St. Norbert School Session:-2023-24 Topic:- Bernoulli’s Theorem Submitted To:Ms.Sujata Godhke Submitted By:Anant Soni Class:-XI – ‘B’ Roll no:- ‘4’ CERTIFICATE This is to certify that ‘Anant Soni’ of class 11th ‘B’ has completed the project work in physics in the year 2023-2024 on “Bernoulli’s Theorem” under the guidance of ‘Ms. Sujata Godhke’ as prescribed by CBSE course. Internal Examiner Principal’s Signature School Stamp Acknowledgement I would like to express my special thanks for attitude to my subject teacher ‘Ms.Sujata Godhke Mam’ to give her guidance to me in the successful completion of this project. I also want to give special thanks to our principal ‘Rev.Sr.Gracy’ who gave his golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic ‘Bernoulli, s theorem’so that I will get to know about it information for the same. INDEX Pressure Bernoulli’s Equation Derivation of Bernoulli’s Equation Torricelli and his Orifice Derivation of Torricelli’s Equation Streamlines Applications Of Bernoulli’s Theorem 1. Venturi tube 2. Aerodynamic Lift 3. Bernoulli Theorem in Medical Field 4. Blown Roofs Conclusion Bibliography PRESSURE 1. Pressure is defined as force per unit area. 2. Standard unit is Pascal, which is N/m2 3. For liquid pressure, the medium is considered as a continuous distribution of matter. 4. For gas pressure, it is calculated as the average pressure of molecular collisions on the container. 5. Pressure acts perpendicular on the surface. 6. Pressure is a scalar quantity – pressure has no particular direction (i.e. acts in every direction). Bernoulli’s Equation Where p is the pressure, ρ is the density, v is the velocity, h is elevation, and g is gravitational acceleration. Derivation of Bernoulli’s Equation ● Restrictions Incompressible ● Non-viscous fluid (i.e. no friction) ● Following a streamline motion (no turbulence) ● Constant density *There exists an extended form of equation that takes friction and compressibility into account, but that is too complicated for our level of study. Etotal = 1/ 2m v 2 W = F/ A* A* d = Consider the change in total energy of the fluid as it moves from the inlet to the outlet. Δ Etotal = Wdone on fluid - Wdone by fluid Δ Etotal = (1/2mv22 + mgh1) – (1/2mv12 + mgh2) Wdone on fluid - Wdone by fluid = (1/2mv22 + mgh1) – (1/2mv12 + mgh2) P2V2 - P1V1 = (1/2mv22 + mgh1) – (1/2mv12 + mgh2) P2 – P1 = (1/2ρ v12 + ρ gh1) – (1/2ρ v12 + ρ gh1) Torricelli and his Orifice In 1843, Evangelista Torricelli proved that the flow of liquid through an opening is proportional to the square root of the height of the opening. Q = A*√(2g(h1-h2)) where Q is flowrate, A is area, h is height. Depending on the contour and shape of the opening, different discharge coefficients can be applied to the equation (of course we assume simpler situation here - Derivation of Torricelli’s Equation 1. We use the Bernoulli Equation: 2. In the original diagram A1 [top] is much larger than A2 [the opening]. Since A1V1 = A2V2 and A1 >> A2, V1 ≈ 0 3. Since both the top and the opening are open to atmospheric pressure, P1 = P2 = 0 (in gauge pressure). The equation simplifies down to: ρgh1 = 1/2 ρv22 + ρgh2 1 /2 ρv22 = pg(h1-h2) V22 = 2g(h1-h2) ∴ V2 = √(2g(h1-h2)) Q = Av2 = A √ (2g(h1-h2)) Streamlines 1. A streamline is a path traced out by a mass less particle as it moves withthe flow. 2. Velocity is zero at the surface. 3. As you move away from the surface, the velocity uniformly approaches the free stream value (fluid molecules nearby the surface are dragged due toviscosity). 4. The layer at which the velocity reaches the free stream value is called boundary layer. It does not necessarily match the shape of the object – boundary layer can be detached, creating turbulence (wing stall in aerodynamic terms). Applications Of Bernoulli ‘s Principle Venturi Tube Venturi metre is a device used to measure the flow speed of incompressible fluid it consist of a tube with a broad diameter and a small constriction at the middle as shown in figure above. 1. A2 < A1 ; V2 > V1 2. According to Bernoulli’s Law, pressure at A2 is lower. 3. . This is useful in controlling fluid velocity. P2 + 1/ 2ρ v1^2 = P1 + 1/ 2ρ v1^2 ; Δ P = ρ/ 2* ( v2^2 – v1^2) Aerodynamic Lift 1. Lift is a Fort that keeps an aircraft in the air. 2. In Bernoulli's view lift is produced by difference of pressure (faster velocity on top and slower velocity in the bottom of the wing) 3. In Newtonian view left to the reaction force that result from the downward deflection of the Air. 4. The fast flowing air decreases the surrounding air pressure. Because the air pressure is greater below the airfoil than above, a resulting lift force is created. Bernoulli’s in medical Field Bernoulli's principle helps in explaining blood flow in arteries. The artery may get constricted due to the accumulation of plaque on its inner walls. In order to drive the blood through this constriction, a greater demand is placed on the activity of the heart. Blown roofs during a storm You will notice how tinted roofs and roofs of huts get blown away during severe storms without causing significant damage to the rest of the property. The principle behind minimal damage to the property is an example of Bernoulli’s principle: The low pressure is created at the top of the house when the wind blows. The pressure created below the roof is greater than the pressure on top of the roof. Thus, the roof gets blown with the wind. Conclusion 1. Bernoulli's law states that if a non-viscous fluid is flowing along a pipe of varying cross section, then the pressure is lower at constrictions where the velocity is higher, and the pressure is higher where the pipe opens out and the fluid stagnate. 2. Many people find this situation paradoxical when they first encounter it (higher velocity, lower pressure). 3. Venturi-meter, Bernoulli’s principle is used in venturi-meter to find the rate offlow of a liquid. 4. It is used in a carburetor to mix air and petrol vapor in an internal combustion engine. 5. Wings of Aero plane Wings of an aero plane are made tapering. The upper surface is made convex and the lower surface is made concave. Due to this shape of the wing, the air currents at thetop have a large velocity than at the bottom. 6. Consequently the pressure above the surface of thewing is less as compared to the lower surface of thewing. This difference of pressure is helpful in giving a vertical lift to the plane. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Help from Internet www.sceincefare.com www.mycbsegide.com 2. Help from books Referenced from H.C. Verma Referenced from physics NCERT