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The Korean War
1950-1953
TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE
ACTION: Deliver a brief overview of the Korean War
CONDITION: In a classroom setting, given a forty-five minute
block of instruction
STANDARD: Educate students on the background, conflict,
politics and historical significance of the Korean War
BACKGROUND
• Korea had been a unified state
since the 7th Century
• Beginning in the Late 19th
Century, Japan began to involve
itself in the Korean Peninsula and
officially occupied Korea from
1910 to 1945
• The occupation of Korea in many
ways set the stage for the Korean
War. The Army of South Korea was
largely composed of Koreans who
collaborated with the Japanese
during the occupation
•On the other side, many of the
leaders of North Korea had
previously fought as guerillas
against the Japanese
BACKGROUND
• At the close of World War II
(1945), The Soviet Union occupied
Korea north of the 38th parallel and
the United States occupied Korea
south of the 38th parallel
• The Soviets imposed a communist
government
 Democratic People’s Republic of
Korea (DPRK)
 Led by Kim Il Sung
 Pyongyang as capital
• The United States put in place a
nationalist/capitalist democracy
 Republic of Korea (ROK)
 Led by Syngman Rhee
 Seoul as capital
BACKGROUND
• Originally, the intention of the
U.S. and Soviet Union was to
establish a stable unified Korea
and to withdraw their military
forces, however Cold War tensions
caused events to play out
differently
• The U.S. reduced its troop levels
in South Korea to 500 troops by
June 1949
• The Soviet leader, Joseph Stalin,
concluded that the U.S. would not
be willing to fight to defend South
Korea
• On January 30, 1950, Stalin via
telegram notified Kim Il Sung that
he was willing to help unify Korea
as a communist state
North Korea Attacks
• On June 25, 1950, North Korea
invaded South Korea marking the
start of the Korean War
• By the evening of June 28, 1950,
the South Korean capital of Seoul
had fallen and ROK forces were in
disarray
• South Korea appealed to the
United Nations (U.N.) for help
• The U.N. Security Council called
for an immediate end to hostilities
and passed Resolution 82,
authorizing force to be used in
Korea
• 21 of the U.N. member states
agreed to contribute arms, money
and/or troops to rid South Korean
of its North Korean aggressor
U.N. Forces
• General Douglas MacArthur was
placed in command of the U.N.
forces, which included combat and
medical units from 22 nations
• The United States provided 50%
of the ground forces, 86% of the
naval forces and 93% of the air
power for the U.N. forces. (South
Korea provided most of the
remainder)
PUSAN PERIMETER
• The initial U.N. forces were
unable to slow the advance of the
North Korean forces and fought
desperate delaying operations until
more U.N. troops could arrive in
South Korea
• By the end of July 1950, the North
Koreans had contained the U.N.
forces in a perimeter around the
Port of Pusan (in the southeast
corner of the Korean peninsula)
INCHON
• General MacArthur launched a
offensive amphibious invasion at the
Port of Inchon (near Seoul) changing
the course of the war
• American forces quickly gained
control of Inchon and recaptured
Seoul within days, cutting the North
Korean supply line
• American and ROK forces in Pusan
broke out of the Pusan perimeter
and pursued fleeing DPRK forces
north
Push to the Yalu River
• Capitalizing on Secretary of
Defense George Marshall’s
directions which stated, “We want
you to feel unhampered tactically
and strategically to proceed north of
the 38th Parallel,” General MacArthur
pushed U.N. forces north towards
the Yalu River
• Ignoring evidence that Chinese
forces had moved across the Yalu
River into North Korea, MacArthur
assured U.S. troops that they would
be “home by Christmas”
• MacArthur further risked his forces
by splitting his troops, with the X
Corps advancing along the eastern
coast and the Eighth Army
advancing along the western coast.
Chinese offensive
• U.S. forces unexpectedly ran into
approximately 180,000 Chinese
troops. The right flank of the Eight
Army (U.S.) was shattered and the X
Corps (U.S.) fought a desperate
struggle near the Chosin Reservoir
• U.N. troops were evacuated back to
the Pusan perimeter and Seoul was
captured by the Chinese forces
• On November28, 1951, a shaken
MacArthur informed the Joint Chiefs
of Staff that the U.N. forces faced an
“entirely new war”
Stalemate
• Beginning January 25, LTG General
Matthew Ridgway (in command of the
U.S. Eighth Army) led the U.N. forces
in a slow advance northward. They
inflicted heavy casualties on the
Chinese and North Korean troops and
recaptured Seoul
• Tensions increased between
President Truman and General
MacArthur during this period and on
April 10, 1951, Truman relieved
MacArthur of command. He was
replaced by General Ridgway
• The fighting largely fell into a
stalemate along the 38th Parallel
Armistice
• An Armistice ending the war was
signed on July 27, 1953
• The Armistice provided for a
suspension of open hostilities and a
fixed demilitarized zone to serve as a
buffer between North and South
Korea that remains today
• In many ways the Korean War has
never really ended
casualties
• Approximately 5 million people killed during the war (1950-1953)
• More than 34,000 Americans killed in action
• More than 600,000 Chinese killed in action
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