Walker Chapter 01

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Introduction to Hospitality, 6e
and
Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e
John R. Walker
Introducing Hospitality
Chapter 1
Hospitality through the ages
• The word hospitality
comes from the French
term hospice, meaning “to
provide care/shelter for
travelers.”
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Ancient Times
• The Summarians, after becoming successful
farmers, began other activities such as
–
–
–
–
–
Writing
Inventing money
Creating pottery
Making tools
Producing beer
• Taverns provided a place for locals to relax and
enjoy each other’s company
• Taverns and Inns began springing up all over
Europe, China, Egypt and India
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Greece and Rome
• The Code of Hammurabi (1700 B.C.E.) was one
of the first written documents imposing penalties
for plotting crimes in Taverns.
• The Code also imposed the death penalty for
watering down the beer!
• The Romans built Inns about 25 miles apart on
all the main roads throughout the country.
• The first ‘business lunch’ was the idea of a
Roman tavern owner in 40 B.C.E.
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Medieval Times
• Charlemagne established rest houses for
pilgrims in the 8th century
• The stagecoach was popular in England with
Inns and taverns located on the trail called ‘post
houses.’
• In the late 16th century eating places called an
‘ordinary’ were taverns serving a fixed-price
meal.
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Coffee Houses
• Coffee houses began to spring up all over
Europe during the 17th century
– The most famous was Café Florian on the Piazza
San Marco which still operate today
• Coffee houses were the social and literary
centers of their day
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
The New World
• Ordinary’s were common in the New World
during the 1600’s
– Cole’s Ordinary, 1663
– Hudson’s House, 1640
– The Stadt House, 1642
• Frauncis Tavern, where George Washington
maintained his Revolutionary headquarters is
still operating today.
• John Adams, the 2nd President of the United
States owned a tavern from 1783 to 1789
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
The French Revolution
• The French Revolution changed the course of
Culinary history as nearly all French chefs
worked for the nobility. As the nobility lost their
titles and their property, the chefs lost their jobs.
• Many immigrated to the New World and found
themselves in New Orleans, a French enclave.
• There, they introduced sauces and other
flavorful dishes that supplanted the primitive
cooking originating with the British.
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
The Nineteenth Century
• One of the first great cook books was Antoine
Carême 's La Cuisine Classique detailing
numerous dishes and their sauces. This was the
beginning of the a la carte menu
• Auguste Escoffier published the classic recipe
book Le Guide Culinaire and installed the
brigade system in the kitchen
• Thirty five restaurants in New York City have
celebrated their 100th anniversary
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
The Twentieth Century
• There was a rapid development of hotels,
motels, fast food, and coffee shops after World
War II.
• The 1980’s saw hospitality, travel, and tourism
expand as baby boomers influenced the
industry through their buying power.
• After 9/11 the economic recovery proved very
strong as hospitality businesses expanded in
North America and abroad.
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Welcome to You, the Future
Hospitality Industry leaders
• Hospitality industry is an exciting place to be:
•
•
•
•
It’s fascinating
It’s fun
It offers competitive pay
It offers advancement opportunities
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Career Paths – Figure 1-1
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Welcome to You, the Future
Hospitality Industry leaders
• Works to create memories
• Everyday guests rely on us for service
• Passion is in the service element
• People with a service spirit are happy to do
something extra to make the guest’s experience
memorable
• The WOW factor!
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
The Pineapple Tradition
• The pineapple has enjoyed a rich and
romantic heritage as a symbol of
welcome, friendship, and hospitality
• Pineapples were brought back from
the West Indies by early European
explorers during the seventeenth
century
• From that time on the pineapple
became the favored fruit of royalty and
the elite
• Today, it is globally recognized as a
symbol of hospitality
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
The Interrelated Nature of
Hospitality and Tourism
• The hospitality and tourism industry is the
largest and fastest-growing industry in the
world
• Under the umbrella of travel and tourism,
countless professions are necessary to meet
the needs and wants of people away from
home
• All of these scopes have an effect on each
other
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
The Interrelated Nature of
Hospitality and Tourism
• Hospitality employees have the ability to affect
the human experience by creating powerful
impressions—even brief moments of truth—
that may last a lifetime
• A moment of truth is an expression used to
describe a guest and an associate meeting—as
when a guest walks into a restaurant
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
The Interrelated Nature of
Hospitality and Tourism
• In managed services, foodservices are
provided for airlines, military facilities, schools,
health care operations, business and industry
– These foodservice operations have the dual
challenge of meeting the needs and wants of both
the guests and the client (i.e., the institution itself)
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
The Interrelated Nature of
Hospitality and Tourism
• The hotel business provides career
opportunities to associates who help make
reservations, greet, assist, and serve guests
• The restaurant business fulfills guests’ diverse
needs and wants
– Eating is a biological need that restaurants
accommodate
– Restaurants also fulfill other human desires (i.e., the
need for socialization and to be entertained)
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Characteristics of the Hospitality Industry
• Our services are mostly intangible—the guest
cannot “test-drive” a night’s stay or “taste the
steak” before dining
– The products are for use, not possession
• There is inseparability of production and
consumption of the service product, due to each
guest’s unique demands
• There is also the perishability of our product
– For example, we have 1,400 rooms in inventory, but
we sell only 1,200 rooms. What do we do with the 200
unsold rooms? Nothing—we lose 200 room nights
and the revenue.
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Characteristics of the Hospitality Industry
• The hospitality industry is open 365 days 24
hours a day.
• The industry relies heavily on shift work and
sometimes hours extend beyond the normal
work day
• There are four basic shifts:
–
–
–
–
7:00AM to 3:00PM
10:00AM to 6:00PM
3:00PM to 11:00PM
11:00PM to 7:00AM
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Hospitality Industry Philosophy
• Changed from one manager planning,
organizing, implementing, and measuring to
managers counseling associates, giving them
resources, and helping them think for
themselves
– A participative management style which results in
associate empowerment, increased productivity,
and guest and employee satisfaction
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Hospitality Industry Philosophy
• Corporate philosophy embraces the values of
the organization—including ethics, morals,
fairness, and equality
• Shifts emphasis from the production aspect of
business to the focus on guest-related services
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Sustainable Hospitality
• The concept of sustainability involves
“development that meets the needs of the
present without compromising the ability of
future generations to meet their own needs.”
• Sustainability is the ability to achieve continuing
economic prosperity while protecting the natural
resources of the planet and providing a high
quality of life for its people and future
generations.
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Success in Service
• Approximately 70% of the American and
Canadian economies are engaged in service
industries
• It is critical to offer guests exceptional service
and to understand the role of guest services
• This is the “age of service”
• We “buy loyalty with service”
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Success in Service
• A guest is someone who receives or benefits
from the output of someone’s work
• External customer satisfaction ultimately
measures a company’s success, since they are
the people who are willing to pay for a
company’s services
• Internal customers are the people inside any
company who receive or benefit from the output
of work done by others in the company
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Success in Service
• For success in service we need to:
– Focus on the guest.
– Understand the role of the guest-contact employee.
– Weave a service culture into education and training
systems.
– Emphasize high-touch instead of just high-tech.
– Thrive on change.
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Moments of Truth
• These are guest encounters
• Every hospitality organization has thousands of
moments of truth every day
• Some of them include:
– A guest calls the restaurant for a table reservation
– A guest tries to attract the bartender’s attention for a
cocktail because there are no seats available
– A server takes an order
– A server brings the check
– A guest departs the restaurant
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
The Focus on Service
• We suffer from an overreliance on technology
• Effective leaders make things happen because
they have developed the knowledge, skills, and
attitude to get the most out of their staff.
• Leadership involves managing change
• Our guests are constantly changing
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Service and Total Quality Management
• Total quality management (TQM) is a continuous
process that works best when managers are
also good leaders
• TQM is a participatory process that empowers
all levels of employees to work in groups to
establish guest service expectations and
determine the best way to meet or exceed those
expectations
• The difference between TQM and quality control
(QC) is that QC focuses on error detection,
whereas TQM focuses on error prevention
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
The Disney Approach to Guest Service
• The Disney mission statement is simple: “We
create happiness.”
• The key elements of Disneyland guest services
include:
– Hiring, developing, and retaining the right people
– Understanding their product and the meaning of the
brand
– Communicating the traditions and standards of
service to all cast members
– Training leaders to be service coaches
– Measuring guest satisfaction
– Recognizing and rewarding performance
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Disney Service Model
• It begins with a smile
• Make eye contact and use body language
• Respect and welcome all guests
• Value the magic
• Initiate guest contact
• Creative service solutions
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Disney’s 5 Steps of Leadership
1. Provide clear expectations and standards
2. Communicate these expectations through
demonstration, information, and examples
3. Hold cast members accountable for their
feedback
4. Coach through honest and direct feedback
5. Recognize, reward, and celebrate success
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Careers
• A career path does not always go in a straight
line
• Progression means that we advance from one
position to another
• The path to General Manager in a hotel may go
through a combination of positions because it is
better to have experience in several areas
(cross training)
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Career Goals
• A good way to gain experience in many areas is
an internship and work experience
• Exploring different areas of the hotel will help
you better decide what career path to take
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Is the Hospitality Industry for You?
• The hospitality industry is a service industry; we
take pride in caring about others
• Recruiters look for service oriented people who
‘walk the talk”
–
–
–
–
Good work experience
Involvement in on-campus activities
Positive attitude
Good GPA
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Self-Assessment
and Personal Philosophy
• The purpose of a self-assessment is to measure
our current strengths and weaknesses and
determine what we need to improve in order to
reach our goals
• Self-assessment helps establish where we are
now and shows links to where we want to go
• Make a list of areas to make improvements
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Now is the Time to Get Involved
• Very important to be involved in on-campus
activities
• Professional hospitality and tourism
organizations
• Participate in organizational events
• Participating shows your commitment to the
industry
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Professional Organizations
• CHRIE – the global advocate of hospitality and
tourism education
• NRA – National Restaurant Association
• AH&LA – American Hotel & Lodging Assn.
• ISES – International Special Events Society
• PCMA – Professional Convention Management
Assn.
• NSMH – National Society of Minorities in
Hospitality
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Trends
• Globalization
• Safety and security
• Diversity
• Service
• Technology
• Legal issues
• Changing demographics
• Price value
• Social Media
• Sanitation
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
The End
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
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