The End Of Reconstruction

SS8H7 The student will evaluate key political,
social and economic changes that occurred in
Georgia between 1877 and 1918.
a. Evaluate the impact the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry
Grady, International Cotton Exposition, Tom Watson and
the Populists, Rebecca Latimer Felton, the 1906 Atlanta
Riot, the Leo Frank Case, and the county unit system had
on Georgia during this period.
EQ: What were the political, social and economic
changes that occurred between 1877 and 1918? How did
these events effect Georgia?
The End of Reconstruction
End of Republican Rule in Georgia
Rufus B. Bullock
 In 1868, the Republican party
gained control of Georgia.
Rufus Bullock was elected
He wanted equal rights for African
Most Democrats did not
A campaign began to remove
republicans from power.
During this time, the KKK
attacked many African
Americans in Georgia
As a part of the Radical Reconstruction, federal troops were
sent to Georgia to restore order. After they withdrew, in
1870, the Democrats regained control. The republican party
was referred to as the Party of Lincoln, and the southern
states associated it with anti-South policies.
Bourbon Triumvirate
Alfred Colquitt
John B. Gordon
Joseph Brown
 From 1872 to 1890, the Bourbon Democrats controlled
the Georgia Government
 Bourbon Democrats were Conservative Democrats
and led by the Bourbon Triumvirates
 Colquitt, Brown, Gordon
 Instrumental in keeping segregation alive
 They wanted Georgia’s economy to become more
industrialized, not based solely on agriculture.
 During their power, the cotton textile industry grew.
 Production of cottonseed, cattle feed, and fertilizer
 Atlanta became prosperous again.
Henry Grady
 Journalist for the Atlanta
 “Spokesman for the New South”
 Through speeches and writing,
he promoted industry and crop
diversification as a means to
help the economy in Georgia,
particularly Atlanta.
 Encouraged northern investors
to develop industries in Georgia
 Spoke about unity and trust
between the north and south
International Cotton Exposition
The International Cotton exposition was held in Atlanta, in
1881. It was a fair to bring money to Atlanta’s cotton
textile business.
 Displayed equipment
 Sugar, rice, and tobacco were
 Because of the exposition,
millions of dollars were invested
in Atlanta
 New jobs created
 Similar expositions were held
there in 1887 and 1895
 Atlanta became known as the
Thomas Watson and the Populists
Tom Watson State Historical
Marker Located at the
McDuffie County Courthouse
in Thomson, Ga.
 Small farmers in Georgia were upset because they were not
prospering during this time.
 Prices of farm products were dropping
 Farmers owed many loans and were charged a great deal of
money by railways to ship products.
 Farmers formed the Farmer’s Alliance to help one another.
This was called populism.
 These groups formed a political party called the People’s
Party also known as the Populist party.
 Thomas Watson was a leader and the party became
powerful in Georgia.
 Democrats were worried that they might take over and so to
keep control, the Democrats won the election by breaking
the law, or “stealing “ the election.
Farmers’ Alliance Propaganda
Rebecca Latimer Felton
 Writer, teacher, and reformer
 With husbands career, she
entered the public’s eye
 Supporter of women’s
suffrage, the right to vote
 Helped win women’s right to
 Pushed social reform at state
level to instate Prohibition
 End convict lease system, a
system of leasing convicts to
private businesses for cheap
 At the age of 87, became the
first woman to serve in the
U.S. Senate, in 1922.
 The governor appointed her
to the position in order to
temporary fill a vacated
 Lived until she was 94
The 1906 Atlanta Riot
Headlines in local newspapers, such as the one appearing in
the September 21, 1906, issue of the Atlanta Journal, provoked
white men to begin a riot in the city on September 22, 1906.
 Violent events by whites against
African Americans (race riot)
 Dozens of African Americans were
killed and many more wounded
 Began because of stories of
African American men attacking
white women
 Stories later proved to be untrue
 Tension started because of the
competition of jobs among whites
and blacks
 Whites were also worried that the
African American upper class was
becoming too powerful
 News of the riots circulated the country and focused
the eyes of the nation on the problems of Atlanta.
 Many African Americans began turning to aggressive
tactics in order to achieve equality and justice.
The Leo Frank Case
 Leo Frank was a Jewish man from
Georgia who was lynched, or hung,
by a mob because of anti-Semitism.
 Anti-Semitism- a belief system
against Jewish people.
 Frank was a factory manager who was accused of
murdering a young girl employee.
 The case went to trial and he was found guilty.
 However, much of the evidence against Frank was faulty
and suspicious.
 The governor of Georgia, John Slaton, reviewed Frank’s
case and eventually decided that Frank was innocent.
 Anti-Semites refused to accept his innocence.
 A group of citizens lynched Frank before he could enjoy
his freedom.
 In 1917, Georgia established the county unit system(a
way of giving votes in primary elections.
 Each county was given a certain number of votes,
called unit votes.
 Counties were divided into three categories- urban,
town, and rural.
 Candidates that received the most votes in a county
won all of the unit votes given to that county.
 Problem with the system was it didn’t always represent
what the population wanted.
 There were more rural counties than other counties,
but not as many people lived in those counties.
 As a result, the county unit system was eventually
 1. The term “populism” describes:
 A. Southern farmers working
 B. The belief in southern states that
African Americans deserved equal
 C. The idea that races could be kept
separate as long as there were equal
facilities for both.
 D. A movement of violence or
unfairness against Jewish people.
2. Henry Grady was known as the:
A. Leader of the Confederates.
B. Journalist from Georgia.
C. Great emancipator.
D. Spokesman of the New South.
 3. All of these were reasons for
Georgia farmers to join the Farmers’
Alliance EXCEPT:
 A. Dropping prices on farm
 B. Loan burden.
 C. Segregation of railway cars.
 D. Increased charges by railways to
ship their products.
4. Anti-Semitism is associated with:
A. Plessy v. Ferguson.
B. Leo Frank.
C. Rufus B. Bullock.
D. Rebecca Latimer Felton.
Jim Crow South
 SS8H7 The student will evaluate key political,
social and economic changes that occurred in
Georgia between 1877 and 1918.
 b. Analyze how rights were denied to African-Americans
through Jim Crow laws, Plessy v. Ferguson,
disenfranchisement, and racial violence.
 EQ: How were African Americans denied rights?
 The 13th, 14th, and 15th
Amendments increased the
rights for African Americans
after the Civil War.
 When formerly Confederate
states rejoined the Union,
they had to first agree to
honor the amendments.
 Most however, only followed
the 13th amendment.
 The southern states did not
honor the others because
they feared equal rights for
African Americans.
 Southern states regularly
denied rights to African
Jim Crow Laws
Jim Crow Laws mandated the segregation of African
Americans and whites. Signs were hung in public places
designating “Whites only” for some public places and
“Colored only” for others.
African Americans were commonly called “colored” at
that time.
Plessy v. Ferguson
 Plessy v. Ferguson , (1896), was a
landmark United States
Supreme Court decision in the
jurisprudence of the United
States, upholding the
constitutionality of racial
segregation even in public
accommodations (particularly
railroads), under the doctrine of
" separate but equal".
 "Separate but equal" remained
standard doctrine in U.S. law
until its final repudiation in the
later Supreme Court decision
Brown v. Board of
 The railroad tried to make Homer Plessy (African
American) move from a “Whites Only” passenger car.
 Plessy refused and was arrested.
 In 1896, the U.S. Supreme court ruled that segregation
was not against the Constitution.
 This is where “Separate but Equal” became known. It
was legal for states to keep the races separate as long as
there were equal facilities for both races.
 Most public facilities, however, such as hospitals and
schools, were not of the same quality for African
Americans as those for whites.
 For example, money that was set aside for African
American schools often went to white schools instead.
 Some African schools often did not have enough books
for all students.
 Some schools did not even have chalkboards.
 15th Amendment gave
formerly enslaved men the
right to vote.
 Many whites felt this right
was a threat to their way of
 Southern states made it
more difficult for African
Americans to vote.
 Disenfranchisement- the
act of denying a person
the right to vote.
 Furthermore, all women
were disenfranchised
because none of them
were allowed to vote.
 Disenfranchisement of African
Poll Tax
American men was accomplished
partly by poll taxes, property tests,
and literacy tests.
 A poll tax, which was adopted in
Georgia, was a fee that a voter had
to pay in order to vote.
 A voter also had to demonstrate
that he owned property.
 Poll taxes and property tests
prevented many poor people,
including African Americans, from
Literacy test From Georgia
 Voters were required to
pass a literacy test, which
determined whether or not
they could read or write.
 Most African Americans
could not pass this test
because under slavery, they
had not been able to learn
how to read and write.
 Laws also prevented poor,
uneducated whites from
 Southern lawmakers didn’t
want to lose white votes.
 They passed the
grandfather clause- if a
person had an ancestor to
vote before 1867, he was
permitted to vote.
 since 1867 was the first
year African Americans
could vote, the cause only
helped whites
 White Primaries also denied
African Americans the right to
 A primary is an initial election
in which voters of a political
party nominate candidates.
 In many states, the Democratic
party wouldn’t let African
Americans to be members.
 Only male white members of
the Democratic party were
allowed to participate in
Racial Violence
 Race riots and terrorist activities of the KKK increased
at this time.
 As African Americans gained more power, whites
reacted with fear and violence.
 Often, whites would attack African Americans in
groups, such as the race riots in Atlanta in 1906.
 Such violence continued for decades, with lynchings
becoming a increasingly common event throughout
the South.
 Not until the civil rights movement of the 1960’s would
violence against African Americans slow in the region.
1. The term “separate but equal”
A. The way that land was apportioned
among farmers in the South after the Civil
B. The belief in Southern states that
African Americans deserved equal rights.
C. The idea that races could be kept
separate as long as there were equal
facilities for them both.
D. A method of voting used in the South
during Reconstruction.
2. Who was Homer Plessy?
A. Governor of Georgia during
B. Inventor of the cotton gin
C. A lawmaker who helped to draft the
Fourteenth Amendment to the
D. An African American who refused to
move to a segregated railway car
 3. How did southern states limit the
rights of African Americans after the
end of Reconstruction?
A. Redrawing state boundaries
B. Passing Jim Crow laws
C. Educating illiterate whites
D. Hosting cotton expositions
4. All of these methods were used for
the disenfranchisement of African
American men
A. Amending the Constitution.
B. Property tests.
C. Literacy tests.
D. Poll taxes.
Civil Rights Advocates
 SS8H7 The student will evaluate key
political, social and economic changes that
occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918.
 c. Explain the roles of Booker T. Washington, W. E. B.
DuBois, John and Lugenia Burns Hope, and Alonzo
 EQ: Who were the people creating political, social, and
economic changes between 1877 and 1918? How did they
accomplish these changes? What were the changes?
Booker T. Washington
 Born into slavery
 Grew up during Reconstruction and
educated by a freedmen’s school.
 This motivated him to champion
education for other African Americans.
 Headed the Tuskegee Institute in 1881 in
Alabama (prepared African Americans
for agricultural and domestic work)
 Washington became a well-known
educator and thinker.
 His idea of accommodationism was
explained in a widely acclaimed speech
Washington gave
his speech to the
Exposition of
Many historians
believe the
speech is one of
the most
significant in
the United
States History.
 Poor social and economic
conditions of African
 Racial relations in the
economically unstable South
were another of his concerns.
 He encouraged African
Americans to embrace jobs in
agriculture, mechanics,
commerce, and domestic
speech focused on
what he called the
“Negro Problem”
He asked African Americans to “dignify and glorify
common labor”. This idea was greeted happily by
southern whites.
 Washington argued that,
for African Americans,
seeking social equality
was a mistake.
 He believed progress
would come gradually
and could not be forced.
 Washington stated that both whites and African
Americans could “be as separate as fingers, yet one as
the hand in all things essential to mutual progress.”
 This speech also called for whites to take the initiative
in improving social and economic relations between
 His ideas of shared responsibility and the importance
of education over equality came to be known as the
Atlanta Compromise.
 On September 18, 1895, African-American spokesman
and leader Booker T. Washington spoke before a
predominantly white audience at the Cotton States and
International Exposition in Atlanta. His “Atlanta
Compromise” address, as it came to be called, was one of
the most important and influential speeches in
American history. Although the organizers of the
exposition worried that “public sentiment was not
prepared for such an advanced step,” they decided that
inviting a black speaker would impress Northern visitors
with the evidence of racial progress in the South.
Washington soothed his listeners’ concerns about
“uppity” blacks by claiming that his race would content
itself with living “by the productions of our hands.”
W. E. B. Du Bois
 Du Bois was one of the
critics of Washington’s
 Prominent professor at
Atlanta University in
 He recognized
Washington’s speech as
being important but
disagreed with his ideas
 He viewed the
 After writing The Souls of
Black Folk, Du Bois founded
accommodationist approach
the Niagara movement.
as simply accepting the
racism of southern whites.
 Civil rights activists gathered
at Niagara Falls to assemble
 According to Du Bois, “Mr.
a list of demands, which
Washington represents in
included the end of
Negro thought the old
segregation and
attitude of adjustment and
 Eventually the activists
 He felt African Americans
involved formed the NAACP
should fight for total racial
(National Association for the
Advancement of Colored
 Du Bois took a leadership position in the organization
and was the editor of their publication, Crisis.
 After spending years with the NAACP, Du Bois went
back to Atlanta University to conduct more research.
John Hope
Lugenia Burns
 John Hope Burns became
 He supported public
the first African American
president of Morehouse
College in 1906.
 23 years later, the first black
president of Atlanta
 Under his leadership
Atlanta U. became the first
college in the nation to offer
graduate education for
African Americans
education, healthcare, job
opportunities, and
recreational facilities for
African Americans.
 Embraced the Niagara
 A part of the NAACP as well
as the southern-based
Commission on Interracial
 Lugenia Hope created the first woman-
run social welfare agency for African
Americans in Georgia.
 She was also a member of the NACW
(National Association of Colored
Women) created in 1896.
 She also championed universal suffrage.
Alonzo Herndon
 Died in 1927 as the wealthiest
African American in Atlanta
 He was involved in and
supported many local
institutions and charities
devoted to advancing African
American life in Atlanta.
Herndon’s home
 By 1904, Herndon’s
barbershops were known
as the best in America.
 His success allowed him to
by a failing mutual aid
 Established the Atlanta
Mutual Insurance
Association (AMIA)
 Grew in assets from $5,000
in 1905 to over $400,000 in
 Herndon was one of the founding members of the
National Negro Business League, which was started by
Booker T. Washington in Boston.
 In 1905, he was among the twenty-nine men who
founded W.E.B. Du Bois’s Niagara movement.
 1. The African American leader
 3. John Burns Hope was the first
who supported a gradual approach
to civil rights and racial equality
A. W.E.B. DuBois
B. Martin Luther King, Jr.
C. Alonzo Herndon
D. Booker T. Washington
2. W.E.B. DuBois established the
civil rights movement known as
A. Atlanta Compromise
B. Niagara movement
C. Equality Now movement
D. National Association for African
African American president of
Morehouse College and Atlanta
University, Atlanta University was the
A. University to allow African
Americans into the student body.
B. University to integrate classes.
C. To focus on the graduate education
of African Americans.
D. African American-led university to
receive funds from the government.
 4. Alonzo Herndon owed his
leadership role and involvement in
DuBois’s Niagara
movement primarily to his:
A. Business success
B. Charity involvement
C. Academic achievement
D. Accommodationist view
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