Chapter 2 PPT - West Ashley High School

Chapter 2:Origins of
American government
Section 1: Our political
Section 1: Our political beginnings
Basic concepts of government
A. ordered government1. need orderly regulation of
their relationships w/ one
2. still have sheriff, coroner,
assessor, justice of the peace,
grand jury, counties, &
Section 1: Our political beginnings
B. Limited Government
1. government is not all powerful
2. idea planted in the land of
C. Representative Government
1. gov. should serve the will of the
2. people should have a voice in gov
Section 1:Our political beginnings
II. Landmark English Documents
A. Magna Carta
1. King John, Runnymede in 1215
2. trial by jury
3. due process of law
4. did away with absolute power
5. Parliament protected
Section 1: Our political beginnings
B. The Petition of Right
1. further limited the king’s power
2. no quartering of soldiers
3. no longer punish or imprison people
w/o trial by jury of peers/ law of land
4. no martial law during peacetime
C. English Bill of Rights
Section 1: Our political Beginnings
1. 1688 Glorious Revolution
2. free elections for Parliament
3. no standing army in peacetime
(unless Parliament said so).
4. right to a fair trial
5. no excessive bail
6. no cruel and unusual punishment
Section 1:Our political Beginnings
III. The English Colonies
A. Royal colonies
1. direct control by the crown
2. controlled by governor
3. bicameral rule- 2 house
B. Proprietary colonies
1. established with land grants
Section 1:Our political Beginnings
2. unicameral-one house
C. Charter colonies
1. self-governing
2. given charter to operate
CHAPTER 2:origins of
american government
Section 2:the coming of
Section 2: coming of independence
Britain’s Colonial Policies
A. controlled by GB 3,000 miles away
B. power of purse
C. paid few taxes
D. did not want the royal gov. meddling
in their local affairs
Growing colonial unity
A. New England Confederation- league
Section 2: coming of independence
that came together for defense against
Native Americans
B. Albany Plan of Union
1. delegates (representatives) from
each of the 13 colonies would meet
to raise military & naval forces, make
war & peace with Native Americans,
regulate trade with them, tax, &
collect custom duties
Section 2: coming of independence
2. proposed by Ben Franklin
3. meets annually
Stamp Act Congress
1. Stamp Act of 1765
2. had to have a stamp on legal
documents, certain business
agreements, & on newspapers
Section 2: coming of independence
D. Intolerable Acts passed to punish
E. 1st Continental Congress met to
discuss what to do
F. 2nd Continental Congress met &
actually took action
Section 2: coming of independence
The Declaration of Independence
A. 1775- fighting broke out between
Great Britain and the colonists.
B. 1776- Continental Congress met in
Philadelphia; established a
committee to draft the DOI
C. Most of it written by Jefferson
Section 2: coming of independence
Believed that the power of the
government comes from the
consent of the governed
If a government ignores the will of
the people, the people have a
legitimate right to change the
Basic human rights- life, liberty,
& the pursuit of happiness
Section 3: The Critical Period
Section 3: the Critical Period
The Articles of Confederation
A. original plan of gov.
B. confederation- loose association of
C. did not want a strong central gov.
D. one legislative body -the Congress
E. wanted to preserve states’
Section 3: the Critical Period
sovereignty (absolute power)
F. Did not want to establish a
national court system to interpret
the laws & to punish lawbreakers
II. Weaknesses of the Confederation
A. Congress had trouble passing laws
because 9 out of 13 states was
needed to pass important measures
Section 3: the Critical period
No officials to ensure that the laws
passed by Congress were carried
There were no means of
interpreting the laws or judging
those who broke them.
Changes in the Articles
required the unanimous
vote of all 13 states.
Section 3: The Critical period
the Congress lacked the power to
collect taxes
1. Congress could not pay the
country’s debts
2. could not pay the soldiers
who had fought in the
Revolutionary War
could not control trade between
the states or with foreign nations
Section 3: the critical Period
no stable national currency or
banking system
Need for Change
main problem with the AOC- did
not give the national government
enough power to operate
citizens lacked a national identity
1787- meeting held to strengthen the
CHAPTER 2:origins of
american government
Section 4: Creating the
Section 4: Creating the Constitution
A. 12 states choose 74 delegates; only
55 showed up
B. Ben Franklin was the oldest 81
C. Independence Hall in Philadelphia,
D. George Washington President of the
Philadelphia Convention
Section 4: Creating the Constitution
II. Secret Meetings
A. agreed to hold the meeting secret so
that delegates could speak freely
B. James Madison kept a journal of the
proceedings of each meeting
III. Writing the Constitution
A. established federalism
1. divides power b/w national & state
Section 4: Creating the Constitution
IV. The Virginia Plan
A. Madison plan
B. 3 branches of gov- legislative,
executive, & judicial
C. Congress bicameral
D. representation based on $ or
E. HOR chosen by popular vote
F. Senate chosen by state legislatures
Section 4: Creating the Constitution
V. The New Jersey Plan
A. proposed a unicameral legislature
B. states equally represented
C. federal executive of more than one
VI. The Connecticut Compromise
A. aka the Great Compromise
Section 4: Creating the Constitution
B. agreed to a bicameral gov.
C. the Senate was based on equal
D. the House was based on population
VII. The 3/5 Compromise
A. should slaves be counted as people for
population & representation?
B. slaves counted as 3/5 a person
Section 4: Creating the Constitution
C. regulate trade
D. set and collect taxes
VIII. Federalists & Antifederalists
A. Federalists supported a strong
national government
B. leading Federalists- John Jay,
James Madison, & Alexander
C. Antifederalists opposed the Cons.
Section 4: Creating the Constitution
Key antifederalists- Patrick Henry,
Richard Henry Lee, Samuel
Adams, and John Hancock
A. 1st to ratify was Delaware
B. 9th to ratify was New Hampshire
C. 10th state- Virginia
D. 11th state- New York
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