Chapter 20 The United States Looks Overseas
– Avoiding involvement in other countries’ affairs
– Building empires by imposing political and economic control over peoples around the world
• • Frederick Jackson Turner – Created idea that western frontier defined American History expansionists believed that overseas was the new frontier and would bring new riches and power
• • Expansionists argued that future prosperity depended on building up trade U.S. had a powerful industrial economy and produced more than Americans would buy
• • There was a fear that if U.S. did not expand it would be shut out of global markets and denied raw materials Alfred T. Mahan stated that the key to strong trade was a powerful navy
• Purchasing Alaska – 1867 The United States purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million (about 2 cents an acre) – Alaska was full of resources (gold and oil) • Alaska Gold Rush of 1897-1898
• • In the late 1800s many Americans believed that Americans of the “Anglo-Saxon race” were superior to “lesser races” in other nations Argument was Americans had a divine duty to spread Christian values and western civilization around the world.
• Expansionists had interest in various Pacific islands, and saw them essential for expanding influence and trade
• Samoa – U.S. had interest in Samoa to use as coaling stations for ships • Other European countries also wanted Samoa and Britain, Germany, and the U.S. almost went to war – In 1899 the U.S. and Germany divided the islands • People in Samoa had no say in the matter.
• Hawaii – U.S. saw Hawaii as a military outpost in Pacific – 1893 American planters and 50 U.S. Marines overthrew Queen Liliuokalani. • President Grover Cleveland refused to annex Hawaii because the revolt had been illegal – on July 7, 1898 Hawaii became a territory of U.S. when it was annexed by President William McKinley
• Late 1800s China lost a war and European powers wanted to take advantage of China’s weakness – European power and Japan started dividing China into spheres of influence (areas where another
nation has economic and political control)
• At first, U.S. were not part of the activity, but U.S. officials feared they would be excluded from trading with China – Secretary of State John Hay called on nations to keep an “open door” policy in China.
• Boxer Rebellion – A secret Society called Righteous and Harmonious Fist was formed to try and combat foreigners in China • Became known as Boxers because of their ceremonial exercises that resembled shadowboxing – In spring of 1900 the Boxers began a rebellion to expel foreigners
• The boxers attacked and killed westerners and Chinese Christians.
• European powers and the U.S. sent in 18,000 troops with modern weapons and crushed the rebellion
• • Cuba had been under Spanish control since 1492 After Centuries of being under Spain’s harsh control Cuban’s started to rebel – First rebellion started in 1868 and lasted 10 years, but was unsuccessful
• • Cubans started another rebellion in 1895 To stop the revolt the Spanish began a policy of reconcentration ( movement of large numbers of people into detention camps for military or political reasons ) – 200,000 Cubans would die in these camps due to poor sanitation and starvation
• Cubans, led by Jose Marti, asked for help from the U.S.
– Marti was a leader of the rebels, but was killed in Cuba before he was able to see Cuba free from Spanish rule
• • Many Americans wanted to help the Cuban rebels, but U.S. government was resistant to send troops Americans wanted to help Cuba to protect their investments – Americans had over $50 million in sugar plantations, railroads, and iron mines
A sensational style of reporting that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news
• Newspapers swayed public opinion towards war by using Yellow Journalism – Led by Joseph Pulitzer of the New York World and William Randolph Hearst of the New York Journal
• U.S. declares war -February 15, 1898 the Maine sinks and the United States declares war on Spain
• The U.S. Goes to War – April 20, 1898 the U.S. declares war on Spain – The first main battle of the war took place in the Philippines • May 1, 1898, Commodore George Dewey led a small fleet of ships to Manila Bay and sank the entire Spanish squadron • The U.S. did not lose a single ship or life
• The Filipinos were also fighting for independence from Spain – Emilio Aguinaldo was the leader of the Filipino rebels – Instead of giving independence to the Filipinos the U.S. took control of the islands
• War in the Caribbean – Most of the fighting took place around Santiago and at sea
• War in the Caribbean – U.S. troops were poorly trained, but eager to fight • One of the best known units was the Rough Riders, which was led by Theodore Roosevelt • Roosevelt led a successful charge up San Juan hill, which became the most celebrated event of the war
• Once Spain surrendered Cuba, American troops invaded and quickly took control of Puerto Rico
• December 1898, a treaty was signed – Cuba received its independence – Puerto Rico, Philippines, islands of Guam, and Wake islands became territories of the U.S.
The United States and Latin America • Panama Canal – The Isthmus of Panama was chosen because it was only 50 miles wide – perfect location to shorten trips from the West Coast to the East Coast
The United States and Latin America • U.S. offered Columbia $10 million and $250,000 yearly rent to build the canal – Columbia did not accept the deal
The United States and Latin America • Panamanians started a revolution against Columbia – U.S. sent gunboats and Marines to support Panama – Panama gains its freedom and the U.S. received the land to build the canal
The United States and Latin America • Fighting Disease – First obstacle to building the canal was overcoming diseases • Malaria and Yellow Fever (carried by mosquitoes) • William C. Gorgas
The United States and Latin America • Constructing the Canal – Construction involved three main tasks • Cut through a mountain • Dam a river • Build locks
The United States and Latin America • Canal Was finished August 15, 1914 (six months ahead of schedule)
The United States and Latin America • Wielding a “Big Stick” in Latin America – Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine • It was the job of the U.S. to protect the Western Hemisphere from European nations • When neighbors of the U.S. got into disputes with foreign nations, the U.S. had the right to intervene and restore order
The United States and Latin America • William Howard Taft believed in dollar
– Taft wanted bankers and businesses to invest in Latin America – Dollar Diplomacy led to many military interventions because the U.S. had to protect its investments
The United States and Latin America • Relations With Mexico – 1911 Mexico entered into a violent revolution – President Woodrow Wilson believed U.S. foreign policy should support democracy throughout the world, and hoped Mexico would develop its own democratic government
The United States and Latin America • The United States had trouble staying out of the conflict – 1914 an incident in Tampico, Mexico led to U.S. sailors being arrested – Francisco Villa (Pancho Villa) kept entering New Mexico and raiding towns. (Killed 18 Americans in one raid)