Anna Ramos Brennan Rodriguez Cassandra Gomez Jonathan Lee Juanmiguel Ortiz Of or relating to art, architecture, or literature that reacts against earlier modernist principles, as by reintroducing traditional or classical elements of style or by carrying modernist styles or practices to the extremes. Contemporary literature is not escapist Contemporary writers focus on describing people’s emotional states rather than focusing so much on objects of their culture( as modern writers did) (1945)The end of World War II with the U.S. atomic bombing of Hiroshima (1947-1953)The Cold War with the U.S.S.R. begins (1955-1968)The Civil Rights Movement (1957)The Final Frontier: Space Travel (1969)Segregation in public schools is abolished (1940s- present)Technology advances: Computers, Internet, Media, Cell phones, Etc. War Fears: - many war-torn veterans from WWII tried to make sense of the madness - Fear of Nuclear Warfare plague the entire U.S. to raise the value of their lives Civil Right’s Movement: - The certainties of the past were called into question - Racial Equality for all citizens in the U.S. - It amplified the idea of an individual’s worth in society - Ethnic and minority writers ,and people, began to wonder how they might fit into mainstream culture Multiculturalism - The growth in diversity brought many different ideals to the U.S. - The differences in culture, religion, and lifestyles were now accepted - Respect for other cultures began to emerge Pop Culture - The values are often portrayed and placed in the media, such as movies and television Post- Modernism - With the growth of modernism, others sought alternatives to redefine the norm - To redefine the norm, people would question their own consciousness and express their unconventional mindsets - The focus was now on how major ideas were being communicated - This affected literature, drama, architecture, journalism and design Genres -Novels -Plays -Autobiographies -Narratives Styles - Direct characterization: The writer makes direct statements about a characters personality and tells what the character is like. -Indirect Characterization: The writer reveals information about a character and his personality through that character's thoughts, words, and actions, along with how other characters respond to that character, including what they think and say about him -Pop-Culture Allusions: The writer makes pop culture references that include movies, television, music, etc. - Extended Metaphor: A comparison between two unlike things that continues throughout a series of sentences in a paragraph or lines in a poem. J.D. Salinger (1919- 2010) -novels, short stories “Catcher and the Rye” “Hapworth 16, 1924” Arthur Miller(1915-2005) -plays “ The Crucible” “Death of a Salesman” Amy Tan(1952-) - novels “The Joy Luck Club” “The bonesetter’s Daughter” Harper Lee(1926- ) -novels, essays “ To Kill a Mockingbird” “ When Children Discover America” Tim O’Brien(1946- ) -memoirs, short stories “The Things They Carried” “If I Die in a Combat Zone” Malcolm X(1925-1965) -Autobiographies “The Autobiography of Malcolm X” “This is not bad -ambling along 44th Street with Sonny Rollins for company, his music flowing through the soft calipers of these earphones, as if he were right beside me on this clear day in March, the pavement sparkling with sunlight, pigeons fluttering off the curb, nodding over a profusion of bread crumbs.” This music is loud yet so confidential. I cannot help feeling even more like the center of the universe than usual as I walk along to a rapid little version of "The Way You Look Tonight," and all I can say to my fellow pedestrians, to the woman in the white sweater, the man in the tan raincoat and the heavy glasses, who mistake themselves for the center of the universe all I can say is watch your step, After having read Speaking of Courage, how does the story relate to the post-modern time era? Find two examples of literary devices that contribute to the post-modern/contemporary time period. Analyze how these devices incorporate the post-modern time era with Speaking of Courage.