Uploaded by Victor Rivas


Among the new challenges of the Human Management areas is the training
process, where alignment with the organizational strategy and with the improvement
or development of competencies of the institution's staff is essential to guarantee
its effectiveness. Currently, training is based on the interest in executing
purposeless activities, which is why the need for a training model arises. In a first
stage, where those factors that intervene in the improvement of organizational
performance will be established. And a second stage, which will include the training
components, from the selection of topics to the measurement of impact.
Keywords: Training, Organizational Strategy, Competencies, Topic Selection,
Learning Tools, Application of Knowledge.
The topic developed in this work is about the design of a Training Model linked to the
Core processes of the organization, supported by the improvement of performance,
presenting the importance that organizations currently have of being in constant
learning as a source essential of knowledge.
It should be noted that the modern company is an organization based on the search
for higher levels of efficiency among the people that make it up. This is how in this
work you will find the development of two objectives that are considered relevant to
give continuity to this Training model. which are:
1. Establish the factors of the training processes that support the improvement of
organizational performance.
2. Define the structure that develops the training components that support the
improvement of organizational performance.
To respond to the previous objectives, some important points were investigated:
selection of training topics, learning strategies, some learning tools, evaluation of
learning, multiplication and/or application of knowledge and impact of the acquired
The purpose of this work aims directly at training being the direct line for the
improvement of the worker in his workplace, so that he performs efficiently in the
functions assigned to him, produces quality results and is a multiplier of knowledge
and skills in your work environment.
Training and Development within the framework of the Strategic Management of
Human Talent.
1.1 IDEA
Proposal for a Training Model.
In recent years, public and private organizations have been concerned about caring
for and training the people who belong to their companies since little by little it has
been understood that if human talent is truly managed, success will be achieved.
One of the main components of this action is called training or training, which aims
at long-term personal and organizational development.
The worker was considered an extension of the machines, later humanistic attitudes
were taken with emphasis on the social relationships of the human being, then his
motivations as a self-realizing person were taken into consideration, leading
organizations to adopt a comprehensive stance that It gives rise to the concept of
having whole human beings affected by the characteristics of each organization.
Research such as from the University of Manizales “Training in the company:
importance of a pedagogical-didactic approach”, degree projects such as “Training
model for a service company”, the Kirk Patrick model, are indications that there is a
need organizational, that of building a model that allows the entire training process
to be systematized in companies where it is seen as an investment that allows the
development of people so that they are more effective and productive in their
performance, contributing to the achievement of the mission, vision and
organizational objectives.
The training process in an organization, in order to provide improvement proposals
based on the construction, execution, monitoring and evaluation of training.
Design of a training model that enhances human talent linked to the core processes
of the organization.
Among the new organizational challenges is organizational learning, where not only
individual learning matters but also its collective construction, aiming at the fulfillment
of the proposed objectives and goals; looking for strategies to generate competitive
advantages, it is at this point where companies must see their human resources as
the main tool for the development of said learning.
The path is just beginning for many companies where people are just beginning to
be conceived as the fundamental pillar for the success of an organization and if this
is just beginning, what can we say about the investment in training for staff, where it
is really seen? as a profit and not as an expense, but the latter usually happens when
training is not a true process from its structure to its execution. This is a latent need
in several organizations that invest in training their staff but only remains in That, in
“giving” training for the sake of “giving” without having a goal, what do we want to
achieve? What will the person benefit from? And then how will the organization
benefit? , the fundamental problem lies in not having a training model that allows me
to make a detailed reading of the specific needs of people, in order to contribute to
the improvement of their performance and those that will contribute to the
achievement of organizational objectives. , measuring economic and labor
effectiveness, based on different theoretical and methodological approaches, Kirk
Patrick Model, ROI, Knowledge Map, among others.
Today we live in a highly globalized world that has made organizations design new
management models that will allow them to strengthen the talent of their personnel.
These new models have, above all, caused a series of needs, with continuous
learning being of vital importance, where staff have the desire, desire and, above all,
the ability to develop all that potential and/or skills that they have not been able to
exploit, all this with in order to improve productivity in the company
Design a training model linked to the core processes of the organization, supported
by performance improvement.
Establish the factors of the training processes that support the improvement of
organizational performance.
Define the structure that develops the training components that support the
improvement of organizational performance.
Training is a vital process in all companies, which every day has been gaining more
strength in the organizational field, it has had growth and importance, which is why
companies frequently constantly question themselves: What is training for? How
does the investment return back to the organization? These concerns are answered
with the creation of a training model which will enhance human talent, starting from
the structuring of the training process, which begins with the correct detection of
needs, which is the fundamental basis of a training plan. , being able to identify the
gaps between what an employee knows and applies and what the organization
expects him to do, thus contributing to the achievement of organizational objectives.
But what is disturbing for companies is the return of the investment since the training
process that they currently have simply allows them to reach the level of satisfaction
of the recipient and the measurement of immediate knowledge, which is why the
model will allow them to respond. to the effectiveness and impact of training which
is directly observable in their work function, serving as input for performance
evaluation and thus generating new training opportunities that will be translated into
the potentialization of human talent.
With theoretical research, it is possible to reinforce new knowledge, and cover gaps
that allow growth in the professional field, in daily life, it is of great importance to
continue evolving and in this way to be able to develop all the potential that is in each
of the people of the organization, improving the goals of compliance with professional
Plans must also be made to achieve the objectives despite all the circumstances and
learn to be responsible for each of the actions as future specialists always tirelessly
seeking fulfillment.
From practice, the work is justified because it is expected to achieve the formulation
of a training model that links training strategies to achieve productivity, allowing
Human Talent to understand and value their personal training, as a powerful
management tool. Continuous improvement is very important both for organizational
development and for that of our country.
For the design of a training model, it is important that Human Talent has specific
functions. Which will help people to carry out their activities efficiently, in addition to
this it helps management to identify the problems that occur in the production
processes and provide solutions to them, as soon as possible.
Geographic: Applicable to the Human Management areas of different
Conceptual: Although the research has evidence of three models, the
recommendations will be made based on Kirk Patrick's model.
The management of Human Talent is a complex organizational phenomenon, due
to the fact that it is deeply related to factors such as the dominant characteristics of
the Human being, the conception and forms of work organization, the situation of
labor relations among many others. This management has evolved from the socalled welfare department concerned with the physical and mental well-being of the
worker, to human resources management, whose objective is to find and optimize
good business practices.
The greater the business development, the greater the need for talent, that is,
competent people, emotionally capable of creating and innovating. The trend of
Human Talent Management is to become learning communities, which generate,
conserve and translate it into value-added actions for organizations.
The task of the organizations will then be to work on the human talent that composes
it, to generate or develop capabilities that allow them to meet the challenges of new
markets, to innovate with the capacity to create individual and collective knowledge
with the purpose of being shared among its own members and directed to the society
that surrounds it. Training Human Resources is a response to the need that
companies have to have qualified and productive personnel. This tool must be of
vital importance because it contributes to the personal and professional development
of individuals while they are reflected in benefits. for the organization.
Thus, from the perspective of human performance, the fundamental mission of
human talent management in an organization is to ensure that the effective
performance of workers adjusts to what is desired, understanding that performance
is nothing other than the behavior of workers. from the point of view of their
contributions to the productive efficiency and organizational climate of the company.
Job performance is the result of multiple factors, which allows us to appreciate the
importance of training from a more realistic perspective, far from the very common
extreme positions that consider it a universal panacea for the company's problems
or, on the contrary, They deny him any use.
The truth is that the real importance of training is halfway, since training can only
influence some of the factors of the worker's performance, particularly those related
to awareness of their role in the organization, their competencies. and your emotional
disposition at work.
Training is an effective means - not the only one - to improve worker performance.
When faced with a problem of unsatisfactory performance, it is advisable to analyze
the causes and evaluate alternative solutions.
The performance of workers may be hindered by inadequate technical or
organizational conditions, beyond their competence and emotional disposition; and
in that case the training will be sterile. Conversely, incompetence can be the cause
of poor job performance; and in that case any technical or organizational
improvement will have little effect on its own.
All in all, it is recognized that training is one of the main tools to solve multiple
problems, real or latent, that affect productive efficiency and the organizational
climate. In summary, training can contribute to the well-being of the workers
themselves which, ultimately, also has an impact on the organizational climate of the
Some of these benefits are the following:
Improves self-confidence and self-esteem at work.
Increases individuals' tolerance to distress and work stress when facing new
tasks and conflicts at work.
Satisfies human needs for personal growth.
Improves the employability of the worker.
Reduces the risks of accidents and occupational diseases.
Improves the ability to make decisions.
Improves interpersonal relationship skills.
Training: “ It is the process of developing qualities in human resources, preparing
them to be more productive and contribute better to the achievement of the
organization's objectives.”1
Performance: Measuring and monitoring results, based on efficiency, competencies
and critical success factors.
Organization: It is a social group made up of people, tasks and administration that
interact in a systemic structure to meet the proposed objectives.
Idalberto. Human resources management. Mexico: Mc Graw Hi, 1993.
Core Process: they are those that are aimed at meeting the clients' requirements,
from their determination to the actual provision of the service to satisfy their needs.
Human Talent: Human talent is what makes organizations work. They are
responsible for controlling quality, designing, producing, distributing products and
services, as well as establishing objectives . and organizational strategies.
People are the main reason for organizations because it is through them that
companies achieve their corporate objectives, this is why training should be seen as
a short and long term investment process and not as an expense, because as that I
train the staff, this will be reflected in the fulfillment of the goals.
6.3.1 What is a Training Model?
“It is the ideal and practical representation of the training and development process,
which includes an explanatory scheme of the operations that must be carried out for
due compliance in order to improve the teaching process, optimize capacity and
promote staff development” 2.
The training model allows structuring the process from the diagnosis of needs which
is important to develop with the key people in each area to the measurement of the
effectiveness of the training, in quantitative and qualitative terms, based on
performance evaluation reports or in a subsequent knowledge test that accounts for
the improvement of their functions.
6.3.2 Training Models in different Productive Sectors
Through different bibliographic consultations and reference visits or good practices
in terms of training we have found the following training models:
Blanca Orbelina Villalta. "Unive." September 2002.
http://www.univo.edu.sv:8081/tesis/007437/007437_Port.pdf (last access: November 2012).
In 1975, Donald Kirkpatrick 3 proposed a pioneering evaluation model, since its
emergence it has been the most used due to its simple, flexible and complete
Reaction Level
“The degree to which participants enjoyed the training program.”
This level measures the satisfaction and impression that the participants had with
the training received, evaluating the materials, the instructor, the methodology and
the content.
This level is often measured through attitude questionnaires and are often given at
the conclusion of most training classes.4
Level of learning
What did the participants learn from the program?
Level of Learning assessments can be defined as the extent to which participants
change attitudes, improve knowledge, and increase skills as a result of attending
Learning is traditionally evaluated based on knowledge tests that allow us to capture
whether the initially set objectives were met, for which it is necessary to have a pretest and a post-test.
The level of reaction and learning are measured immediately after the training ends.
Attitude Level
Did they change their work behavior with learning?
In this instance, it is measured whether there has really been a change in the
worker's behavior in the development of their activity. This evaluation modality allows
Donald L. Kirkpatrick is past National President of the American Society for Training and
Development. He has been a management and training development consultant for a wide variety of
companies, both nationally and internationally.
us to verify whether the trained workers have modified previous attitudes after what
they have learned.
The main purpose of all training is to achieve behavioral change, that is, that the
skills and techniques acquired in the training course are applied in their work
activities. This can be done through a knowledge evaluation or through observation.
Results Level
Was the change in behavior reflected in the company?
The results of a training program can be expressed in terms of outcomes such as:
reduced turnover, reduced costs, increased efficiency, reduced customer
complaints, increased quality and quantity of production, or improved motivation. ,
which is expected to cause the above results.
Have the learning outcomes worked in ways that add value or have an effect on the
broader organization, beyond the individual who participated in the program?”
ROI Return on Investment Model
More than a model, it has been a complement to Donald Kirk Patrick's model, which
allows us to know the relationship that exists between the net profit obtained and the
investment made. The amount expressed as a percentage, accrued on the total
capital of a company or its investment in a specific project.
“An instrument that organizations use to make their financial forecasts and to project
the value of their investments in the future. The financial reason that allows
companies to reduce uncertainty, and increase security, in decision making
regarding their investment projects.5
ROI serves to:
Improve the financial results of organizations, their products, services, processes
and operations.
Institute, SC «cgmeta.» www.cgmeta.com/pdf/ROI_capacitacion_-_Instituto_Dorh.pdf (last
access: November 2012).
Reduce unnecessary costs of training processes.
Contribute to increase the company's profits
• Ensure certainty in decision making
The ROI model is based on 5 fundamental aspects, which must be funded:
Participants, Instructor, Training Materials, Facilities and Processes and
When the above aspects have been taken into account, the next concern is how to
ensure profitability:
Professional follow-up.
Test to know the impact of administrative and managerial programs:
permanence of the application, improvement in performance, significance of the
position, exceptional contributions, Increase in intellectual capital.
The previous models are the product of different bibliographic consultations, where
it can be concluded that each one can be used separately but within the framework
of a training model built in light of the company's needs.
In the health sector, companies were visited such as Metro Salud, Hospital Pablo
Tobón Uribe and other entities that are not in the health sector such as Bancolombia
and the Mayor's Office of Medellín, where it was found that the training model they
have been using is that of Donald Kirk Patrick, in his first three levels.
Having a training model in companies is an issue that little by little has been gaining
strength, because it has only been seen as an issue of investment rather than
spending; Organizations must begin with the construction or adoption of models that
allow training to be framed from the diagnosis of needs to the measurement of its
6.3.3 Methodologies for characterizing the capabilities of people in an
organization .
Knowledge Map
The knowledge map is a methodology that has not yet been widely explored; in fact,
when a bibliographic review was carried out, it was not found specifically what
aspects should be taken into account for its construction.
“A knowledge map is nothing more than a scheme that reflects the evolution of the
knowledge of each and every member of the organization and facilitates decisionmaking around knowledge. This diagram shows the knowledge available in an
organization and allows you to find, quickly and efficiently, relevant information to
decide and solve problems. It is a directory that describes a series of categories of
specialized information, indicating where it is located, status, and value or
According to Ruggles, 7it is evident that much of organizational knowledge cannot
be codified, but rather remains in the heads of experts. Therefore, it is significant to
locate them and know what type of knowledge is possessed through these maps.
The author suggests that building a knowledge map is not a simple task because the
particular interests of the experts on the topic must be taken into account. On the
one hand, someone in the company must be appointed to determine who is the
expert on the topic, which is not easy because it can cause problems with other
employees who feel undervalued, on the other hand, there is normally little interest
on the part of true experts to be easily located by anyone in the organization,
especially if there is no system that rewards them. due to the additional workload
that this entails.
Methodology for its construction
To build a knowledge map, you must have a Knowledge Management group, which
must proceed to create a group of experts who will be in charge of what knowledge
is necessary for the organization, based on the strategic platform.
When the knowledge of each area or department has been defined, the value that
each knowledge has for the company must be determined using a scale of 100
points, then they will be ordered from most important to least important to be
reflected on the map; On the other hand, the values assigned to each knowledge
must be added and each value divided by that sum. Those values will be used at the
end of the process to determine how much value each individual employee has in
terms of knowledge.
CAPDEVILA, Javier. The Age of Knowledge. Guantanamo, Cuba: The sea and the Mountain,
7RUGGLES, R. "The state of the notion: Knowledge management in practice." Management Review
, 1998: Vol. 40(3): 80-89.
6.3.4 Relationship between training models and performance improvement.
Training is a key activity in the organization; It is closely linked to organizational
strategy; allows decision making; Integrates the worker into the position; improves
the human relations in the company , as well as, the dialogue constant between
those responsible and subordinates; It is a tool that allows you to obtain information
from the personnel who work there for decision making, therefore, having an
evaluation system is essential for any organization, no matter how small, as it allows
you to assess progress and weaknesses and, consequently, enable decision-making
to take corrective measures, without these being seen as punishment or sanctions
but rather as the search for better performance of the worker and the organization in
It helps determine the extent to which the training actually produced the desired
changes in employee behavior.
Demonstrate whether the training results are related to the achievement of the
company's goals. Increased organizational effectiveness.
Improving the organizational climate
Improvement of company-employee relations
Reduction in staff turnover.
Increase in people's skills. Change in attitudes and behaviors.
Reduced training time
“ Chiavenato 8states that the main processes of modern human talent management
focus on 6 aspects:
In people administration directly related to recruitment and selection
In the people application (design and performance evaluation)
In workers' compensation
In the development of people
In staff retention (training)
and in monitoring people based on the 5 previous points.”
Table 1. Processes of modern human talent management
Idalberto. Human resources management. Mexico: Mc Graw Hi, 1993.
Descriptive observational cross-sectional cohort study that will use qualitative and
theoretical review techniques:
For objective 1, a review of the most recognized research and theoretical
contributions will be carried out on the topics of learning, development of skills,
application of knowledge management, in addition to referencing training models in
other organizations that will allow you to know the impact you are having. have had
in the improvement of organizational performance, visualizing from the identification
of needs based on the business strategy, in the closing of competency gaps to the
evaluation of whether it actually had an impact on what was defined by the institution.
For objective 2 and based on the competencies identified in objective 1, we can
establish protocols that develop each of the components, thus building a proposal
for a training model where aspects from the selection of topics to the measurement
of efficiency and effectiveness are evident. of training plans.
A validation will be carried out with experts on the subject that will allow us to endorse
the proposed model.
Today's companies have a significant challenge since they live in a complex and
constantly changing society. They are oriented towards the creation and
dissemination of knowledge and to enhance the exchange of information among
their own employees. Those who are not interested in learning, those who do not
generate new knowledge will not be able to keep up with modern times, affecting the
continuous improvement of the organization and its professional development.
For each organization, one of the determining factors is the training process because
it contributes to improving employee performance. However, these types of
statements only allow us to have a reductionist vision of everything that the
construction of a training plan truly involves. He must start from the identification of
needs to the measurement of the impact and return on investment to the
organization, completing a cycle of higher strategic level in the company.
The training approach must transcend, since currently the areas of development and
human capital have been more focused on developing purposeless activities than
on measuring results; We must be clear that the objective of training is not to select
courses without purpose, it is the search for the best performance and the
achievement of the business strategy. Training is “an agent of change and
productivity, as long as it is capable of helping people interpret the needs of the
context and adapt the culture, structure and strategy to those needs.” 9
Training should be seen as a process based on the current needs and vision of the
organization, which is oriented towards strengthening people's knowledge and skills,
facilitating their development and improving the provision of their service.
The training process must overcome the regulatory environment that surrounds its
application; beyond complying with a standard, organizations must deal with
generating development as a source of growth and institutional survival, in addition
to the particular benefit it generates for the people who make up the organization.
This demonstrates the cooperation that can occur between different actors to
achieve their particular interests. Always seeking the development of knowledge and
skills that allow you to be at the forefront of the different changes or demands of the
environment that can affect the business strategy.
L.; MALONE, M., Intellectual Capital: how to identify and calculate the value of your
company's intangible resources , Barcelona (Spain), Gestión 2000, 1999, ISBN 978-84-8088308-5.
One of the main components of training is the diagnosis or detection of needs, which
must be aligned with the organizational strategy and the improvement of
competencies. After obtaining this diagnosis, the training objectives are designed
and the approaches and methods to be used and the methodological strategies that
will mark the effectiveness of the training are defined. “Subsequently, it will be
possible to check if there are real changes in performance, verifying whether they
are significant, lasting and positive.” 10If competencies by position levels are clearly
defined, it is easier to guide training because this guarantees the development and
achievement of its purposes, reflected in its performance and compliance with the
The evaluation strategy allows identifying the effects of training actions and the
appropriate investment to improve the quality of training in the future.
On the other hand, each individual has a different motivation, considering the
different authors who deal with the topic from psychology; Two types of motivation
are identified: intrinsic or internal motivation “which arises due to interest in the
object” and extrinsic motivation “arises as a consequence of an external stimulus” 11.
These motivations are based on the stimuli that individuals may have, among others:
Material Stimuli : They are based on the goods that a person receives in exchange
for their work, such as remuneration, professional advancement, free time, reward
systems; and non-material ones , which are symbolic in nature, these help to have
intrinsic motivation and are aimed at praise or recognition from the company,
responsibilities or prestige.
The latter turns out to be more convenient for companies since it does not represent
an extra cost and if its execution gives results it can become part of the business
culture and open the doors to Knowledge Management.
Learning makes sense, as long as it has the support of Senior Management; It
generally becomes dependent on a single person, almost always without authority,
who has the task of carrying it out in the company, making it effective and recognized
at all levels. Thus, the results are not always as expected.
Some factors of the training processes positively impact people's performance,
among others, know-how or the ability to develop a specific task, allows for
T., Business training , Santafé de Bogotá (Colombia), Mc Graw-Hill, 1993, ISBN 958600-194-6.
11Prof. Dr. Heinz Mandl, Dr. Katrin Winkler, Katharina Schnurer MA, Instruments for Knowledge
Management, InWEnt – Capacity Building International, Germany, February 2004.
effectiveness in the development of processes. It is also essential that the training
has objectives related to the interests of the company, so it will be able to achieve
better results, in two areas, both for corporate purposes and for the individual's
particular purposes. According to Ordoñez (2002) “The primary purpose is not to
develop competencies but to increase the generation of value for all those involved.
Developing skills is just a means that only makes sense if there is clarity of the results
to be achieved.”12
It is also observed that constant participation in learning processes allows individuals
to build mental models that facilitate new moments of knowledge. The mental
structures that develop in people subsequently facilitate the assimilation and
application of new concepts. To which Ulric Neisser 2004 maintains that “cognitive
structures play a particularly interesting role in learning, which are known as
schemes, responsible for controlling the destination of the stored information, which
are built at the very moment of the attentional activity. ”.13
JL (2000). Skill development and return on your investment. Medellin.
U. (2004). Cognitive Psychology. Mexico:
Since the industrial revolution until today, organizations have had great
transformations that led to the creation of the human talent area, going from being
focused on salaries, hiring and dismissals, to becoming an area that allows the
potentialization of human talent through activities such as training, which is “a means
that develops people's skills so that they can be more productive, creative, and
innovative, so that they contribute better to organizational objectives” becoming a
source of utility that 14allows people contribute to the achievement of the company's
Structuring a training program that responds to the needs of people, the organization
and clients, guaranteeing competitiveness, requires a design based on
strengthening the employee's skills to perform their functions, compliance with the
organizational strategy and the development of others that will allow you to take on
the new challenges of the organization.
Within the strategic planning of Human Resources, the aim is to “align talents and
skills with the needs of the organization”, this must work from the skills that are
currently available and with the development of those necessary for the success of
the organization. organization, therefore it is necessary to make an adequate
selection of training topics that contribute to achieving the organization's objectives
and, at the same time, must favor and encourage the achievement of the employees'
individual objectives.
Annually, the different areas of the organization with the support of Human
Management must make a selection of topics that will make up the institutional
training plan. This selection must be the result of the analysis of the Strategic
Direction of the organization with topics that allow me to achieve the objectives.
objectives by obtaining alignment of the personnel with the strategy and the analysis
of the competencies that have not yet been developed which prevent efficient
development in the workplace, directly affecting the fulfillment of the strategy.
The purpose is not to develop competencies but rather to increase the generation of
value for all those who are part of the organization . The development of
I. (2009). Human Talent Management. Mexico: McGraw Hill.
competencies “is a means that only makes sense if there is clarity of the results that
are to be achieved” (Ordoñez , 2000) 15. An inadequate selection of topics would lead
to having qualified personnel in areas that are not a priority for the company, "the
development and application of work skills must seek to simultaneously generate
value for the company and for the worker." (Chiavenato, 2009)16
Once the topics have been defined, the objectives, periodicity and definition of the
type of methodology to be used, the costs and possible suppliers must be
established since they can be internal and external. Ideally, the methodology to be
applied is established in consideration of the individual's own characteristics, their
ways of acting and learning. To the extent that the most appropriate means of
assimilation of knowledge by people are recognized, the easier we will be able to
establish the methodology. However, this is not always possible due to training that
is aimed at large groups of people with diverse characteristics. In some situations,
companies will be able to build characterizations of people, and then group them into
learning moments. This can be obtained in personnel selection processes where the
candidate is exposed to the observation of people with the required skill. Or when it
is already a contract for the company. In other cases, previous training levels are
used, establishing particular strategies for people with professional or higher training,
for technicians and technologists, and for operators.
According to Guglielmetti, 1998, in the process of identifying training needs, we can
find two approaches:
Corrective Approach : Aimed at identifying training needs based on performance
problems. It is a static approach, in the sense that it considers its workers in relation
to their current jobs.
Among the methods of detecting needs are the following:
1. Direct analysis of training needs at the individual level comparing the effective
competencies, the task that is capable of developing with the desired
competencies, the task that should be able to develop, or the attributes of the
person in relation to the requirements of their position according to their
knowledge, skills or attitudes.
2. Analysis of training needs related to personnel performance evaluation
Try to make the most of the regular performance evaluation process
seen in organizations as a source of information to try to identify training needs.
JL (2000). Skill development and return on your investment. Medellin.
I. (2009). Human Talent Management. Mexico: McGraw Hill.
Prospective approach: Aimed at anticipating the training needs that will result from
projected changes in the content and requirements of jobs due to technological
innovations and organizational changes or in personnel movements such as
transfers and promotions; It is a dynamic process that involves positions and people
in the process of change.
It is because of this approach that the people in charge of training in organizations
must not only be aware of the projects or changes that will be made; If not, they must
be involved with the people who are responsible for preparing these changes since
they will be able to better interpret the impact that these may generate in terms of
quality and quantity of the personnel requested.
As a final process of the analysis of Training needs, the person in charge must
present a report on the people who have training deficiencies affecting their
performance in their current position; These reports must explain the objective of the
learning and its impact or satisfaction with the organization's objectives.
Currently, an important role has been given to the topic of Personnel Administration,
where its main challenge is to achieve the improvement of the organizations of which
they are part, making their personnel more efficient and competitive where one of
the factors that could help To achieve this, it would be to have a good comprehensive
training system that allows staff to develop the knowledge, skills, abilities and
competencies necessary so that the organization can implement its strategies to
achieve the institutional objectives that come from strategic planning. Given the
above, the following discipline is presented.
Andragogy : “It is the discipline that deals with the education and learning of the
adult subject.”17
According to Aquiles (1997), he conceptualizes his conception in greater depth and
explains that Androgogy is a “Set of actions, activities and tasks that, when
administered applying appropriate andragogical principles and strategies, make it
possible to facilitate the learning process in the adult.18
This approach is based on two fundamental principles:
OL (2011). Andragagía: A relevant approach to Training. Medellin.
Participation Principle : Gives the opportunity for the adult to decide what to
learn and how to actively participate in their own learning, and intervene in the
programming, implementation and evaluation of educational activities.
Principle of Horizontability : The activities are carried out under conditions of
equality between the participants and the facilitator, this together in an
appropriate learning environment, this can be done in person, or virtually (email,
chat, among others) for the development multidisciplinary talents.
In conclusion, if this relationship of equals is not established, or if each person is
taken into account in knowledge management, there would be no commitment to
learn to improve.
Features that facilitate the learning process
Self-concept: Adult learning always has a personal implication that results in the
development of self-concept, personal judgments and self-efficacy. Learning for
an adult is significant, it gives added value to their existence.
Experience: Serves as a learning resource, and as a reference, using their
previous experiences the participant can explore or discover their talent and
Unlearning: It is simply eliminating what we have learned that no longer serves
us and making room for what we need to learn.
Motivation: This is generally internal, what the facilitator can do is encourage
them to learn, guide their learning, and create the conditions to promote what
already exists in adults.
Training Based on Adult Competencies.
“Every training process must be based on the skills that people need to carry out
their work in an efficient and effective way while having good interpersonal
Some skills to develop:
 Learn to know: Develop abilities, skills, habits, attitudes, that allow you to
acquire tools as a means to understand the world around you, communicate with
others, and value the importance of knowledge and research.
 Learn to learn : Develop abilities, skills, habits, attitudes and values that allow
you to acquire or create study and learning methods, procedures and techniques
so that you can select and process information efficiently.
This tool allows adults to continue learning throughout their lives.
 Learning to Do: Develops your abilities to innovate, create strategies, means
and tools that give you the possibility of combining theoretical and practical
knowledge with socio-cultural behavior, developing skills for group work, the
capacity for initiative and taking risks. .
 Learning to be: It is the ability to develop physical, intellectual, emotional and
social integrity; taking into account the relationships it establishes with the entire
environment; both work and social.
Currently, organizations have training approaches that do not go beyond transmitting
information in a classroom, where the expert on the subject indicates how it should
be done, without giving people the opportunity to build their own knowledge. but build
what?...if the training plans are not really designed to contribute to the achievement
of organizational objectives and the development of new competencies, but many
times management or presidencies make the decision to dispense with the services
of their staff when we haven't really taught him how to do it. If technology, science
and procedures advance, it is the Human Talent area that is called to help employees
improve their performance, through the acquisition of new skills, this is what a true
training plan consists of, accompanying each area in the professional growth of the
people who work there, to achieve the construction of new individual and collective
Training is oriented to the present and aims to improve immediate performance,
companies must focus on the development of new skills, attitudes and competencies
that the person requires in the workplace, it is really creating true leaders and
managers of their day-to-day processes . day, starting with the construction of
training objectives that lead to improved performance, translated into compliance
with organizational objectives.
One of the Learning Tools is the one based on mentoring plans, which consists of
having trainers in each area, who must be found in the employee's day-to-day life,
in order to understand and help improve the job performance, mentoring aims to
ensure that training is truly comprehensive and personalized and is not reduced to a
simple transfer of knowledge.
According to this proposal, the work of the tutor is not only focused on transmitting
knowledge, but also on the collective construction of process improvements,
involving employees with specific abilities, needs and interests.
Tutoring plays a fundamental role in training; it allows any personal and work-related
problems to be identified over time, with the aim of avoiding difficulties in
For the development of mentoring, short-term objectives are established, which allow
measuring their fulfillment in a short time and establishing improvement processes
that contribute to the achievement of long-term objectives, these being the
development of skills, concepts and attitudes; Such results are evident in the
decrease in complaints and claims, in response times, in the decrease in
reprocessing, becoming the impact indicators that Human Talent must present in its
management reports.
Other pedagogical strategies used in the development of training are:
Readings: It is the most used technique to transmit information in training
programs. Reading is a means of communication that involves a single-handed
situation, in which an instructor verbally presents information to a group of
Programmed Instruction: It is a useful technique for transmitting information in
training programs. Programmed learning applies without the presence or
intervention of a human instructor. Small pieces of information, requiring
corresponding responses, are presented to training personnel. They can
determine their responses, knowing if they have understood the information
Class Training: This is training outside the workplace, in a classroom. The
learners are gathered in a location and have the help of an instructor who
transmits the content of the training program. It's the type
most used training method. Organizations usually disclose the hours spent per
capita or to evaluate the time the student spends in class.
E-Learning: Refers to the use of Internet technologies to deliver a wide variety
of solutions that increase people's performance and knowledge. It is also known
as web-based training or online training since it is a network that is capable of
instantly updating, storing, distributing and sharing the content of the instruction
or information.
In conclusion, training or rather developing people should not only mean the
transmission of information and believing that this is enough for the development of
new skills or knowledge, it means generating new learning strategies that allow the
construction of concepts, solutions and ideas that Modify your current habits and
behaviors, becoming more effective in your daily tasks.
Over time, different theoretical, methodological and instrumental conceptions have
emerged that have revolutionized the educational field and therefore the traditional
forms of knowledge evaluation. However, Acevedo 2001 maintains that “the
evaluation, generically considered, has always turned out to be a problematic issue,
poorly accepted by those affected and, perhaps, erroneous or partially addressed by
its executors, which has led to it being preferentially associated with detection.” of
errors or defects or with sanctions or classifications, not always welcome, to
individuals, programs or establishments 19. ”
Educators have been influenced by behavioral psychologists, who maintain that
learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience. “The
accumulated evidence has made it clear that human learning not only involves
thinking and acting, but also effectiveness, and only when these three factors are
considered together, are we in a position to enable the individual to enrich the
meaning of his or her experience.” .20
Evaluation is the result of significant learning, forcing us to review the learning
strategies and/or tools currently used. Teaching, rather than dedicating itself to
transmitting socially constituted and legitimized knowledge, should focus on people
developing their cognitive and affective capacities. and social such that they allow
them to build their learning, which will later be reflected in the improvement of their
performance, perhaps this will lead us to identify the ways of learning of each of the
employees since it is Human Management that is in charge of providing the tools. so
that everyone can learn.
Constructivist psychology refers to “all those theories and practices that focus on the
way in which individuals create systems to understand their world and their
PA (2001). Evaluation in a conception of meaningful learning .
experiences, the significant structure where the personality of the human being is
The constructivist position does not see the student as a mere recipient or player of
what is said in a training classroom, but as a person capable of generating significant
learning of his or her own. It will be through this learning that the person will construct
their own meanings in order to enhance their personal growth and development.
“From this it follows that every instructional process will ensure that students achieve
significant learning and, above all, that each student develops the capacity to recover
this learning at the time when he or she is going to perform new tasks.”22
It is essential in all training, regardless of the pedagogical strategy to be used, to
verify the degree of learning achieved by students. This learning can be located at a
conceptual level (knowledge) or at a behavioral level (skills).
For this verification we find several techniques:
Knowledge Tests: These are carried out when the training action basically has
conceptual content.
They can be done in different ways:
Report Writing: Participants are asked to write, on a certain number of pages,
what they have understood regarding the content taught in the course.
Open-ended questionnaire: Open-ended questions are used and participants are
asked to write each response narratively.
Closed question questionnaire: Once the question is asked, the assistant is
offered a limited number of answers.
Knowledge tests can be applied in two moments, before starting the training, in order
to know the knowledge that the student has regarding a certain topic and once
finished, apply the test again to observe what new knowledge they acquired.
R.S. (1998). Psychology with applications to Spanish-speaking countries. United
States: McGraw Hill.
22ACEVEDO, PA (2001). Evaluation in a conception of significant learning
Test situations: It is a technique that places trainees before exercises that
simulate real work situations, in order to evaluate the level of knowledge and skills
acquired by students in a training course.
The design of the exercises must be a faithful reflection of reality, that is, copy real
working conditions. It is important to indicate in a clear and simple way all the
aspects involved in carrying out the tests, as well as to specifically indicate the
objectives that must be achieved.
Current trends in Human Talent Management are leading to establishing a direct
relationship between Human Resources and organizational performance. According
to Lengnick-Hall et al. (2009), “research continues to be carried out on the role of
human resource management systems in knowledge-based competitive
environments, emphasizing the integration of intellectual capital and organizational
learning for the development of models that explain this area. of study”. 23
The study of human capital continues to be the subject of research on the design of
systems, requiring greater understanding of the decision-making process for
differentiated investment in key or support human resources, taking into account how
the diversity of human capital impacts on organizational performance.
According to the opinion (Svetlik & Stavrou-Costea, 2007), there are several points
to consider in the paradigm changes that have taken place. “First, human resource
management contributes to managing people and their interpersonal characteristics
and can be assumed as resources to create a competitive advantage; second,
human resources are not only incorporated into the organization through the key
recruitment and selection activities, but are developed through investment in its
human capital; and third, it is necessary to consider what the structure of existing
human capital is and how it is changing, establishing new demands for its evaluation
based on its competencies, adaptability and its social network.”24
(2009). Strategic human resource management: the evolution of the field. .
Human Resource Management Review , 64-85
24SVETLIK, I. &.-C. (2007). Connecting human resources management and knowledge
management. . International Journal of Manpower , 28(3/4), 197-202. 25 DRUCKER, P. (1999).
Knowledge worker productivity: the biggest challenge. California Management Review,41(2), 79105.
Among these components, “the knowledge manifested in work skills has become
fundamental, due to the need to share it among the members of the organization in
order to achieve the desired results in work systems, especially in an economy in
which which the knowledge resource is being recognized as superior compared to
others of a tangible nature.” 25
In the world of Knowledge Management, different approaches and theoretical
perspectives have been considered, one of them is to “consider knowledge
management as a process that combines the data and information processing
capacity of ICTs and creative and innovative capacity of people.” 25Which invites us
to reflect on knowledge as a process rather than as an object or something static
that remains in the mind of each human being , without the ability to be transmitted
. Knowledge is a cycle that goes back to the activity of recruiting and selecting people
with a certain level of knowledge and competencies, then to the selection of topics
that will contribute to the acquisition of new knowledge that will ultimately have the
improvement of organizational performance. , but organizations must think more
than about individual knowledge and improvement of individual activities, about
group knowledge, this will lead us to develop strategies that contribute to the
multiplication of information within the employees of an area and later to other areas
of the organization.
It is important to keep in mind that training must be aligned with the improvement of
institutional processes, which will ultimately lead to the achievement of the
organization's objectives.
This is why we must think about methodological strategies that allow the trainee to
provide feedback to their colleagues and as a team to improve a specific activity in
the area that is delaying the main objective of all training.
One of the strategies that can be used are area meetings where best practices are
discussed, what should be improved and how to do it, which should be documented
initially in a minute, then in different communication channels defined by the intranet
organization. knowledge maps, electronic databases, institutional billboards, which
are easy to consult for the rest of the company's employees and processes.
This methodological approach forces human talent areas to transcend a simplistic
training approach to knowledge management, adopting three fundamental trends:
“one that focuses on the intervening and external role of human resources
Y. (1998). Deciphering the knowledge management hype. Journal for Quality and
Participation, 58-60.
management and on the dissemination of knowledge, another that emphasizes
strategic aspects and their impact on the results of knowledge management, and the
third that explores the implications that the theory of social capital has on human
resource management.”26
This proposal by this author would lead the area of human management to transcend
and assume the challenges of the knowledge economy, where there are human
capital managers, knowledge facilitators and specialists in the development of
pedagogical strategies. According to Lengnick-Hall, 2009, new human management
roles must allow 27:
The accumulation, conservation, complementation and recovery of knowledge,
collective skills of the organization.
The creation of a work system that meets the needs of people.
Facilitation of knowledge dissemination and organizational learning.
Employee compensation based on the acquisition and dissemination of
The creation and maintenance of networks of relationships between people within
and beyond the organization, teamwork and facilitating the formation of
communities of practice.
Design of performance measurement systems for objectives based on dynamic
Design of a flexible human resources management system at the pace of change.
The organizational infrastructure must be reconfigurable, combining elements of
information management, business processes, and organizational design to
satisfy situational needs .
These proposals lead us to think about the development of new research based on
the creation of conceptual models, where the human management area is involved
to facilitate the creation and transfer of knowledge for people in the organization.
A. (2004). A social perspective on the role of human resource practices in intraorganizational knowledge sharing. The 5th International Conference on HRD and Practice across
Europe, Limerick, Ireland. Europe.
27LENGNICK - Hall. (2009). Strategic human resource management: the evolution of the field. .
Human Resource Management Review , 64-85.
When faced with the word measurement, the Human Management area has
encountered a great difficulty that sometimes seems difficult to overcome. Now it is
not only about evaluating the levels of rotation, performance, the organizational
climate, but also about generating new proposals that contribute to measuring the
efficiency and effectiveness of training.
General management sees the need for employees to maintain a learning dynamic
in the organization but, at the same time, they demand that Human Management
present alternatives that make this not only the best option in terms of costs, but also
the most favorable in terms of costs. company profits. In short, we seek to see the
return on investment (ROI).
One of the biggest challenges in the training area is to guarantee learning, which will
be reflected in the improvement of organizational performance and, beyond this, the
Initially, one should begin by calculating to what extent the training provided had an
impact on the work performed, that is, whether it improved it or not, whether it
changed behaviors or not. The other step would be the return on investment (ROI),
measuring it is sometimes more costly than even designing the training program or
selecting the training topics, which is why other aspects will be addressed in the
development of the impact measurement. methodological proposals.
The impact tries to show what benefit the company obtains from the result achieved,
it is in this aspect where human management fails. On the one hand, great
contributions are made to the objectives of the organization with the development of
topics aligned with it, but on the other hand, the achievements are not demonstrated,
which would be translated, how training contributes to the improvement of processes
and directly to the compliance with organizational goals.
Different authors have been working on measurement proposals, although it should
be noted that it is a field that continues to be open to new research that really
contributes to impact measurement; here we present some of them.
Professor José Luis Torres Ordoñez
evaluations in the workplace.
proposes a strategy for carrying out
JL (2000). Operationalization of satisfaction evaluation, learning and work applications
of training programs. Medellin.
If you have not learned enough in the classroom, it is impossible for the
implementation in the workplace to be ideal. However, it may be the case that a good
level of learning has occurred in the classroom, but the application in the workplace
does not occur adequately. That is why, generally, we will be interested in verifying
the level at which the applications of what has been learned are produced.
It is a series of techniques that help us evaluate how those attending a training
course put the acquired content into practice.
There are various techniques to appreciate the implementation of the knowledge and
skills developed in a training action.
Structured Observation
This technique consists of carrying out a direct and systematic observation of one or
more workers in their workplace, of those who have participated in the training
The best person to carry out this observation is the direct boss of the person being
evaluated, who, in this way, will be able to appreciate the changes in the ways of
proceeding after the training received. It should be noted that this is an assessment
rather than a measurement itself.
The most used strategies to help systematize and facilitate the analysis of data for
structured observation are:
Observation Protocol: It identifies those aspects that must be observed.
Behavior Checklist: the presence, absence and/or frequency of specific behaviors
can be measured, and it will be used preferably when the number of behaviors to
observe is small.
Structured or Semi-structured Interviews
In this case, the corresponding hierarchical leader carries out an interview with the
person who received the training, once sufficient time has passed to be able to put
the content received into practice. In this meeting, the superior asks the employee
about the execution of the acquired skills, as well as the factors that may have
hindered a more correct performance.
Through this methodology, it is possible to appreciate not only the level of transfer
of the acquired skills, but also the possible barriers that may stand in the way of
adequate execution of the new skills in daily work. The analysis of the data will allow
us to verify both the effectiveness of the training and the measures to be taken to
avoid the obstacles that may arise.
To carry out this technique, it is necessary to prepare in advance the questions that
will be asked throughout the interview. It is necessary that these are in a logical
order, that they are chained. In this way the supervisor will have greater control over
the information to be obtained.
Parallel Monitoring Indicators
It is about obtaining a set of data that we can have with some ease and that serve
as indirect measures of the applications carried out. They consist of measures that
show how work habits vary after receiving specific training.
Although this technique is not as precise as the previous ones when it comes to
showing changes in behaviors, it can often serve as indirect measures of the
applications made.
Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model
In 1975, Donald Kirkpatrick 29 proposed a four-level assessment model that has
become a “classic” for many learning and teaching professionals.
Level 1: Reaction
As the word implies, the Level 1 evaluation measures how those who participate in
the program react to it. This level is often measured through attitude questionnaires
and are often given at the conclusion of most training classes. This level measures
the student's perception (reaction) regarding the course. You may be asked whether
L. Kirkpatrick is past National President of the American Society for Training and
Development. He has been a management and training development consultant for a wide variety of
companies, both nationally and internationally.
you liked the instructor's presentation techniques, how comprehensive the topics
covered were, how valuable you found the program modules, or the relevance of the
program content to your specific job.
Level 2: Learning
Level 2 evaluations can be defined as the extent to which participants change
attitudes, improve knowledge, and increase skills as a result of attending the
program. Addresses the question: Did participants learn? Level 2 assessments
require a pre- and post-test to be taken to determine what learning occurred during
the training program.
Level 3: Behavior
The Level 3 assessment measures the extent to which a change in behavior has
occurred as a result of students' participation in the training program. Determine
whether a behavioral change has occurred by answering the following question, “Do
participants apply newly acquired skills, attitudes, or knowledge at work?” Evaluation
can be carried out formally (test) or informally (observation). It is important to
measure behavior because the primary purpose of training is to improve outcomes
through behavior change. New learning does not benefit an organization unless
participants effectively apply the new skills, attitudes or knowledge in their work
activities. Since the evaluations of the Level
3 should be performed after students have returned to their jobs, the actual
measurements often also involve someone close to the student, such as a
Level 4: Results
The Level 4 assessment measures the effects of the learning program's training
effectiveness on the organization at a broader level, such as the learner's ability to
apply learned skills to new and unfamiliar situations. It addresses the key question:
“Have the learning outcomes worked in a way that adds value or has an effect on
the broader organization, beyond the individual who participated in the program?”
This effect can be reflected in financial terms, efficiency, morale, work teams, etc.
Collecting, organizing, and analyzing Level 4 information can be more difficult,
costly, and time-consuming than at other levels. However, it is often worth knowing
the results, especially in terms of value to the organization.
Model proposed by Esquivel García30
GARCÍA, R. “Procedure that allows measuring the impact on training” June 2008.
Characterization of the company: In this phase, the Organizational Climate is
described, the elements that make up the procedure carried out for the training
program are studied, indicators are established that allow these elements to be
measured and a judgment is made about the results obtained by the organization.
The diagnosis of learning needs is the fundamental element to develop a training
and development plan for each worker where, based on the above, the annual
training and development plan for the organization's human resources is prepared.
To carry out the diagnosis of needs, different tools can be used to identify knowledge,
skills, and attitudes that each worker presents and the requirements that are
demanded for a given position; The result of this diagnosis must reflect: the training
needs, what actions must be executed to resolve this need, who participates,
proposed dates (start and end), duration and place where the training will take place.
Measurement Phase: In this phase, the instruments are selected, the indicators that
will help measure the impact of the training are established, which are reflected
through the participation of the training courses, which are:
Level 1 Satisfaction: Helps obtain information during and at the end of the
training, such as criteria about the activity, methods used, applicability; This
information yields results that will allow for suggestions for improvements and
quantitative data for managers.
Level 2 Learning: Provides results such as effectiveness in students and
compliance with the proposed objectives. This level is designed so that the
evaluation is carried out by the training body through a survey that allows
calculating the level of learning obtained by the training participants. .
Level 3 Performance in the job : After carrying out the evaluation of what was
learned, an analysis of what was learned in the job is carried out, the impact it
may have related to the individual being trained (desire to change, know-how,
work environment ) at this level it is necessary to allow time to pass after finishing
the training.
Level 4: Economic Analysis: Allows you to quantify the benefits obtained with
what has been learned, taking into account the principle that the training and
development of human resources constitutes an investment and not a cost and
that its evaluation is expressed both qualitatively and quantitatively. based on the
transformations that can originate in each process.
These transformations that originate in the processes are analyzed based on:
increase in productivity, increase in quality, decrease in cost, increase in the levels
of satisfaction of both internal and external customers, improvements in processes.
Evaluation Phase: This must be evaluated at the level of each area, by their heads,
with support from the Human Resources person or persons, who will be in charge of
interpreting the results of the evaluations of each area, presenting a evaluation report
to the management department. Given the above, “each department or area must
systematically evaluate its impact, based on the improvements that occur with the
introduction of the knowledge and skills acquired by the trained people.”
The evaluation of the impact of the training is expressed both qualitatively and
quantitatively based on some indicators such as: compliance with the objectives for
the training actions carried out, application of the knowledge, skills and attitudes
acquired, multiplication of this knowledge and skills to the rest of his co-workers.
Control Phase, feedback: Training activities must be analyzed and controlled
continuously. Precisely evaluating the impact of the training is one way of doing this,
through which it is known whether it was effective with the courses taught. The way
to control the procedure is to establish application stages with the person responsible
and the execution date.
Control begins from the moment the procedure is applied, detecting problems that
may arise during the course of the investigation.
The feedback process is of vital importance because it makes it possible to improve
the problems found in each of the stages of the process; taking into account whether
it was applied as initially designed.
Training allows the employee to develop attitudes and skills that result in
personal and professional growth, resulting in greater efficiency and quality; It
improves knowledge of the position at all levels, helps improve the relationship with
superiors, multiplies information and promotes development with a view to promotion
in positions.
Training or organizational learning is considered an investment, since the
results obtained from it not only benefit the employee but also contribute to the
achievement of the organization's objectives, high productivity and identification with
the organizational culture.
The effective application of the different phases of the training model
(selection of training topics, learning strategies, some learning tools, evaluation of
learning and multiplication and/or application of knowledge and impact of the
acquired knowledge) allows the organization ensure qualified employees by
contributing to the training of leaders and managers, helping to promote creativity
and innovation in them.
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