People and Ideas on the Move,
2000 B.C.-250 B.C.
Chapter 3 Section 1
Chapter 3: Section 1 Vocabulary
• Indo-Europeans: People who migrated from southern Russia
to India, Europe and Southwest Asia, around 1500 BC
• Steppes: Dry grass-covered plains
• Migration: To move from one place to another
• Hittites: Indo-Europeans who settled in Anatolia around 2000
• Anatolia: Southwestern Asian peninsula (Turkey) aka, Asia
• Aryans: Indo-Europeans who migrated to Indian subcontinent
• Vedas: Four sacred writings by the Aryans
• Brahmin: Priest in Aryan society
• Caste: Aryan social class system; ridged, (Priests, warriors,
peasants/traders and non-Aryan workers)
• Mahabharata: Indian epic poem, reflecting the struggles of
the Aryan migration south to India
Indo-Europeans Migrate
• Indo-Europeans:
Nomadic people from
the “Steppes” or dry
grass lands that stretch
north of the Caucus Mts.
• Herders: Sheep, Cattle,
• Indo-Europeans
Language: Basis of other
Major Languages (PG 61)
• Unexplained
• Indo-Europeans
migrated between
1700-1200 B.C.
Caucasus Mts.
The Hittite Empire
• 200 B.C. Hittites controlled the
land called Anatolia
• 450 year rule
• Anatolia is “Turkey” surrounded
by the Black Sea and the
Mediterranean Sea
• Geography: high, rocky plateau,
rich in timber and agriculture.
Mts full of natural minerals
• Controlled Mesopotamia
• Cultural Diffusion:
• Hittites adopted the
Babylonian Language for
• Borrowed ideas about
literature, arts, politics,
• Chariots and Iron
• Superior Chariot Technology
• Iron Weapons. Iron stronger
than Bronze
• Decline of Hittite Empire
• 1190 B.C. due to tribes from
the North and South
Aryans Migrate to Indus River Valley
Aryans Transform India
• Aryans: Homeland
between the Caspian
and Aral Seas
• Map: Next Slide
• Migrated to the Indus
River Valley
• Almost no
archaeological Record
• Vedas: 4 Collections
of prayers, Magical
Spells, Instructions for
performing Rituals
• Rig Veda (MVP)
contains 1,028 hymns
to Aryan Gods
• Vedas past on by story
Asia: Caspian and Aral Seas
A Caste System Develops
• Aryan Nobles called
Native Indians “Dasas” or
• Differences between
Aryans and Indians
Aryans were…
Lighter skin
Spoke a different
– No Writing System
– Counted wealth in cows
– “Dasas” lived in
protected by walls
• The Aryan Caste System Pg
– Brahmins (Mouth): Priests
– Kshatriyas (Arms): Rulers
and Warriors
– Vaishyas (Legs): Peasants
and traders)
– Shudras (Feet): Laborers
– “Untouchables: Butchers,
gravediggers, garbage
collectors “Physical Labor”
• Hundreds of subdivisions
Caste System
Aryan Kingdom Arise
• Moved deeper into
India: Ganges and
Yamuna River Valleys
• Kingdom of Magadha
• Unified (took over) all
of India
• Mahabharata: Reflects
the struggles that took
place in India as the
Aryans moved south
• Cultural Diffusions:
– Krishna: Semi-divine
hero of the
Mahabharata is
described as being
dark faced. (Dasa
Main Idea Questions: Separate Piece
of Paper
• What were some of the technological
achievements of the Hittites?
• What were some of the borrowings of
• Where did the Aryan come from when
they arrived in India?
Hinduism and Buddhism Develop
Chapter Vocabulary
• Reincarnation: (rebirth) an individual soul or spirit is born again and
again until “Moksha” is met
• Karma: good or bad deeds that follow from one reincarnation to
another. Influences certain things in life (what caste one is born into,
ones state of health, wealth, or poverty, etc.)
• Jainism: Founded by Mahavira. Believes that everything in the
universe has a soul and therefore nothing should be harmed
• Siddhartha Gautama: Founder of Buddhism (The Buddha)
• Enlightenment: In Buddhism, a state of perfect wisdom in which one
understands basic truths about the universe
• Nirvana: In Buddhism, the release from pain and suffering achieved
after enlightenment
Hinduism Evolves Over Centuries
• Collection of Religious beliefs
• Cannot be traced back to a “single” founder with a
single set of ideas
• Upanishads: Books that show Hindu teachings
– Moksha: A state of perfect understanding of all things
– Atman: the individual soul of living being
– Brahman: the World soul that unites all “Atmans”
• When a person reaches
“Moksha” a person is
released from life in this
world. (multiple
lifetimes to happen)
• Reincarnation
• Karma effects what
caste you are born into
Hinduism Changes and
Hinduism and Society
• Hinduism: 3 Main Gods
– Brahma:
The Creator
– Vishnu: The Protector
– Shiva: The Destroyer
• Hindus are free to choose
the deity they worship or
none at all
 Karma and Reincarnation
strengthened “Caste
 Bad Deeds: “Born as a
women, or untouchable”
 Caste determines what a
person can or cannot eat
New Religions Arise in India
• Founded by Mahavira: 599
B.C.- 527 B.C.
• “Everything in the Universe
has a soul and so should not
be harmed.”
• Wears masks over face to
no breath in insects
• Jobs that will not harm
anyone: merchants/traders
• Siddhartha Gautama
• Prophecy: A Great man
– Stay home: World Ruler
– Leave Home: Spiritual Ruler
• Age 29 left the palace 4 times
Old man
Sick man
Dead man
Religious Man (At Peace)
• After “Trip” outside the city Siddhartha G.
decided to spend his life looking for a
religious/spiritual meaning to life (Only refuge
from suffering!!)
• Wandered 6 years Seeking Enlightenment
• Ate only 6 grains of rice a day
• Meditated 49 days under a fig tree
– Eventually achieved Enlightenment: Discovered the
cause of suffering in the world
Buddhism: Origins and Beliefs
“The First Sermon”
The Four Noble Truths
First Noble Truth
Life is filled with suffering and sorrow
Second Noble Truth
The cause of all suffering is peoples selfish
desire for the temporary pleasures of this world
Third Noble Truth
The way to end all suffering is to end all desires
Fourth Noble Truth
The way to overcome such desires and attain
enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold Path,
which is called the “Middle Way” between
desires and self-denial
Buddhism: Origins and Beliefs
• Eightfold Path: A guided
for ones behavior
• Those seeking
enlightenment, you must
master one step at a
• By following the Eightfold
Path anyone can reach:
• Nirvana: The release from
selfishness and pain
Buddhism: Origins and Beliefs
• Belief in Reincarnation
• The Cycle of the World: The World is created and
destroyed Multiple Times.
• Rejected the many gods of Hinduism
• Rejected the Caste System
• Goals For Hinduism/Buddhism: “Moksha” and
• Achieve a PERFECT state of understanding and a
break from the chain of reincarnations
Religious Community
Buddhism and Society
• Religious followers of
Buddhism are called the
• Three Jewels of Buddhism
• Rejected Caste: Many
followers were lower class
• Monks/Nuns: Life of
poverty, nonviolent, never
• Missionaries: Depend on
the kindness of people to
– Buddha
– Dharma
– Sangha
Buddhism in India
• Missionaries spread along
trade routes
– Sri Lanka
– China
• Never took a strong
foothold in India where it
was born!!!
• Buddhist make pilgrimages
to India
Trade and the Spread of
Sri Lanka
Island of Sumatra (Island in
• China
• Korea
• Japan
Hinduism and Buddhism
Did you learn anything???
• What are the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism?
• How has Hinduism influence the social structure
in India?
• How did Buddhism Spread?
• How are the Vedas and the Upanishads similar?
Seafaring Traders
Chapter 3:3
Vocabulary Terms
1. Minoans: A seafaring and trading people that lived on
the island of Crete from about 2,000 to 1400 B.C.
2. Aegean Sea: The sea that separates modern day Turkey
and Greece
3. Knossos: Minoan capital City
4. King Minos: King of the the Minoans, city of Knossos
(Crete) Owned a Minotaur.
5. Phoenicians: A seafaring people of Southwest Asia, who
around 1100 B.C. began to trade and established
colonies throughout the Mediterranean region
Mr. Erickson or a Minotaur
Minoans Trade in the
• Minoans lived in the eastern portion of the
Mediterranean from about 2,000-1400 B.C.
• Cultural Diffusion: Traded pottery, swords,
precious metals, Architecture, burial customs
and religious customs
• Major influence on Greece
• Island of Crete was a “stepping stone”
Unearthing a Brilliant Civilization
• Knossos: Minoan
Capital City on the
Island of Crete
• Peaceful because it
had no fortifications
• King Minos: Pet
Minotaur: Labyrinth
• Wall Paintings, pottery, etc.
show that the Minoans were a
graceful, athletic people who
loved nature and beautiful
• Sports: Boxing, Wrestling, and
Bull Jumping
Minoan Civilization
• Women had role in
• Women had a
“Higher Rank” that
in other societies
• Sacrificed bulls,
animals and
humans to please
the gods.
• Mysterious
End: Ended in
1200 B.C.
• No idea
• Natural
Disaster or
Minoan Decline
Possible Causes
Natural Disaster
•Possible Earthquake 1700
•Earthquake 1470 BC
•Volcanic Eruption on
neighboring island 1470BC
•Tidal wave 1470 BC
Non given
Overrun by invaders
From Greece, about 1200 BC
Phoenicians: Spread Ideas
Phoenicians Spread Trade and Civilization
• Mediterranean Traders
located on the Far Eastern
end of the Sea (Lebanon)
• Never a Country: City
• 3 Major Cities: Byblos,
Tyre, Sidon
• Excellent Ship Builders
and Seafarers
• Possible sailed to Britain
2,000 yrs before everyone
• Traded: Wine, weapons,
precious metals, ivory
• Phoenicians were: great
superb craftsman
“Wood, metal glass and
• 60,000 Snails needed for
a pound of Dye
Murex Dye
Phoenician’s Greatest Gift: The Alphabet
• Greatest Legacy: The
• Needed a way to
“quickly” record
• Used symbols to
represent sounds
• One sign was used for
one sound
• Cultural Diffusion:
Writings spread all
throughout their
trading routes
• Greeks adopted the
Phoenician alphabet
and changed the from
of some of the letters
Main Idea Questions: PG 76
1.What did the excavations at Knossos reveal about
Minoan culture?
2.Where did the Phoenicians settle and trade?
3.Why did the Phoenicians develop a writing system?
The Origins of Judaism
Chapter 3:4
Chapter Vocabulary: 3:4
Palestine: Eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea
Canaan: Ancient homeland of the Hebrews (Jews)
Torah: The First Five books of the Hebrew Bible which states Hebrew Traditions and stories.
Christians consider this the “Old Testament”
Abraham: “Father of the Jews”
Monotheism: A belief in a single god
Covenant: The promise between God and the founder of the Hebrew People. (Promise)
Moses: The man who lead the Hebrews out of slavery from Egypt
Israel: The new name of the Kingdom of the Jews after Saul, David and Solomon united the
Judah: Name of the “Southern” portion of the Jewish Kingdom
Tribute: Peace money paid by a weaker power to a stronger power
Search for a Promised Land
• Palestine and Canaan
• Hebrews settled in
• Located at a Crossroads
• Egypt to the West
• Assyria and Babylonia
to the East
Birth of Judaism
• Torah: First five books
of the Hebrew Bible
(Old Testament)
• Abraham: Lived in Ur
– God chose Abraham to
be the “Father of the
– Covenant: Promise
and God
• Monotheistic: Believe in
One Ultimate God
• God = Yahweh
• “God watches over the
Jews bc. of Abrahams
Moses and the Exodus
• Jews migrated to Egypt
to escape a drought
• 1st Egyptians were nice
• Later Egyptians felt
threatened and
“enslaved them”
• Moses lead the Jews
out of Egypt
• New Covenant
•God spoke to Moses
in Sinai Desert
•Rules for new society
of Jews
• The Ten
Moses Wonders the
• Moses and the
Hebrews/Jews wonder
for 40 years
• Returned to “Canaan”
• Shifted from Nomads to
City Dwellers
• 12 Tribes of Jews
– United for battle
– Different rulers “Judges”
The Kingdom of Israel
• Saul, David, Solomon
Establish a Kingdom
• Israel: Named after one
of the 12 tribes
• 100 years of Great
• 200 years total
• Traders: Located close
to the Med. Sea
• Solomon's Temple
– Bronze Pillars
– Stone walls (outside)
– Gold walls (Inside)
• Held the Ark of the
• High Taxes to pay for build
• Caused divide in Northern
– Tribe of Judah Broke off
– Where is the Ark
Video: Jerusalem
The Babylonian Captivity
Tributes: Paid to Assyria (Both Judah and Israel)
Diaspora of Jews
Assyrians eventually took over Israel
Judah taken over by Babylonians 150 later
Persian King Cyrus conquered Babylonians and
allowed Jews to return to Jerusalem
• Taken over by: Persians, Greeks, Romans etc.
Diaspora of Jews
Discussion Questions
• Where did Abraham and his Family originally
come from?
• What were some of the achievements of
• What was the Babylonian Captivity?
Three Major Religions
Buddhism Judaism
Number of
Many Gods; Brahma,
Vishnu, Shiva
Originally, no Gods
One God: Yahweh
Holy Books
Vedas: Upanishads,
Mahabharata, others
Books based on the
teachings of Buddha
The Torah and other
books of the Hebrew
Moral Law
Eightfold Path/Karma
Ten Commandments
Priests, Judges, Kings
and Prophets
Final Goal
A moral life through
obedience to God’s

People and Ideas on the Move, 2000 B.C.-250 B.C.