American Chemical Society
NCW 2014
The Sweet Side of Chemistry!
Candy
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Your Affiliation
Location or type of presentation
Date of presentation
What is candy?
and
What does it have to do with
chemistry?
Candy: a confection made with
sugar (or other sweeteners) and
often flavorings and fillings.
sucrose
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Chemistry: The study of the
properties of matter and the
changes that can occur in matter.
3
The Physical Properties of Candy
Making
Molecular Structure
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Melting point
Flavor characteristics
4
Types of Molecular Structure in Candy
Crystalline Solid:
example-chocolate
(crystalline cocoa butter)
Amorphous Solid:
example-hard candy
(sucrose solution)
Soft Polymeric Solid:
example-Gummy Bears
or Jello (gelatin gel)
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5
What’s the difference
between eating hard candy
and eating glass?
vs.
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6
The Importance of Temperature
Name
Temperature
Description
Candy Type
Thread
223-235 °F
Syrup drips from a spoon
Candied fruit
Soft Ball
235-245 °F
Ball in cold water, flattens when
removed
fudge
Firm Ball
245-250 °F
Stable ball, loses shape when
pressed
Light caramel
candy
Hard Ball
250-266 °F
Holds balls shape, sticky
marshmallows
Soft
Crack
270-290 °F
Firm, flexible threads
Taffy
Hard
Crack
300-310 °F
Cracks under pressure
Lollipops
Caramel
320-350 °F
Golden colored sugar syrup
pralines
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7
The Chemical Properties of Candy
•
Flammability
•
Caramelization
•
Color change
•
Gas production
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8
Sugar Free Candy
Sugar Alcohols, such as isomalt
High-intensity Sweeteners such as sucralose.
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9
History
Ancient candy was based on Honey
Sugar cane agriculture started in India in
6th century BCE
Candy only became widely available after
the Industrial Revolution (1830s)
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10
Culture
$2,500
$2,000
in millions
$1,500
$1,000
$500
$0
Valentine's Day
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Easter
Halloween
Christmas
Source: U.S. Department of commerce
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Economics
Per Capita Retail Candy Sales
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Source: US Department of Commerce 311D Confectionery Report
12
Health and Fitness
Positive Effects
•
Peppermint and mint candies can soothe upset stomachs
•
Dark chocolate can help reduce risk of heart disease
•
Mint-flavored gum can increase short-term memory
•
One study suggested candy consumers lived longer than non-consumers
Negative Effects
•
Cavities
•
Obesity
•
Choking
•
Diabetes
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13
References:
 Celebrating Chemistry, NCW 2014 edition: "The Sweet Side of
Chemistry—Candy”, American Chemical Society, Washington D.C.
 National Confectioners Association, http://www.candyusa.com/,
Washington, DC 20007
 The Science of Cooking, Candy, Exploratorium, Pier 15, San Francisco
CA 94111, https://www.exploratorium.edu/cooking/candy/sugar.html
 McGee, Harold, On Food and Cooking, Simon and Schuster, 2004
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