Chapter 3 Section 1 The Indo-Europeans

advertisement
Chapter 3 Section 1
The Indo-Europeans
Indo-Europeans, Steppes, Migration,
Hittites, Anatolia, Aryans, Vedas, Brahmin,
Caste, Mahabharata
Setting the Stage
 We just learned about the first civilization that arose
along river valleys
 As these large cities began to decline people began to
leave
 Warfare and changes to environment called for the
migration to a new land
Indo-Europeans Migrate
 The Indo-Europeans were
a group of nomadic
peoples who came from
the steppes
 Steppes: dry grasslands
north of the Caucasus
 Primarily pastoral people
who herded cattle, sheep,
and goats
The Indo-European Language
Family
 Language of Indo-Europeans
similar to modern languages of
Europe & parts of Asia
 English, Spanish, Persian, and
Hindi all have roots to their
language
 Slavic speakers went north
 Celtic, Germanic, & Italic
speakers moved west
 Greek & Persian went south
An Unexplained Migration
 There is no reason for the
nomadic people to leave their
homeland
 Between 1700 and 1200 B.C.
they began to move outward
 Migration: movements of a
people from one region to
another
The Hittite Empire
 2000 B.C. the Hittites began to
occupy Anatolia
 Anatolia is located in modern-day
Turkey
 City-States came together in 1650 B.C.
to form an empire
 Hattusas became the capital
 Dominated southwest Asia for 450
years
 Had issues with both Mesopotamia &
Egypt
Hittites Adopt and Adapt
 Adopted an international language
“Akkadian”
 Borrowed ideas about literature, art,
politics, & law from Mesopotamia
 Blended their own traditions with
those of more advanced people
 What is this called?
Chariots & Iron Technology
 Excelled at war
 Had war chariots
 1500 B.C. Hittites were able to
work with iron and integrate it
into their weapons of war
 However their empire fell around
1190 B.C.
- Multiple invasions
- Tribes attacked and burned the
capital city
Aryans Transform India
 2000 B.C. Aryans crossed over into
the Indus Valley of India
 No archaeological record but the
Vedas
 Vedas: picture of Aryan life, four
collections of prayers, magical spells,
instructions for rituals
 Rig Veda contains 1028 hymns to
Aryan gods
 Elder orally passed down the
information until it was written down
 How accurate can oral stories be?
A Caste System Develops
 Aryans vs. Dasas
 Aryans were taller, lighter in
skin color, and spoke a
different language
 Aryans were pastoral
people while the Dasas
lived in communities
protected by walls
A Caste System Develops
Continued
 Four groups arranged based on
occupation
- Brahmins ((priests)
- Warriors
- Traders & landowners
- Peasants
Arranged social classes
Shudras were laborers who did work
Aryans would not do
Varna “skin color” set social class
A Caste System Develops
Continued
 Castes: system of social
classes
 Could be born into your social
class or move into that class
 Determined the work you did, who
you could marry, and who you
could eat with
 Obsessed with cleanliness
considered those impure
“untouchables”
Aryan Kingdoms Arise
 Aryans began to expanded their
settlements
 1000 B.C. one major kingdom
arose called “Magadha”
 Mahabharata: great epic of India and
struggle for power
 Discusses how a young warrior
should properly live, fight, and die
Chapter 3 Section 2
Hinduism & Buddhism
Develop
Reincarnation, Karma, Jainism, Siddhartha
Gautama, Enlightenment, & Nirvana
Setting the Stage
 Aryans & Non-Aryans followed their own religions
 As the two intermingled so did their belief system
 What is this called again?
 Complexity of their religions, made people questions
the world & their place in it
 Also began to question the power of the priests
Hinduism Evolves Over
Centuries
 Hinduism is a religious belief that
developed slowly over a long period
of time
 Some aspects that people practice
today are traced back to ancient times
(Example: weddings)
 Recite daily verses from the Vedas
 What is the Vedas again?
 Hinduism can’t be traced to one
founder
Origins
 Between 750 & 550 B.C. Hindu teachers
tried to interpret the Vedic hymns
 Wrote down their interpretations in the
Upanishads; include dialogues &
discussions
 Moksha: state of perfect understanding of
all things
 Atman: individual soul of a living being
 Brahman: world soul that unties all Atman
Beliefs
 See religion as a way of liberating
the soul from illusions,
disappointments, & mistakes
 Reincarnation (rebirth): an
individuals soul is reborn until
moksha is achieved
 Soul’s karma follows into
reincarnation
 Karma influences your life
circumstances
Path to Moksha
 3 paths to moksha:
- path of right thinking
- path of right action
- path of religious
devotion
Hinduism Changes &
Develops
 Hinduism has been through many
changes over the past 2500 years
 Example: Brahman was seen as
having the personality of three gods,
these gods lost their importance
 Devi “great mother goddess” grew in
importance
 Hindus choose the deity they want
to worship
Hinduism & Society
 Ideas about karma & reincarnation
strengthened the caste system
 Good Karma brought good fortune while
bad karma brought bad fortune
 Beliefs influenced every aspect of their
life
- What you could eat
- Personal cleanliness
- How you could dress
Hindus still turn to their religion for
guidance
New Religions Arise
 As the Upanishads was created
two other religions were created
(Jainism & Buddhism)
 Jainism
- Founder: Mahavira born 599
B.C. 527 B.C.
- Believed everything in the
universe had a soul
- Nonviolence
- 5 Millions follower live in India
Chapter 3 Section 2
Continued
The Buddha Seeks
Enlightenment
 Developed out the same religious
questioning in Hinduism
 Founder: Siddhartha Gautama
 Born into a noble family in Nepal
 His prophecy: if stayed at home he
would be a world leader but if he left
the house he would become a
universal spirit
 Family separated him from the world
Siddhartha’s Quest
 At 29 years old, he left the palace four
times
- 1st time he saw an old man
- 2nd time he saw a sick man
- 3rd time he saw a corpse
- 4th time he saw a holy man who
seemed at peace with himself
(Decided to spend his life searching for
religious truth & an end to life
suffering)
Siddhartha’s Quest Continued
 Spent 6 years seeking enlightenment
 Tried many things to reach an
enlightened state
 For 49 days he meditated under a
large fig tree, and finally understood
the cause of suffering in the world
 Buddha “the enlightened one”
Origins
 Preached his first sermon to people who had
accompanied him on the wanderings
 Four Noble Truths
- 1st: Life is filled with suffering & sorrow
- 2nd: The cause of all suffering is people’s selfish desire
for the temporary pleasures of this world
- 3rd: The way to end all suffering is to end all desires
- 4th: The way to overcome such desires and attain
enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold path, which is
called the middle way between desires and self-denial
Beliefs
 Eightfold path: “guide to behavior”
[Like a staircase; have to master one stair at
a time]
 Nirvana: release from selfishness & pain
 Believed in reincarnation but rejected
the caste system
 They do not believe in many gods
 Want to reach a state of perfect
understanding, like in Hinduism
The Religious Community
 5 disciples were admitted to the
Sangha “religious community”
 Originally for monks & nuns, now is for
the entire religious community
 “3 Jewels” of Buddhism
- Sangha
- Buddha
- Dharma “teachings or doctrine”
Buddhism & Society
 Admitted women into the
religious order
 Promise to live a life of
poverty, to be nonviolent, and
to not marry
 Spread Buddha’s teachings
 Monastery’s created
(Nalanda became a university)
Teachings/Books
 Teachings written down after
Buddha’s death
 Sacred literature
- Commentaries
- Rules about monastic life
- Manuals on how to mediate
- Legends about the Buddha’s
previous reincarnations
Buddhism in India
 Spread throughout Asia
 Unable to gain significant
support in India
 Believe that Hinduism
adapted some of the ideas of
Buddhism
(Felt no need to convert to
Buddhism)
Buddhism in India
Continued
 India is still an importance place
for Buddhists
 Visits places associated with
Buddha’s life
- Kapilavastu “birthplace”
- Gaya “fig tree he meditated under”
- Varanasi “first sermon”
Trade & the Spread of
Buddhism
 Trade played an important
role in the spread of
Buddhism
 As products spread and
people migrated to new
areas, the ideas of
Buddhism went with it
 Cultural Diffusion!
Chapter 3 Section 3
Seafaring Traders
Minoan, Aegean Sea, Knossos, King Minos,
Phoenicians
Setting the Stage
 Buddhism spread to Southeast Asia & East Asia
through Buddhist traders
 What was this process called?
 In the Mediterranean the same process will take but
with ideas and products
 New ideas of writing, governing, and worshiping their
gods.
Minoans Trade in the
Mediterranean
 Minoans: powerful seafaring people
who dominated trade in eastern
Mediterranean from 2000 to 1400 B.C.
 Crete, a large island in the Aegean
Sea
 Traded pottery, swords, & figurines
 Also shared their unique architecture,
burial customs, & religious rituals (huge
influence on Greece)
Map of Mediterranean
Unearthing a Brilliant
Civilization
 Knossos: Minoan capital city
 Archaeologist found remains of an
advanced/thriving city
 Named civilization Minoa after
King Minos
 Myth of the Minotaur & Labyrinth
Unearthing a Brilliant
Civilization Cont.
 Wall paintings showed their love
of nature & beautiful things
 Enjoyed sports (boxing, wrestling, &
bull leaping)
 Women played a role in religious
ceremonies & were equal
 Mother Earth Goddess ruled over
the other gods
 Sacrificed bulls & other animals
(evidence of one human sacrifice)
Minoan Culture’s Mysterious
End
 Civilization ended around 1200
B.C. (unclear why it ended)
 1700 B.C. a great disaster destroyed
Minoan towns & cities but they rebuilt
the city
 1450 B.C. series of earthquakes
followed by a volcanic eruption and a
Tsunami, still went on to thrive for 300
years
 Why do you think the Minoans didn’t
survive?
Phoenicians Spread Trade &
Civilization
 Phoenicians: seafaring people
of Southwest Asia, 1100 B.C.
established colonies in the
Mediterranean
 City States included Byblos,
Tyre, & Sidon
 Remarkable shipbuilders &
seafarers
 Greek Historian Herodotus
Phoenician Ship
Commercial Outposts around
the Mediterranean
 Built colonies along the
shore of Africa, Sardinia, &
Spain (30 miles apart-length
that could be traveled in a
day)
 Carthage: greatest
Phoenician colony founded in
814 B.C.
 Traded goods they obtained
as well as their own goods
Phoenicia’s Great Legacy:
The Alphabet
 Phonetic system of writing: one sign
stands for one sound
 Word Alphabet comes from them
 Introduced their writing system to
others, Greeks adopted the
Phoenician alphabet
 Easier for people to learn to read &
write
 Assyrians & Persian Empire took
control of their civilization
Ancient Trade Routes
 Trade connected civilization
that were far apart
 Travel down Arabian Sea to
Persian Gulf or Red Sea
 Exchanged products,
information, goods,
religious beliefs, art, and
ways of living
 What is this called again?
Chapter 3 Section 4
The Origins of Judaism
Palestine, Canaan, Torah, Abraham,
Monotheism, Covenant, Moses, Israel, Judah,
Tribute
Setting the Stage
 Phoenicians lived in a region at the
eastern end of the Mediterranean
Sea that was eventually called
Palestine
 Canaan was the ancient home to
the Hebrews
 Their history, legends, and moral
laws were a major influence on
Western culture as well as
Christianity & Islam
The Search for a Promised
Land
 Palestine’s location made it a
cultural crossroads
(connected to Asia & Africa
as two huge Empires)
 Connected to Mediterranean &
Red Sea
 According to the Bible,
Canaan was land promised to
the Hebrews
From Ur to Egypt
 Torah: early history written in the
first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible
 Abraham chosen as the “father”
of the Hebrew people
 Lived in Ur in Mesopotamia around
1800 B.C. took his family/people
and moved to Canaan.
 Descendants eventually moved to
Egypt
The God of Abraham
 Hebrews were Monotheists
 Monotheism: belief in a single god
 “Yahweh” was their god, not a
physical being so no physical
images were made of him
 Covenant: promise from god to
protect the Hebrews for their
promise to obey
Moses and the Exodus
 Hebrews move to Egypt
due to drought and
famine
 Originally treated with
honor but eventually
forced into slavery for their
beliefs
“Let My People Go”
 Hebrews fled Egypt
between 1300 & 1200 B.C.
called it “the Exodus”
 Remember it during
Passover
 Moses led them out of
slavery
A New Covenant
 Traveling along the Sinai
Peninsula, Moses stop to pray
on top of the mountain to pray
 God gave Moses the Ten
Commandments
 Became the civil and
religious laws of Judaism
 Formed a new covenant
The Land and People of the
Bible
 Wandered for 40 years
before resettling in Canaan
 Organized into 12 tribes
 Judges would be chosen to
provide Judicial and Military
leadership during a crisis
Hebrew Law
 Women duty was to raise her
children and provide moral
leadership
 Rules that regulated social &
religious behaviors
 Code interpreted by prophets
 Duty to worship God and live
justly with one another
The Kingdom of Israel
 Canaan was a hard place to
live (arid desert, rocky
wilderness, grassy hills, dry,
hot, & had little water)
 Expanded north and south
Saul and David Establish a
Kingdom
 Interacted with Philistines
another group in the area that
threatened their position in the
land
 Judah was the only large tribe
left (term Judaism)
 1020 to 922 B.C. Hebrews
united under 3 kings: Saul,
David, & Solomon
 Kingdom called Israel
Saul and David Establish a
Kingdom Continued
 Saul first king chosen for driving
out the Philistines
Seen as a jealous man, portrayed
a “tragic man”
 Son-in-law; David took over
Very popular leader, establish
Jerusalem, & founded a
dynasty
Solomon Builds the Kingdom
 962 B.C. Solomon, David’s son,
took the thrown
 Powerful Hebrew king, built a
trade empire with the
Phoenicians
 Beautified Jerusalem, built a
great temple in honor of God
 Also built a royal palace
The Kingdom Divides
 Solomon’s building required high
taxes and strained the finances
 Forced labor caused discontent
 Northern Jews revolted & in 922
B.C. divided the kingdom in two
 Israel was in the north, Judah
was in the south
 Confusing relationship
The Babylonian Captivity
 738 B.C. both kingdoms
began paying tribute “peace
money” to Assyria
 725 B.C. Assyrians attacked
 722 B.C. conquered
kingdom of Israel
The Babylonian Captivity
Continued
 Judah held out but was eventually
conquered by Babylonians
 King Nebuchadnezzar attacked
and the Jerusalem fell in 586
B.C.
 Exile in Babylon, Ezekiel urged
them to keep their religion alive
 Persian King Cyrus the Great
allowed them to return in 539 B.C.
Download
Related flashcards

Languages of Iraq

31 cards

Assyrian people

21 cards

Iraqi cuisine

58 cards

Iraqi people

16 cards

Create Flashcards