File - 10th grade research reports

1972 Munich Olympics
Causes Long term history
• Jewish are expelled from Palestine, by Romans,
135 CE
• After World War II, search for homeland,
• ->back to Palestine
• Israel as state is claimed 1948
• Arab Israeli war
• About 700’000 Palestinian refugees
• Widespread anger among Palestinians
(“Terrorists attack the Munich Olympics”).
King Hussein of Jordan
Expelled and responsible for deaths of thousands of Palestinian’s (“Black
Only Arab leader to speak out against Munich massacre ("Terrorists Attack
the Munich Olympics”)
Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)
Created in 1964
For Independent Palestinian state
destruction of Israel ("Terrorists Attack the Munich Olympics”)
Yasser Arafat
(1929-2004) PLO leader
Creates Black September
dissolves 1973 ("Terrorists Attack the Munich Olympics”)
Abu Daoud
Mohammed Daoud Oudeh (1936-2010)
Palestinian militant
leader of Black September
Organized Munich Massacre ("Terrorists Attack the Munich Olympics”)
Black September
bloody month 1970
King Hussein expelling from Jordan 700’000 Palestinians (“Terrorists attack the Munich
Offshoot of Palestinian Liberation Organization
Controlled by leader of PLO Yasser Arafat (“Black September Organization”)
September 5, 1972
Sneak in Olympic village before dawn
Invade Israeli team apartments
Demand release of ~200 Palestinian prisoners in German and Israeli
prisons (“Arab Terrorists Murder Eleven Israeli Olympic Athletes”)
Terrorists kill Moshe Weinberg (wrestling coach) and Joseph Romano
(wrestler) first
Some athletes escape
Take 9 hostages ("Arab Terrorists Murder Eleven Israeli Olympic
Israel Prime Minister Golda Meir refuses any negotiations
German Police negotiates
Gives in to terrorists new demand: flight to Cairo with hostages ("Arab
Terrorists Murder Eleven Israeli Olympic Athletes”)
On Airport
4 snipers - 8 terrorists….
All athletes killed: live grenade in one helicopter, other athletes machine
gunned down
5 Terrorists dead 3 captured (“Arab Terrorists Murder Eleven Israeli
Olympic Athletes”)
How could this happen?
• first time in 36 years
• West Germans 1972 wanted to show that
open free society
• few security measures to protect Olympic
• didn't seem necessary
• little exposure to modern terrorism
("Germany, Counter–Terrorism Policy.”)
"Even in the world of crime, there are still some taboos,
a final limit of dehumanization beyond which one dares
not go. This limit was crossed by those guilty of the
attack on the Olympic Village."
Games not cancelled
funeral service
80’000 present
Eleven empty chairs for killed Israelis
No Arab representatives ("Arab Terrorists Murder Eleven Israeli Olympic Athletes”)
Terrorists freed
3 Terrorists captured at Munich Olympics are released later, due to a
threat on another attack on Lufthansa flight ("Arab Terrorists Murder
Eleven Israeli Olympic Athletes”)
Israel’s elite secret police
Golda Meir gives order to kill those involved
Over 20 years dozens of assassinations of high PLO and BSO members
Many assassinations of people who weren’t involved
Abu Daoud could not be killed, 1 or 2 of freed terrorists either ("Terrorists
Attack the Munich Olympics”)
• Terrorism
– Europe and US at UN against terrorism ("Black
– Arab countries (except King Hussein ("Terrorists Attack the
Munich Olympics)) tried to stop any resolutions against
– Terrorism international issue ("Black September.”)
• Security
– In Germany (GSG9) ("Germany, Counter–Terrorism
– For major sporting events
• New criteria for choosing host city ("Terrorists Attack the
Munich Olympics”)
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