Uploaded by Md.Touhidur Rahman

Principles of IFM

Fisheries & Management
Fisheries : Fisheries are concerned with fish or shellfish.
They mainly deal with catching, processing, and selling
fish. Fisheries are solely related to catching wild fish or
raising and harvesting fish through aquaculture or fish
Management: Management is the art of getting things
done through and with people in formally organized
Management is a multipurpose organ that manages
business and manages managers and manages workers
and work.
Management is the art of getting things done through
Fisheries Management
Fisheries management is the activity of protecting
fishery resources so sustainable exploitation is
possible, drawing on fisheries science, and including
the precautionary principle. Modern fisheries
management is often referred to as a governmental
system of appropriate management rules based on
defined objectives and a mix of management means
to implement the rules, which are put in place by a
system of monitoring control and surveillance. A
popular approach is the ecosystem approach to
fisheries management.
Fisheries Management
The working definition of Fisheries Management
used by the FAO and much cited elsewhere is:
The integrated process of information gathering,
analysis, planning, consultation, decision-making,
allocation of resources and formulation and
implementation, with enforcement as necessary,
of regulations or rules which govern fisheries
activities in order to ensure the continued
productivity of the resources and the
accomplishment of other fisheries objectives.
Objectives of Fisheries Management
According to the FAO, fisheries management
should be based on the following objectives:
Maximize sustainable biomass yield
Maximize sustainable economic yield
Secure and increase employment
Secure protein production and food supplies
Increase export income
Objectives of Fisheries Management
Fisheries objectives need to be expressed in
concrete management rules. In most
countries fisheries management rules
should be based on the internationally
agreed, though non-binding, Code of
Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, agreed at
a meeting of the U.N.'s Food and Agriculture
Organization session in 1995.
Principles of Fisheries Management
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) advises that
a set of working principles should be applied to
"highlight the underlying key issues" of fisheries
There are 8 principles that should be considered as a
whole in order to best manage a fishery.
Simplification can facilitate understanding important
principles and highlighting the broad areas which
need attention. A number of key principles can be
identified which may serve to focus attention on the
starting points for effective fisheries management.
Fundamental principles of Fisheries
Management Function
1 Fish stocks and communities are finite and
biological production constrains the potential
yield from a fishery.
The potential yield needs to be
estimated and the biological
constraints identified.
2 i)
i) Target reference points need to be
established through data collection
and fisheries assessment; and
ii) environmental impacts should be
identified and monitored, and the
management strategy adjusted in
response as necessary.
3 Human consumptive demands on fish resources
are fundamentally in conflict with the constraint
of maintaining a suitably low risk to the resource.
Further, modern technology provides humans
with the means, and demand for its benefits
provides the motivation, to extract fish biomass at
rates much higher than it can be produced
Realistic goals and objectives must be
Achieving the objectives will inevitably
require controls on fishing effort and
Biological production of a stock is a function
of the size of the stock and,
ii) It is also a function of the ecological
environment. It is influenced by natural or
human-induced changes in the environment.
Fundamental principles of Fisheries
Management Function
4 In a multispecies fishery, which description
encompasses almost all fisheries, it is impossible to
maximise or optimise the yield from all fisheries
Realistic goals and objectives must be
established across ecosystems, so as
to manage for species and fisheries
5 Uncertainty pervades fisheries management and
hinders informed decision-making. The greater the
uncertainty, the more conservative should be the
approach (i.e. as uncertainty increases, realised
yield as a proportion of estimated maximum
average yield should be decreased).
Risk assessment and management
must be done in development and
implementation of management
plans, measures and strategies.
6 The short-term dependency of society on a fishery
will determine the relative priority of the social
and/or economic goals in relation to sustainable
Fisheries cannot be managed in
isolation and must be integrated into
coastal zone and fisheries policy and
planning and national policies.
Fundamental principles of Fisheries
Management Function
7 A sense of ownership and a long-term stake in the
resource for those (individuals, communities or
groups) with access are most conducive to
maintaining responsible fisheries.
System of effective and appropriate
access rights must be established and
8 Genuine participation in the management process
by fully-informed users is consistent with the
democratic principle, facilitates identification of
acceptable management systems and encourages
compliance with laws and regulations
Communication, consultation and comanagement should underlie all
stages of management
In keeping with the integrated nature of fisheries ecosystems, these principles
cannot be considered in isolation in considering how best to manage fisheries: their
implications and consequences overlap, complement and confound each other
which is what makes fisheries management so demanding and challenging.
Nevertheless, the consequences of the principles for fisheries give rise to the
fundamental nature and tasks of fisheries management
Climate Change effects in Fisheries
In the past, changing climate has affected inland and
offshore fisheries and such changes are likely to
continue. From a fisheries perspective, the specific driving
factors of climate change include rising water
temperature, alterations in the hydrologic cycle, changes
in nutrient fluxes, and relocation of spawning and nursery
habitat. Further, changes in such factors would affect
resources at all levels of biological organization, including
ecosystem levels. Understanding how these factors affect
fisheries at a more nuanced level stand as challenges that
fisheries scientists, across multiple fields, still need to face.
Concepts of Inland Fisheries
Half of Bangladesh comprises inundated floodplains and
wetlands In the monsoon season which form a vast
inland fishery. The diversified fisheries resources of
the country are divided into three groups, i.e., inland
capture, inland culture and marine capture. Inland
culture includes
shrimp/prawn farm, seasonal cultured water-body, pen
and cage culture etc. covering an area of about 8.36 lakh
ha. In addition, cage farming is also popularizing in
potential water-bodies.
The production from inland fisheries in Bangladesh in
2021-22 was 40.53 lakh MT which is 85.16% of total fish
production (47.59 lakh MT).
Concepts of Inland Fisheries
In 1983-84, the contribution of inland capture and
culture fisheries to total fish production were
62.59 percent and 15.53 percent, respectively;
whereas in 2021-22, inland capture fisheries
contributes only 28 percent (13.22 lakh MT) and
inland culture fisheries contributes 57 percent
(27.31 lakh MT) to total fish production (47.59 lakh
MT). At present improved biological management
is the first priority in the development policy
that will restrict the declination of resources and
enhance production.
Development concepts in Inland Fisheries
have ample scope of
development to strengthen the national economy.
Concerned government departments, development
organizations can play important role in the wideranging advancement of the fisheries sector. For the
overall development and management of fisheries
sector, DoF formulates and implements development
projects under the revenue and development
budget toward the sustainable utilization of fisheries
Development concepts in Inland Fisheries
Several socio-eco-friendly programs have been implemented
to increase the productivity of inland open waters in the
recent past years. These programs includes mainlycommunity based fisheries management, establishment of
beel nurseries, stocking of fingerlings including endangered
species, restoration of habitats, establishment and
maintenance of sanctuaries, expansion of cage and pen
farming in feasible water areas, introduction of
coordinated management approach, issuing of fishers
identity card and enforcement of fish conservation acts,
adoption of climate smart technologies, etc. As a result in
many cases fishers’ rights were established and they were
motivated for biological management rather than only
catching of fish.