Anti-Federalists vs Federalists

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Anti-Federalists vs
Federalists
Cato’s Letters
Brutus
Centinel
Federal Farmer
Patrick Henry
Patrick Henry

Active leader during the
Revolution who
demanded that the
British “give me liberty,
or give me death!"

He is against the
Constitution because it
reduced states rights and
had no Bill of Rights
George Mason

Anti-Federalist, a Virginian
Plantation owner

Wrote the Virginia
Declaration of Rights which
becomes the model for the
Bill of Rights

He refused to sign the
Constitution until a Bill of
Rights was included
Individual Rights
• The Anti-Federalists were more concerned with protecting
the rights of the individual people and states, then
promoting the pubic good as a whole.
Who were the Federalists and Anti-Federalists?
• Anti-Federalists
– People who opposed ratifying the Constitution
– Leaders like George Mason, Edmond Randolph, and Elbridge
Gerry
• Each had attended the Philadelphia Convention but refused to sign the
Constitution
– John Hancock, Samuel Adams, and Richard Henry Lee all
signed the Declaration of Independence, but also opposed the
ratification
Who were the Federalists and Anti-Federalists?
• Most Americans were very
suspicious of government, but
the Anti-Federalists were
especially mistrustful of strong
government
– They feared they had created a
government that the people
could not control
DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW

Federalists argued
for
• Wanted a strong
national
government
• Three branches of
government filled
with men of
“reputation”
• Wanted a president
to lead executive
branch
• No Bill of Rights

Antifederalists
argued
• States should have
power
• Wanted legislative
branch to be
strongest branch of
government
• Feared a strong
president in office
• A Bill of Rights
would protect the
rights of Americans
An Unfair Advantage?


The Federalists publish
their essays in New
York newspapers and
pamphlets in 17871789
Newspapers support
the Federalist side and
publish more Federalist
writings than AntiFederalist writings!
The Federalists Papers


John Jay, Alexander Hamilton and James
Madison wrote the Federalist Papers to get
support for the Constitution. Papers
addressed issues such as representation,
rights of individuals and majority rule.
The Anti-Federalists respond in the
“Objections to the Constitution of
Government formed by the Convention”,
which argued the fear of a strong executive
branch and the absence of a Bill of Rights.
Does the national government have too much
power?
Anti-Federalists
Federalists
• The supremacy clause
means that all the
national government’s
laws are superior to
laws made by the
states
• It will only be a matter
of time until the state
governments are
destroyed
• The Constitution
provides protections
for the state
governments by
specifically reserving
certain powers for the
states
• This will prevent the
states from being
destroyed by the
national government
Does the national government have too much
power?
Anti-Federalists
Federalists
• The necessary and
proper clause is too
general
• It gives too much
power to the national
government
• It is dangerous not to
list all the powers of
government in order to
put clear limits on
them
• The necessary and
proper clause and
general welfare
clause are needed if
the national
government is to do
the things it is
responsible for doing
Does the national government have too much
power?
Anti-Federalists
•
•
The Constitution gives too much
power to the executive branch of
government
It will soon become a monarchy
Federalists
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A strong executive branch is
necessary
It is needed if the national
government is to fulfill its
responsibilities
Congress and the U.S. Supreme
Court have checks on the use of
power by the Executive branch
The executive branch cannot
become a monarchy
The power of the national
government are separated and
balanced among the three
branches
No one branch can dominate the
others
This system makes it impossible
for any person or group to take
complete control of government
Does the Constitution provide for republican
government?
Anti-Federalists
•
•
•
•
•
•
Throughout history, the only
places where republican
governments worked had been in
small communities
There, the people had similar
wealth and the same values
People who are not too rich or too
poor are more likely to have civic
virtue
Such people are more likely to
agree on what is best for the
common good
The new nation would be too large
and diverse
The people will not be able to
agree on their common welfare
Federalists
•
•
•
•
•
•
History has proven that selfish
groups destroyed all the small
republics of the past
The civic virtue of the citizens
was not enough to keep people
from seeking their own interests
People did not work for the
common good
A large republic where power is
divided between the national and
state governments is a better
solution
It is also better to organize
government based on checks
and balances
Under such a government, it will
be more difficult for special
interests to work against the
common good
Does the Constitution provide for republican
government?
Anti-Federalists
• Free government requires
the active participation of
the people
• The national government
will be located far from
where most people live
• People will be unable to
participate in government
• As a result, the only way
government will be able to
rule will be with military
force
• The result will be tyranny
Federalists
• The national government
cannot become a tyranny
• The limits placed on
government by the system
of separation of powers
and checks and balances
will prevent it
• Government will be so
good at protecting the
rights of the people that it
will soon gain their loyalty
and support
Is a Bill of Rights needed for the Constitution?
Anti-Federalists
•
•
•
•
•
•
The Constitution does not include
a bill of rights
A bill of rights is necessary to
protect people against the power
of the national government
There is no mention of freedom of
religion, speech, press, or
assembly
Since these freedoms are not in
the Constitution, government is
free to violate them
Americans recently fought a war to
secure their fundamental rights
They do not want a constitution
that places those rights in
jeopardy
Federalists
•
•
•
•
•
•
A bill of rights is not needed
The Constitution is the ultimate
protection for people’s rights and
the people are the ultimate
sovereigns
The Constitution does not give
government the power to deprive
people of their rights
It gives government only limited
power to do certain things
A bill of rights will give the
impression that the people can
expect protection only for the
rights that are actually listed
The Constitution protects a
number of rights by requiring
writs of habeas corpus, and
prohibiting ex post facto laws
and bills of attainder
Issue
Anti-Federalists Fear Federalists Response
The
The biggest threat to The largest threats to the people
Biggest
the people is the
is having a small government in
threat
tyranny of the
which those in the minority
to
government. If a
will never have power. If there
The
government is too
is a large government the
people
big, it will have
diverse populations will ensure
too much power,
that a small group of people, a
and consolidate,
dangerous minority with
eventually leading
radical ideas does not gain
to the government
power.
being ruled by a
powerful elite
Issue
Protection
of
Individual
Rights
Anti-Federalists Fear
Federalists Response
The rights guaranteed to The checks and balances are
the people should be
enough to keep the
included in the
government from taking
Constitution or else
the rights of the people
they are not
away.
guaranteed
Issue
Representation
Anti-Federalists Fear
Federalists
Response
The government should The federal
be run by
government
representatives that are
should be run by
very similar to those
well educated
who they are
and experienced
representing. This new
men, the elite.
government will
These are the
encourage only the
men that are best
well educated elite to
educated and will
be representatives who
be able to make
are using this as an
the best
opportunity to gain
decisions.
power
Issue
Anti-Federalists Fear
Federalists Response
People will
A free government
The central government
not hold
requires the active
created cannot take
government
support of the
the rights of the
accountable
people. The new
people because of the
government would be
many checks and
so large that people
balances in the
would not be involved
Constitution
in government,
leading eventually to
the government
taking too much
power.
Anti-Federalists Fear
Federalists Response
Issue
Power given to The limits of the
The checks and balances
the federal
power given to the
in the Constitution
government
federal government
will be effective in
are not clear and
restraining the power
will result in the
of the federal
president becoming
government. The
a monarch. More
president does not
limits should be
have the power to
made through a
make laws, so he/she
cannot become a
Bill of Rights.
monarch
Why did the Federalists agree to add a
bill of rights to the Constitution?
• A compromise was reached on the
issue of a bill of rights
– The Federalists made this
compromise to get enough support for
the Constitution so that it would be
ratified
– They agreed that when the first
Congress was held, it would draft a
bill of rights
• The argument to add a bill of rights
was a victory for the AntiFederalists
– It was an important addition to the
Constitution and has been of great
importance in the protection of the
basic rights of the American People
Quote #1:
• “All communities divide themselves
into the few and the many. The first
are the rich and well born; the other,
the mass of people…. The people are
turbulent and changing; they seldom
judge or determine right. Give
therefore the first class a
….permanent share in the
government….they therefore will
ever maintain good government.”
• Who said it? _______________________
Quote #1
• Who said it?
•FEDERALISTS
Quote #2:
• “It must be by this time evident to all
men…that (the Articles of Confederation) is
a system so radically vicious and unsound
as to admit….an entire change.”
• Who said it? _______________________
Quote #2
• Who said it?
•FEDERALISTS
Quote #3:
• “Our country is too large to have
all affairs directed by a single
government.”
• Who said it? _______________________
Quote #3
• Who said it?
•ANTI-FEDERALISTS
Quote #3:
• “The small landowners are the most
precious part of the state.”
• Who said it? _______________________
Quote #3
• Who said it?
•ANTI-FEDERALISTS
Quote #4:
• “I consider the foundation of the Constitution as
laid on this ground – that all powers not delegate
(given) to the United States by the Constitution,
nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to
the states, or to the people….”
• Who said it? _______________________
Quote # 4
• Who said it?
•ANTI-FEDERALIST
Quote #5:
• “The powers contained in the
constitution….ought to be construed
liberally in advancement of the public
good.”
• Who said it? _______________________
Quote # 5
• Who said it?
•FEDERALISTS
Quote #6:
• “I am not among those who fear the people.
They, not the rich, are our dependence for
continued freedom.”
• Who said it? _______________________
Quote #6
• Who said it?
•ANTI-FEDERALISTS
Quote #7:
• "I had rather be a free citizen of the small
republic of Massachusetts, than an
oppressed subject of the great American
empire."
• Who said it? _______________________
Quote #7
• Who said it?
•ANTI-FEDERALISTS
Quote #8:
• "I had rather be a free citizen of the small
republic of Massachusetts, than an
oppressed subject of the great American
empire."
• Who said it? _______________________
Quote #8:
• “Among the numerous advantages promised by a
well-constructed Union, none deserves to be more
accurately developed than its tendency to break
and control the violence of faction.”
• Who said it? _______________________
Quote #9
• Who said it?
•FEDERALISTS
Quote #10:
• “An elective [monarchy] was not the government
we fought for; but one in which the powers of
government should be so divided and balanced
among the several bodies of magistracy as that
no one could transcend their legal limits without
being effectually checked and restrained by the
others.”
• Who said it? _______________________
Quote # 10
• Who said it?
•FEDERALISTS
Quote #11:
• “When the government fears the people,
there is liberty. When the people fear the
government, there is tyranny.
• Who said it? _______________________
Quote #11
• Who said it?
•ANTI-FEDERALISTS
Quote #12:
• “… the power vested in congress of sending
troops for suppressing insurrections will
always enable them to stifle the first
struggles of freedom."
• Who said it? _______________________
Quote #12
• Who said it?
•ANTI-FEDERALISTS
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