths. Ezek. 16:4; Luke
• Next came circumcision on the 8th day as
commanded Gen. 17:12-13
• The circumcision was done by the father, priest,
or physician.
A blessing would be made:
“Blessed be the Lord our God who has sanctified
us by his precepts and has given us circumcision.”
They celebrated during the 8 days leading up to
the circumcision.
Circumcision represented their sons:
• consecration or devotion to God
• separation from his heathen neighbors and his
dedication to the one true God
He was not named until he was circumcised.
Luke 1:57-66; 2:21
The offering for purification. Luke 2:24 f.
• For a boy it was 40 days
• For a girl it was 80 days
Two different things happen in Jesus’ case.
1. Since Jesus was their first born He had to be
given to God but He could be redeemed or
bought back Numbers 18:15-16
2. A sacrifice had to be offered as detailed in Lev.
These things were commanded under the Old Law
but were not commanded under the New Law
1 Cor. 7:18f; Gal. 5:6, Philp 3:2-3; Col. 2:11-14;
Rom. 4:9f; Gal. 2:3; Acts 15
The mother or wet nurse would nurse the baby
for 2 to 3 years.
• Hannah - 1 Samuel 1:21-24; 2:11
• A celebration would occur when the baby was
weaned Gen. 21:8.
• Tradition says that women did not try to
conceive again until the baby was weaned. Hos.
• During the first 3 years the mother was the
primary teacher.
• The fathers started training their sons at age 3
while the mothers continued training their
daughters to become wives.
At age 3 boys learned:
• Their father’s trade
• The traditions of their fathers
• The history of Israel
• To read and memorize parts of the Torah.
One rabbi said, “He who does not teach his son
a useful trade is bringing him up to be a thief.”
These boys also learned from the Synagogue:
• They went with their fathers on Saturday
• Some went every day
“Sweeter than honey
When a boy first went to school in the New Testament
times, he went to the synagogue while it was still dark to
listen to the story of how Moses received the law. Then he
was taken to the teacher’s house for breakfast, where he
received cakes with letters of the law written on them. In
school, the boy received a slate with passages from the
Scriptures written on it. The slate was smeared with
honey. He had to trace the letters through the honey with
his pen, and it was natural to lick the nib of the pen as he
proceeded. The idea was that he would realize that the
purpose of his going to school was to absorb the
Scriptures. This learning practice seems to have been
based on an old custom that David refers to in Psalm
19:9-10.” (The New Manners & Customs of Bible Times)
Some did not think girls should learn the
scriptures but many did from their mothers or
from the Synagogues on Saturday. Luke 1:46-55
Education about God’s Word was the primary
focus. Deut. 6:4-9; Eph. 6:4; Titus 2:1-10
At the age of 13 a boy was considered a man.
1. He was considered to be a son of the law.
2. He could represent one of the 10 men that was
needed to constitute a synagogue.
3. He could marry.
A boy at this age still had much to learn about the
Law and tradition and this is why the teachers at
the temple were so amazed at Jesus’ wisdom at
the age of 12. Luke 2:41-49.
From this point forward the young man could
decided what else he wanted to become.
1. For instance he could become a scribe.
• They began their training at age 14 and it
continued until age 40.
2. Others could continue their education under
notable teachers such as Paul did Acts 22:3.
Burial took place within 24 hours Acts 5:1-11
The reason why:
• The hot climate caused decomposition to occur
faster and the body began to stink.
The Jews didn’t embalm their bodies nor did they
cremate them.
At death:
• The oldest son or next of kin closed the
person’s eyes. Gen. 46:4
• There mouth would be closed and the jaw
bound with a linen cloth. John 11:44 (like
• The body would be washed. Acts 9:37.
• A linen cloth would be bought along with spices
and aloes to wrap the body.
• Lazarus was buried this way. John 11:38-44
• Jesus was buried this way John 19:38:42
Proof of Jesus resurrection:
• His disciples did not understand that He was
going to be raised from the dead. Psalm 16:10;
John 20:9; Mark 16:1ff
• They would not have plotted to steal Jesus’
• Jesus’ grave cloths were not disturbed John
• If His disciples took Him they would not have
left His graves clothes behind nor would it be
possible to remove Him from them without
disturbing the grave clothes
Before the body was buried the family and
friends would mourn in their home
If possible they would hire professional mourners
Amos 5:16; Mat. 9:23-26.
The body would be put on Bier/Stretcher
and taken to the burial site. Acts 8:2; Luke
The woman would lead the way.
The rabbis said, “since women brought death into
the world, they ought to lead the funeral
Usually people were buried outside the city
Buried by rocks
Buried in caves
Some were buried in fancy caves
Jesus was buried in tomb like this.
See Mat. 27:62-66
The Herods:
• Antipater I began the Herod dynasty
Where did the Herod’s come from?
• The Greeks influenced the Hebrews 332 – 167
B.C. to embrace their pagan ways
• In 169 B.C. under the reign of Antiochus IV the
Greeks took treasures from the temple and put a
stop animal sacrifices
• Mattathias Maccabeus and his 5 sons of the
Hashmon household led a revolt
• They helped remove paganism from their people
and restored temple worship in 3 years.
• The Jews enjoyed their independence from
about 167 – 63 B.C.
• This began the Hashmonean dynasty.
Antipater II (100 – 43 B.C.)
• was of Idumean descent (descendant of Esau)
• considered half Jew by the pure Jews
• appointed procurator over Judea by Rome
• he then appointed his son Herod the Great as
governor at the age of 25
• he was allegedly poisoned by a tax collector in
43 B.C.
• Herod the Great has the tax collector killed
• he divorces his 1st wife and marries Mariamne
from the Hasomonean dynasty.
• She was considered his favorite wife, but…
Antigonus of the Hasmonean dynasty along with
the Parthians invade Judea in 40 B.C.
Herod flees to Rome.
• The Roman Senate claims Herod as king of the
Jews by the influence of Mark Antony
• Herod’s reign as King didn’t really begin until he
retook Jerusalem.
• This ended the Hashmonean dynasty.
• Herod was a family killer
• He had 10 wives and 15 kids in all
Herod’s building projects:
• Rebuilt the Temple and the surrounding
structures 20/19 B.C. - 62 – 64 A.D. John 2:20.
• Rebuilt the water supplies and the Palace
in Jerusalem.
• Refurbished the boundary fortresses such
as Masada, and created new cities such as
Caesarea Maritima
• Built a fortress called the Herodium
What the N.T. says about Him. Mat. 2:1-18
• Jesus was born during his reign.
• Herod tried to kill him.
• Since Herod died in 4 B.C. this means Jesus was
born in 5 or 6 B.C.
Herod’s became ill at the end of his life and made
a will to make Archelaus his successor
Antipas and Philip were to receive lesser
• Herod’s will was contested at Rome and they
divided the kingdom up to these 3.
Archelaus is mentioned one time in the Bible Mat.
• He reigned from 4 B.C. 6 A.D.
• He killed 3000 men in a riot led by the zealots.
(Josephus Antiquites XVII, ix, 3)
• His two brothers complain to Rome and his
reign is taken from him and he sent to Gaul.
A roman procurator named Coponius takes his
place (Josephus “War of the Jews’ Book 2 chapter
18 section 1)
• He was the first Roman governor or procurator
who was given complete power over the Jews
This gives us a time frame of Jesus’ birth:
• Born during the Roman empire (63 BC – 476AD)
Dan. 2:44
• Born before the Jews lost their national
sovereignty and judicial power Gen. 49:10
• This also played a role in how Jesus would be
put to death. John 18:31-32
Herod Antipas
Herod Antipas (4 B.C. to 39 A.D.)
• He was a builder (greatest accomplishment building Tiberias as his capital city near the Sea
of Galilee)
• Divorces his first wife so that he can marry his
half brother’s wife Herodias. (Not the Philip that
was reigning with him)
• John the baptized spoke against this
adulterous relationship which led to him having
his head cut off. Matt. 14:4-14; Mark 6;17-18;
Luke 3:19 (mothers name was Salome)
• Herod began to wonder about the rumors of
Jesus Luke 9:7-9
• Jesus and Herod were at odds with another
Luke 13:31- 32; Mark 8:15
• Jesus was brought before him but Jesus said
nothing Luke 23:7-15
• All of these events happened because of the
providence of God Acts 4:23ff
• In the end he was banished to Gaul.
Herod Philip
Herod Philip: (4 B.C. – 34 A.D.)
• The best of the Herod the Great’s sons
• He also was a builder of cities
• He built Caesarea Philippi and rebuilt Bethsaida
into a Greek city and renamed it Julias in honor
of Augustus Caesar’s daughter, Julia.
• He is mentioned one time in the N.T. Luke 3:1
Herod Agrippa I (37 – 44 A.D.)
• Grew up in Rome
• Made friends with those in high places
• Friends with Caligula the next Caesar.
• Agrippa was thrown into prison but freed by
Caligula when he became Caesar
• Made king in 37 A.D. over his uncle Philip’s
territory and Lysanias
• When Caligula dies Agrippa helps Claudius
become the next Caesar
• In 41 A.D. Claudius gives Agrippa Judea and
• He launches an against Christianity. Acts 12:119
• He views himself as as a God paid for his sins
Acts 12:20-23.
• Josephus records this event in the (Antiquities
of the Jews 19.8.2) where he says, “Agrippa
started having severe pains in his stomach and he
died within 5 days at the age of 45
Agrippa rules a similar area as Herod the Great
Agrippa II
• Was 17 years old when his father died
• His father’s territory was given back to Roman
• In 48 A.D. when his uncle Herod died Agrippa
was made tetrarch of Chalcis which is northern
Syria near the Lebanon Mountains
Agrippa II
• 4 years later in 52 A.D. he was given Philip’s and
Lysanias territory as well.
• In 55 A.D. Nero added some Galilean and
Perean cities as well.
Agrippa II territory
• The Romans used Agrippa as expert in Jewish
law and customs when needed See Acts 25:13
• He tried to persuade the Jews not to rebel
against the Romans but he failed
• He turned on the Jews in Roman war of 66 A.D.
and he sent 2000 troops to help Vespasian defeat
the Jews
• After the destruction of Jerusalem Agrippa
became a praetor (low position which can make
judicial decisions) at Rome
• He dies in 100 A.D. ending the Herod dynasty
• Agrippa’s sister who was first married to Marcus
• Marries her uncle Herod
• Moves in with her brother Agrippa See Acts
25:13, 23; 26:30.
• Marries the king of Cilicia for a short time and
then returned back to her brother
• She becomes the mistress of both Vespasian
and Titus his son who were Caesars
• Agrippa’s sister and was known for her beauty
• Marries King Azizus of Emesa who becomes a
Jewish proselyte by being circumcised
• Because of her great beauty Felix desired her
and she leaves the king and marries him See Acts
• According Josephus They had a son named
Agrippa but both mother and child died in the
eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 A.D.
Procurators (also called Governors or Prefects)
Rome’s territories were divided up 2 ways.
1. The Senatorial provinces were controlled by
the Senate. (Governed by proconsuls)
2. The Imperial provinces were under the direct
control of Caesar (Governed by Procurators)
Procurators 3 primary functions:
1. Command the military force
2. Collect taxes
3. Make judicial decision including death
Pontius Pilate (26-36 A.D.)
• We don’t know anything about Pilate’s origin
• We have 3 main external sources that mention
• “Christus, from whom the name had its origin,
suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of
Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators,
Pontius Pilatus…” (The Annals of Tacitus xv.44
(100 A.D.)
Things Josephus said:
• Pilate ruled for 10 years
• Was removed from office by Vitellius, the legate
of Syria for slaughtering some Samaritans
• He travels to Rome to defend himself before
Tiberius but Tiberius dies before he get there
• He brings ensigns into the city of Jerusalem
which causes a standoff of with the Jews and
Pilate yields to them (Josephus, Ant, 18.3.1)
• He takes the sacred treasure corban from
temple to bring water into Jerusalem by an
• When a riot broke out he had the crowd beat
into submission (Josephus, Ant, 18.3.2).
• Pilate dedicated some gilt shields in the palace
of Herod in honor of the emperor
• The Jews petitioned him to have them removed;
when he refused, they appealed to Tiberius, who
sent an order that they should be removed to
Caesarea. (Legatio ad Caium, 38).
This 2'.7" x 2'.1"
limestone block was
found in 1961 at the
amphitheater in
Caesarea (built by
the decree of Herod
the Great in 30 BC)
The partial
inscription refers to
Pilate being prefect.
A brief look at what the Bible says about him:
• Luke 13:1 shows his murderous nature
• The most famous event recorded is his dealings
with Jesus’ crucifiction
• Mark’s is the shortest account and John the
• Luke’s account shows Pilate sending Jesus to
• Pilate proclaimed Jesus’ innocences 3 different
times Luke 23:4,14,22
• Pilate buckled under the pressure of the Jews
and orders Jesus to be crucified
Felix (52-59 A.D.)
• He was a self-centered man who took bribes
and hired assassins to do his bidding
• He was married 3 times with Drusilla being
one his wives Acts 24:24
• We are first introduced to Felix in Acts 24:10 ff.
• After Paul’s defense, Felix procrastinate. Acts
Festus (59 – 61 A.D.)
• He replaced Felix and inherited all the problems
he left undone. Read. Acts 25:1-12
• He asked for Agrippa II help in this case.
Julius Caesar (reign - October, 49 BC–
March 15, 44 BC)
• He was considered one of the most
influential men in history as he played a
critical role in transforming the Roman
republic into the Roman Empire.
• He was known for his speeches
• He was the first living man to appear
on a Roman Republican coin
• He was assassinated by his own people
Augustus Caesar (reign January
16, 27 BC–August 19 AD 14)
• He was Julius’ great nephew
whom he adopted as his son and
• Augustus was considered to be
the greatest emperor of Rome
because there was mainly peace
during his reign.
• He plays his part in the
providence of God (Luke 2:1-7;
Micah 5:2)
Tiberius Caesar (reign - 14 – 37
• He was adopted by Augustus
and made his heir
• He was considered one the
greatest generals of his time
• He was very cruel Caesar as
he would kill people for the
smallest things
• He would even kill children
with his own hands
• He was an active homosexual
and he preferred young boys
• He is mentioned in Luke 3:1;
Mat. 22:15-22; John 19:12-15
• He was reigning when Jesus
was put to death
Caligula (reign 37–41 A.D.)
• Adopted by Tiberius
• He was hated by the Senate
• He would pass out
• He seems to be mental ill
• He appointed his horse to the
Senate and he married his own
• As his men prepared to invade
Britain, he had them pick sea shells
on the shore.
• He would have busts of his head
replace those on statues of different
• He would hide from people and
make strange noises
• He would kill someone and then call for them
• In the end he was assassinated
Claudius Caesar (reign - 41-54
• He the first man born outside
the Julian family that was
adopted and became the next
• He grew the empire and
invaded Britania
•He had some physical problems
• His knees were weak and gave way under him and
his head shook. He stammered and his speech was
confused. He slobbered and his nose ran when
excited (Suetonius)
• He is mentioned in the Bible Acts 11:28, 18:1-2.
Caesar (reign
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• Adopted
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• He became
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Galba, Otho and Vitellius (reign 68 – 69 A.D.)
• All 3 of these men rise to power was very short
and all 3 were assassinated
Vespasian (reigned 69 – 79
• He led the Roman army
against the Jewish revolt in
Judea from 66 to 69 A.D.
• He was called to Rome
where he became Emperor
• His son Titus finished the job
• These men played their part
in Jesus’ prediction of the
temple’s destruction in Mat.
Titus (reigned 79 – 81)
• He had a short peaceful reign
• He was famous for the destruction
of Jerusalem
• He was known for his generosity for
relieving the suffering of those in the
Mount Vesuvius eruption of 79 and
the fire of Rome of 80
• He died from a fever
Domitian (reigned 81 – 96)
• He was Titus’ brother
• He demanded to be called Lord and
• He persecuted Christians
• Irenaeus (180 A.D.) says that John
received his vision of the book of
Revelation at the end of Domitian’s
• He was assassinated by being
stabbed 8 times