A Religious Awakening • Lasted half a century •Began in Kentucky, spread north and south •Americans wanted governors to support religion •African Americans join in the spirit Mormons form in New York in 1830 Unitarians- reflected growing Christian liberalism Joseph Smith formed Jesus Latter Day Saints Preachers were Protestant Mormons were persecuted Followed practices frowned upon by neighbors Men have more than one wife Held land as a group •Political power Mormons chased out of Ohio › Sought refuge in Illinois Joseph Smith runs for president › Murdered by Mormons Brigham Young › Led Mormons far east Great Salt Lake city Catholics and Jewish people face discrimination › 1800s Roman Catholic Church faced discrimination › Protestants viewed Catholicism as incompatible Choose loyalty to people rather than U.S Catholic poverty › Poor immigrants from Ireland Little money Work for low wages Irish immigrants grow too powerful Jewish people face discrimination › Public officials must be Christians › Jews barred from holding office › Jewish people • Rhode Island New York Pennsylvania 1840s great numbers to escape political unrest › Europe › Americans ostracized them Early 1800s, Americans wanted to improve life Formed settlements known as Utopian communities often failed within 2-6 years Utopias built to be ideal societies Well-known Utopia include: New harmony, Brook farm New harmony lasted 2 years Brook farm lasted 6 years United society believed in Christ’s second appearance Organized mid 1700s peaked around 1840s Found in New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, and Indiana Men and women did not marry Lived in separate houses Did not want to have children Economy flourished due to high quality price Believed they could go beyond senses to learn Ralph Waldo Emerson was the leading transcendentalists Most important follower was Henry David Wrote “Civil Disobedience” Later provided inspiration to civil rights Lapsansky-Werner, Emma J., Peter B. Levy, Randy Roberts, and Alan Taylor. United States History. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008. 266-272. Print.