AP 4 English Colonies

English Colonies in
North America
Mr. Weber
• Activator, agenda, and objective (10 minutes)
• Chapter 1 reading test (15-20 minutes)
• English Settlement Lecture (30 minutes)
• Give Me Liberty! Jigsaw reading (30-45
• Writing a summary (15 minutes)
Objective: You will master these
College Board AP Topics
• 2. Transatlantic Encounters and Colonial Beginnings, 1492–
1690: First European contacts with American Indians;
Spain’s empire in North America; French colonization of
Canada; English settlement of New England, the MidAtlantic region, and the South; From servitude to slavery in
the Chesapeake region; Religious diversity in the American
colonies; Resistance to colonial authority: Bacon’s
Rebellion, the Glorious Revolution, and the Pueblo Revolt.
• 3. Colonial North America, 1690–1754: Population growth
and immigration; Transatlantic trade and the growth of
seaports; The eighteenth-century back country; Growth of
plantation economies and slave societies; The
Enlightenment and the Great Awakening; Colonial
governments and imperial policy in British North America
Ch. 1 Reading Test
• 10 AP style multiple choice
• 5 open response short
answer questions.
• Good luck!
Give Me Liberty!
Chapter 2 Pre-reading Highlights
Beginnings of English
America 1607-1660
• Focus on Chesapeake and New England colonies.
• Motives for English colonization and reasons for emigration to
the colonies.
• Contact with the Indians.
• Tobacco as the “gold” of the Virginia colony and required
agricultural labor (slavery).
• New England colonies more about family and spirituality of
the Puritans. More economically diverse.
• Puritans’ banish Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson from
Massachusetts colony.
England and North America
• Motives for colonization:
• National glory, profit, and a missionary zeal
motivated the English crown to settle America.
• Religious freedom for Protestants.
• People imagined a place where they could go to
escape the economic inequalities of Europe.
• English crown issues charters for individuals
such as Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter
Raleigh to colonize America at their own
expense, but both failed.
Coming of the English
• The majority of English immigrants to North
America were young, single, men from the bottom
of society.
• 2/3rds. Of English settlers came as indentured
• Indentureds did not enjoy liberty while under
• Land was the basis of liberty and the source of
wealth and power for colonial officials.
The Chesapeake
• Jamestown Colony:
• Settlement and survival were questionable in
the colony’s early history because of high death
rates, frequent changes in leadership,
inadequate supplies from England, etc.
• By 1616 80 percent of the immigrants who had
arrived in the first 10 years were dead.
• John Smith began to get the colony on its feet.
Powhatan and Pocahontas
• Powhatan was the leader of 30 tribes near Jamestown and traded
with the English.
• English-Indian relations were mostly peaceful early on.
• Pocahontas married John Rolfe in 1614 symbolizing Anglo-Indian
• Once the English decided on a permanent colony instead of merely a
trading post conflict ensued.
• In the uprising of 1622 Opechancanough led an attack on Virginia’s
• English forced the Indians to recognize their subordination to the
gov. of Jamestown and moved them to reservations.
New England
• Puritanism emerged from the Protestant
Reformation in England.
• Puritans followed the teachings of John Calvin
and were strict on reading the Bible and listening
to sermons.
• Many Puritans came for religious liberty and were
governed by a system of “moral liberty.”
• Puritan work ethic stressed hard work as saving
the soul
• Pilgrims came to Plymouth (Cape Cod) on the
• Signed the Mayflower Compact before going ashore.
• Squanto provided help to get the pilgrims through their
first Thanksgiving.
• New England settlement would be very different than
Chesapeake: more equal balance of power between
men and women, longer life expectancy, more families,
healthier climate.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
• Massachusetts Bay Company was chartered in
1629 to London merchants.
• Organized Mass. Into self-governing towns.
• Each town has Congregational church and
school. (Harvard was started to educate
• Church membership was required to vote.
• Church and state were very connected.
Trials of Anne Hutchinson
• Hutchinson was a well-educated, articulate woman
who charged that nearly all the ministers in Mass.
Were guilty of faulty preaching.
• Placed on trial in 1637 for sedition and spoke of
divine revelations while on trial.
• She and followers were banished from Mass.
• Mass. not practicing free religion: Quakers were
hanged, for example.
Other Highlights …
• The Pequot War 1637.
• The Merchant Elite.
• The Half-Way Covenant.
• English Civil War.
• Crisis in Maryland
• Cromwell and the Empire.
Give Me Liberty!
Chapter Outline
I. England and the New
• Reasons for England’s late entry
• Protracted religious strife
• Continuing struggle to subdue Ireland
• Awakening of English attention to North America
• Early ventures
• Humphrey Gilbert’s failed Newfoundland colony
• Walter Raleigh’s failed Roanoke colony
• Impetus for North American colonization
• National rivalry
• Opposition to (Spanish) Catholicism
• Spain’s attempted invasion of England
• Desire to match Spanish and French presence in the New
I. England and the New
World (cont’d)
B. Awakening of English attention to North America
2. Impetus for North American colonization
b. Sense of divine mission
• Image of Spanish brutality in the New World
• England’s self-conception as beacon of freedom
c. Material possibilities
• Prospects for trade-based empire in North America
• Solution to English social crisis
• Chance for laboring classes to attain economic
I. England and the New
World (cont’d)
C. English social crisis of late sixteenth century
• Roots of
• Population explosion
• Rural displacement
• Elements of
Urban overcrowding
Falling wages
Spread of poverty
Social instability
• Government answers to
• Punishment of dispossessed
• Dispatching of dispossessed to the New World
II. Overview of seventeenth-century
English settlement in North America
Challenges of life in North America
Magnitude of English emigration
Indentured servitude
New England
Middle colonies
Similarities to slavery
Differences from slavery
Significance of access to land
As basis of English liberty
As lure to settlement
As resource for political patronage
As source of wealth
II. Overview of seventeenth-century
English settlement in North America
E. Englishmen and Indians
• Displacement of Indians
• Preference over subjugation or assimilation
• Limits of constraints on settlers
• Recurring warfare between colonists and
• Trading
• Impact of trade and settlement on Indian life
III. Settling of the
• Virginia
• Initial settlement at Jamestown
• Rocky beginnings
• High death rate
• Inadequate supplies
• Inadequate labor
• Virginia Company measures to stabilize colony
• Forced labor
• Headright system
• “Charter of grants and liberties”
• Indians and Jamestown settlers
• Initial cooperation and trade
Roger Williams and
Rhode Island
• Roger Williams preached that any citizen
ought to be free to practice whatever form of
religion he chose.
• He believed it was essential to separate church
and state.
• Was banished from the Mass. In 1636.
• Established Rhode Island as a beacon of
religious freedom.
III. Settling of the
Chesapeake (cont’d)
• Virginia
4. Indians and Jamestown settlers
b. Key figures in early Indian-settler relations
• Powhatan
• John Smith
• Pocahontas
c. Sporadic conflict
d. War of 1622
• Opechancanough attack on settlers
• Settlers’ retaliation
• Aftermath
e. War of 1644
• Defeat of Opechancanough rebellion
• Removal of surviving Indians to reservations
f. Continuing encroachment on Indian land
III. Settling of the
Chesapeake (cont’d)
• Virginia
5. Take-off of tobacco cultivation
• Introduction and spread
• Effects
Issuance of royal colonial charter
Rise of tobacco planter elite
Spread of settler agriculture
Rising demand for land and labor
III. Settling of the
• Virginia
6. Emerging strata of white
• Wealthy gentry
• Small farmers
• Poor laborers
• Indentured servants
• Free
7. Women settlers
• Quest for
• Status of
• Hardships
III. Settling of the
Chesapeake (cont’d)
B. Maryland
• Similarities to Virginia colony
• Distinctive features
• Proprietary structure
• Cecilius Calvert
• Absolute power of proprietor vs. rights of colonists
• Resulting conflict
• Religious and political tensions
• Calvert’s Catholic leanings vs. settlers’ Protestant
• Reverberations of English Civil War
• Diminishing prospects for the landless
IV. Settling of New
• Puritanism
• Emergence in England
• Variations within
• Common outlooks
• Central importance of the sermon
• John Calvin’s ideas
• The elect and the damned
• Salvation
• Worldly behavior
• Zealousness
IV. Settling of New
England (cont’d)
B. Puritan separatists
• Growth under Charles I
• Aims
• Conceptions of Freedom
• Denunciation of “natural liberty”
• Embrace of “moral liberty”
C. Founding of Plymouth Colony
The Pilgrims
Arrival at Plymouth
Mayflower Compact
Rocky beginnings
Help from Indians
IV. Settling of New
England (cont’d)
D. Founding of Massachusetts Bay Colony
• Massachusetts Bay Company
• Great Migration
• Unique features of New England settlement
E. The Puritan family
• Elements of patriarchy
• The place of women
F. Government and society in Puritan Massachusetts
• Attitudes toward individualism, social unity
IV. Settling of New
England (cont’d)
F. Government and society in Puritan Massachusetts
2. Organization of towns
• Self-government
• Civic
• Religious
• Subdivision of land
• Institutions
3. Colonial government
• Emphasis on colonial autonomy
• Principle of consent
• “Visible Saints”
IV. Settling of New
England (cont’d)
F. Government and society in Puritan Massachusetts
4. Lines of hierarchy
Access to land
Status within church
Social stature
Claim to “liberties”
5. Relation of church and state
G. New Englanders divided
• Prevailing Puritan values
• Emphasis on conformity to communal norms
• Intolerance of individualism, dissent
IV. Settling of New
England (cont’d)
G. New Englanders divided
2. Roger Williams
• Critique of status quo
• Banishment
• Establishment of Rhode Island
Religious toleration
Democratic governance
3. Other breakaway colonies
• Hartford
• New Haven
4. Anne Hutchinson
• Challenge to Puritan leadership
• Challenge to gender norms
• Trial and banishment
IV. Settling of New
England (cont’d)
H. Puritans and coastal Indians
• Balance of power
• Settler’s numerical supremacy
• Indians’ lack of central political structure
• Settlers’ views of Indians
• As savages
• As dangerous temptation
• As object to be removed
• Rising frontier tensions
• Settler war with and extermination of Pequots
• Aftereffects of Pequot War
Opening of Connecticut River valley to white settlement
• Intimidation of other Indians
• Affirmation of Puritan sense of mission
IV. Settling of New
England (cont’d)
I. New England economy
• Economic motives behind New England settlement
• Aspiration for a “competency”
• Land ownership
• Craft status
• Aspiration for mercantile success
• Blending of religious and profit motives
• Emerging New England economy
• Family-based agriculture
• Chiefly subsistence orientation
• Broad distribution of land
• Exports to other colonies and Europe
• Rise of Boston merchant elite
IV. Settling of New
England (cont’d)
I. New England economy
3. Tensions within political/religious order
• Merchant challenge to Puritan policies
• Old-guard Puritan concern over “declension”
• Half-Way Covenant
V. Religion, politics, and
• Gradually expanding “rights of Englishmen”
• Magna Carta
• English Civil War
• Parliament vs. Stuart monarchs
• Commonwealth and restoration
• Levellers and Diggers
• Repercussions of English Civil War in colonial North America
• In New England
• Ambivalence of Puritans
• Quakers
• Emergence of
• Persecution of
V. Religion, politics, and
freedom (cont’d)
B. Repercussions of English Civil War in colonial
North America
2. In Maryland
• Religious-political crisis
• Initiatives to stabilize colony
• Calvert’s pre-Protestant gestures
• Enactment of religious toleration measure
Jigsaw Reading
• Count off 1-4 and to form
study groups.
• Group 1:
• Group 2:
• Read and take notes on
your section for 15-20
minutes. Discuss what
you found to be
important in that section.
• Form new super-groups
groups made up one
expert from each of the
original study groups.
• Group 3:
• Group 4: