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UNIT 3 (1754-1800s)
THEMES: ​Salutary Neglect, Uniting Together, Political Divide, Foreign Entanglements
● Salutary Neglect​ -> England failed to govern the colonies, allowing them to have local governments
- The governors in two colonies, Connecticut and Rhode Island were elected by ​POPULAR VOTE​. They
contained ​UPPER ​and ​LOWER HOUSES.
- Colonists in New England established towns and villages, ​forming town meetings​ as the local form of
government in which people of the town would regularly come together in a church to vote directly on
public issues.
- Virginia contained the ​House of Burgesses​ which was an elected body, while in Massachusetts the
legislature was opened to the educated and property elite.
● Spanish Armada defeated, Dutch left, Britain and France became powers, and the ​SECOND HUNDREDS
YEAR WARS​ began to be fought in the colonies!
- Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713) ​- peace of utrecht, British gains Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Hudson
Bay Region, Asiento gave Britain 30 year slave trade monopoly with South America
- King George’s War (1740-1748)​ - New Englanders failed to take control of French land because
Britain did NOT help, started at the end of the enlightenment
- French and Indian War (1754-1763)​ - fought over Ohio River Valley between French/Indians and
Britain because it was very fertile land, lots of wildlife, rivers, and very good economically.
● In 1754, George Washington (who was 21) was sent to push the French back from forts along the
Ohio River Valley, was then defeated at Fort Necessity (Western PA)... ​started the French/Indian
● British Government's Measures to Curb Smuggling
- Writs of Assistance (1761)​ -> British officers were effectively able to search ships for no reason, James
Otis sues the British government, they say that parliamentary law overrides his rights.
● French and Indian War (IN MORE DETAIL!!!)
- Albany Plan of the Union (Benjamin Franklin)​ -> called to unite the government of the colonies under
one central government. The colonies were to send revenue from taxes to fund colonial militia, however
none of them wanted to give money and ​REJECTED​ the plan to unite against France. ​NOT FOR THE
- Great Britain outnumbered French 15:1, British Leadership under Pitt energized troops, and had iroquoi
confederacy allies, however they had too much territory to defend. The French had Huron allies and
were more disciplined
- War ends with ​TREATY OF PARIS (1763)
● France -> lost Canadian colonies, most of Indian lands east of Mississippi
● Spain -> got all French lands West of Mississippi river, New ORleans, lost Florida to England
● England -> got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to carribean slave trade, and
commercial dominance in India.
Effects on colonies
● United colonies against a common idea
● Created a socializing experience for all colonies
● They all had bitter feelings towards the British because they didn’t acknowledge the colonial
contribution to the victory.
● Quartering of troops, kept them in colonists homes because English didn’t want them back in England
● England began to slowly take away salutary neglect, enforcing stricter rules on the colonies which almost
culture shocked them.
● Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763) - Great Lakes, Illinois County, Ohio County. Indians were angry that they didn’t get land as a result of the
war and wanted to get it back since they participated in the war. They were put down with smallpox
- Proclamation Line of 1763​ -> in response to Pontiac’s Rebellion, the U.S. agreed not to mess with any
natives on the west sides, restricting settlers on the East from expanding past the Appalachian
Mountains. This was the ​FIRST ​time Britain became involved in the colonies.
● TAXES​ in order to help pay for the war
- Sugar Act (1764) ​-> Response to smuggling, import tax on foreign sugar, rum makers needed sugar the
most in New England. Also created ​admiralty courts​ which had no jury, only judges, if you were caught
smuggling then you had ​NO trial by jury​.
- Stamp Act (1765)​ -> All papers must have a stamp to show that you paid tax, internal documentation.
Faced mass resistance, boycotts, and mass violence. Stamp Act Congress sent a letter to British
parliament, “NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION”. British responded that they have
virtual representation. Led to ​SONS OF LIBERTY ​forming which resisted, intimidated them, and
started mass protests (Boston Tea Party). Daughters of Liberty formed which produced their own
materials, boycotted English goods, and sought to harm economics of Britain. Eventually ​REPEALED
TAX​ because of colonies resistance (SOL tarring + feathering collectors).
- Townshend Acts (1767)​ -> Tax on imports such as paper, paint, tea, lead, etc. Eventually led to
BOSTON MASSACRE​ where more soldiers showed up to deal with resistance, colonists started
shouting at soldiers and one night near a bar, threw a snowball, a crowd began to conjure, people came
with clubs, and eventually a gun went off which caused all the soldiers to start firing. ​FIVE
COLONISTS KILLED​ (Crispus Attucks, freed slave), they all go on trial for murder in the colonies, but
John Adams defended them and they were found ​not guilty​. Taxes were ​REPEALED​ after massacre
except for tea.
- Declaratory Act (1766) ​-> Parliament has the right to tax any English citizens (including colonists)
- Tea Act (1773)​ - parliament grants a monopoly in tea to the East India trading company. Led to Boston
Tea Party where the SOL dressed as Mohawks dropped $90k worth of tea into the harbor. Angered
Britain and led to…
- Intolerable Acts/Coercive Acts (1774)
● Boston Port Act ​-> Boston harbor closed until the tea was paid for
● Massachusetts Government Act ​-> government meetings and self government banned
● Quartering Act​ -> brought more soldiers into Boston, gave the military to take the people’s house
if needed
● Administration of Justice Act​ -> Bostonians sent to England if they needed to go to court, given
unfair trials.
● Quebec Act -​> extended the boundaries of Quebec beyond the proclamation lines, legalized
Roman Catholic Church, recognized French laws in civil matters, permanent government in
French Territory. Gave more rights to French essentially.
● First Continental Congress (September, 1774) in Philadelphia
- 56 Delegates from 12 colonies
- Suffolk Resolves
- Declaration of Rights and Grievances
- Continental Association
- Minutemen -> they were ready to fight at any time
● Lexington and Concord (1775)
- Objective was to get arsenal
- British were looking for Samuel Adams and John Hancock (SOL)
- British overwhelmed @ Concord
- “Shot Heard Around the World”
● Second Continental Congress (May 10, 1775)
- Olive Branch Petition​ -> last effort in order to prevent from complete war with Britain, they wanted to
go back to normal, however, was REJECTED
- Declaration of the causes and necessity of taking up arms
- Lee’s Resolution ​(June 7, 1776)
● Free and independent states from Great Britain, Form foreign alliance, Plan of confederation sent
to various colonies for approval and acceptance (plan of the government), came before Articles
of Confederation
● Hessians (German Mercenaries) were sent by the King
● Prohibitory Act of Parliament ​which blocked off the colonies to ships.
● Common Sense (January 1776) ​- Pamphlet by Thomas Paine, simplified for wide audience, used to rally up
people against the king, why are we going up against Britain then explained why and the advantages of
independence, sold over 100,000 copies!
● Lexington and Concord (above)
● Bunker Hill (1775)
- British defending, Patriots attacking
- British won, but lost 3x the men that the colonists lost.
● Battle of Trenton (1776)
- Winter home of Hessians
- One of Washington’s first victory
- Crossed Delaware on Christmas Eve to surprise attack them
- Captured all of the Hessian army and got supplies, they marched and defeated the English at Princeton,
causing Congress to help pay for the war (only got ⅓ of the money promised)
● Battle of Saratoga (1777)
- Brought French over, which led to them sending troops, ammunition, and money, helped to bring Spain
to supply things for them (but not fighters)
● British went down south for loyalists, the US lost Savana, Charleston, and Camden, SC. Cornwallis occupies
coastal cities in Carolinas. Nathanial Green fights against them. George Rogers Clark takes territory north of
Ohio. Benedict Arnold attempts to deliver West Point to British. Cornwallis' army moved to Yorktown in 1781.
● Treaty of Paris (1783)
- Negotiated by Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay
● War Caused...
- Scarcity -> they lost their manufacturing partner, didn’t have much money, mass inflation
- Manufacturing slowly increased in New England
- Loyalists lands were sold, most going to Canada
- Restrictions from moving west were removed (no more proclamation line)
- All states North of Maryland began setting laws to end slavery
- Several churches began to reorganize.
● Aristocracy titles outlawed (for an equal nation)
● Slavery
- Gradual emancipation and financial compensation for owners in North
- HOWEVER, no black suffrage.
- Slaves still had few rights
- Slavery began to become more intense and ramped up after the war in the South as trade increased
● Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1786)
- Written by Thomas Jefferson, set precedent for Religious Freedom, and de-established Anglican Church
- Molly Pitcher ​->Mary Hages McCully. Took her husband's place when he fell wounded at the Battle of
Monmouth. Carried pitchers of water to men and cooled cannons.
- Nancy Morgan Hart ​-> Georgia Patriot. Served British hard cider when they had come over to her house
holding her at gunpoint demanding for a meal, eventually got their guns and waited for continental army
- Abigail Adams​ -> exchanged letters (helped John Adams), wrote letter to him at second continental
congress, suggesting independence, laws, and a fight for women’s rights in terms of inheritance
- Republican Motherhood -> strong family = strong republic. Women were educated to teach children to
become good citizens
- Women didn’t gain the ability to vote until the 19th amendment in 1920.
● [r]epublican
- Virtue, Patriotism, Education
- Pop. Sov., representative government, consent of the governed (elected people to government), limited
government (constitutional), liberty (freedom)
● George Washington
- Republican soldier, American Cincinatus (resigned commision over Continental Army following end of
the war, did the same after presidency). He was agrarian.
First plan of government for 9 years (1777)
Weak central government/federal government
Treaty of Paris (1783) treated the United States as 13 sovereign states as opposed to one central union.
Federalism - power shared equally between state and federal government (NOT in AOC)
Central government could only deal with relationships with foreign nations
Essentially a military alliance between the states
Called themselves a “firm league of friendship”
Every state had one vote; Articles could only be amended by a unanimous vote (13/13)
● Foreign Problems
- The US government under the Articles was too weak to stop Britain from maintaining military outposts
on the western frontier and from restricting trade.
● Economic Problems
- The US government could not levy taxes nor print valued money, with states even growing conspiracies
that other states were competing for economic advantages, thereby imposing tariffs and other restrictions
across state lines.
● Preceded by the Annapolis convention where George Washington hosted this conference in Virginia to review
what could be done about the country’s inability to overcome these problems regarding the Articles of
Confederation. Only 5 states however sent delegates to the convention in 1786 with James Madison and
Alexander Hamilton, after discussing ways to improve commercial relations among the states, arguing that
another convention should be held in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation.
● Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia in 1787
- Representation Issues
● States such as Virginia and Pennsylvania who had larger populations proposed that they should
proportionally have more representation against smaller states such as New Jersey and Delaware.
Madison proposed the Virginia Plan which favored the larger states, as the New Jersey Plan
favored smaller states. Eventually, Roger Sherman of Connecticut brought the Connecticut Plan
or Great Compromise, which supported a bicameral legislature which had a house based on
representation by population and a house based on equal power between all states.
- Slavery Issues
● Whether slavery should be included in populations, thereby supporting slave states. Eventually ⅗
compromise was met which meant for every 5 slaves, 3 real white men would be counted in the
South. The North decided that after 20 years, Congress had the power to either continue
regulating the International Slave Trade or to outlaw it (was outlawed in 1808).
- Branch Issues
● An Executive Branch was created which covers the President, established the electoral college
(representative democracy), and departments that covered the President.
● Judicial Branch created the Supreme Court, however the districts and other federal courts were to
be decided by Congress
● Amendment Ratification was to be ⅔ of Congress and ¾ of States.
● The Federalists and Anti-Federalists
- After the drafting of the Constitution following 17 weeks of talks, the Framers/Delegates of the
Constitution decided that it would need nine states out of thirteen for ratification.
- Supports of the Constitution and its strong central government -> FEDERALISTS. Common on the
Atlantic Coast in large cities which would be favored from the constitution with better trade principles.
- Opponents of the constitution and its strong central government -> ANTI-FEDERALISTS. Were
commonly smaller farmers and settlers on western frontier.
- Federalist Papers written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay which presented
reasons for the inclusion of the Constitution.
- Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania were the first three states to ratify.
- Eventually, an agreement to add a bill of rights to the constitution addressed Anti-Federalists opposition
to the Constitution. Anti-Federalists feared the strong central government and its ability to raise tyranny
again like Britain did.
- Eventually New Hampshire voted yes in June 1788, requiring the necessary nine states to achieve
- Secretary of State -> Thomas Jefferson
- Secretary of War -> Henry Knox
- Secretary of Treasury -> Alexander Hamilton
- Vice President -> John Adams
- 1789 -> First election of US
- Pay off ALL war debt. -> Combine all states' debt into single national debt (52 million), however this
angered many southern states as they had already paid off their debt. Replace old bonds (loans) issued
by the US government with new bonds, renegotiating new bonds with even higher interest rates of
- Raise government revenue to insure a steady flow of income -> tariffs (import taxes) on all
manufactured goods coming to the United States (so that the people buy more American goods) along
with a Whisky (excise tax) on all whisky produced and sold in the United States
- Create a national bank -> Location where US currency can produce paper currency, make money via
standard banking plan, and grow businesses by loaning money out.
- Thomas Jefferson and James Madison opposed Alexander Hamilton, arguing that he was taking up too
much power… however Hamilton argued the necessary and proper clause due to his loose interpretation
of the Constitution. James Madison argued if it’s NOT in the constitution, you CAN'T do it. He argued it
was unconstitutional because the constitution does NOT mention the bank.
- Hamilton created a compromise with Thomas Jefferson, if Jefferson and Madison supported his
economic plan, Hamilton would support moving the capital of the United States to the South (city of
Washington, District of Columbia).
- Hamilton -> Federalists
- Jefferson -> Democratic Republicans
- Hamilton’s excise tax on whisky led to the Whisky rebellion during Washington’s presidency.
- Jefferson was against whisky tax because he believed it’ll become a wine tax and thought it gave too
much power to the government as a direct tax (kinda like Stamp Act)
- Whisky was a form of currency because nobody really trusted paper currency
- Whisky was a regressive tax; the poor ended up paying more than the more wealthy. Large Distillers
were charged a FLAT rate (which didn’t change), while smaller distillers were charged by the gallons.
- Eastern Elites v.s. Western Farmers (like Shay’s or Bacon’s Rebellion)
- Begun tarring and feathering the tax collectors claiming it was tyranny
- Effigies were burned, Tax collectors were assaulted, shooting began
Eventually, in 1794, George Washington called the MIlitia of 13,000 troops against the 500 farmers
which he commanded, with people disappearing even before the Militia came.
Showed power of the Federal Government and that the Constitution was NOT weak and showed
strength in the new government, that they will defend the constitution.
Jefferson believed Federal Government’s response was an overreaction
Marks end of an era on the western frontier
Becomes MAJOR loss for Hamilton’s Federalist party as they’re voted out by the farmers
Jefferson eventually repreals whisky tax and all excise taxes.
- French Revolution
● Thomas Jefferson wanted to support it, however Alexander Hamilton wanted to let it play out
(we already had enough financial trouble and we didn’t need another war)
● Washington declared Neutrality Proclamation in 1793, arguing a friendly and belligerent attitude
towards France, setting this precedent until World War II.
● Jefferson resigns as Secretary of State as a result.
- Jay’s Treaty
● Britain agrees to abandon forts in United States from the American Revolution in exchange for
Most Favored Nation (MFN) trading status
● Agrees to pay for damages and to stop impressment of soldiers (didn’t happen)
● Jay blamed and effigies are burned of him
● Senate has to approve treaties which the President negotiates (⅔ of Senate)
● Treaty won 20/10 votes
● Economically served the United States better
- Pickney’s Treaty
● Settled West Florida Boundary, free navigation of the Mississippi (paramount in trade), right of
deposit in New Orleans. Approved by Congress and was extremely popular, negotiated with
- Set two term precedent (until FDR)
- 22nd amendment (1951) made his precedent official
- Washington’s Farewell Address
● NO political parties
● Avoid sectionalism
● Stay out of foreign entanglements and wars
● Respect the Constitution
● Election of 1796
- John Adams (Federalist) versus Thomas Jefferson (Democratic Republican). John Adams won 71
electors to 68 elections. Thomas Jefferson becomes Vice President.
● Partisan Newspapers
- Gazette of the United States (Federalist)
- National Gazette (Democratic Republican)
● Griswold-Lyon Fight (1798) - Congress fights on the floor
● The “Quasi War” -> undeclared naval conflict between the United states and France (1798-1800) as French
ships continually attacked American ships trading goods in England
- XYZ Affair: Attempted to bribe John Adams representatives so they could speak to the French King in
order to negotiate peace (French ministers referred to as XYZ). They refused to accept the bribes, saying
they’d rather go to war. John Adams successfully negotiated with France as they respected the US,
showing that we were a significant world power which demanded respect. John Adams did NOT get
pressured into war.
● XYZ Affair led to…
- Alien Acts (1798): Allowed the President to deport undesirable aliens. Extended residency for
citizenship for 5 years to 14 years for aliens. Also called Naturalization, Alien Friends, and Alien
Enemies Act. Considered constitutional from Article I, 9 which argued for delegated power reserved (if
not in constitution).
- Sedition Act (1798): Outlawed the publication of “false, scandalous, and malicious writing” against the
government. Ended 3/4/1801. Violated Amendment I/Amendment X (state’s rights).
- Virginia (James Madison) and Kentucky (Thomas Jefferson) Resolutions: Virginia/Kentucky pass
legislation that protests sedition acts because of Compact Theory (the constitution is a compact
agreement between the states and they have the authority to interpret it). States had the power of
interposition, where they must protect people of their states if the constitutional law is deemed
unconstitutional, they can thereby ignore it. Virginia took it one step further, arguing that they could
nullify the law if they pleased, used as an argument for secession.
● Election of 1800/Revolution
- Thomas Jefferson beats Adams, with the Democratic Republicans taking the House and Senate. Peaceful
transition of power. Showed that our constitution and government is STRONG.
UNIT 4 (1800-1848)
- Thomas Jefferson versus Aaron Burr on Democratic Republicans side
- John Adams versus Charles Pinckney on Federalists Side
- Primary issues of election include alien and sedition acts, renewed English interference with American
commerce, growing debt, and military expedientures
- There was NO popular vote. Legislatures choose electors to vote in the electoral college. There was a tie
between Jefferson and Burr, leading to the House of Representatives choosing the winner.
● Jefferson promised Federalist’s jobs, HOR had to vote 36 times before making a final decision
● Hamilton swung votes to Jefferson due to the fact that he was a prominent Federalist. Wrote in a
Federalist Newspaper calling Burr without beliefs or principles, stating that he couldn’t take a state as a
- Leads to the 12th amendment so there is a separate ballot for President and Vice President.
- Jefferson’s First Inaugural Address “We are all [r]epublicans, we are all [f]ederalists” (party divided between
state and government, representation). All still believe in the same foundation/constitution, his way of saying
that he didn’t want political parties to form.
- Judiciary Act of 1789: Created a federal court system. The Supreme Court assigned 9 judges (John Jay
appointed as Chief Justice). 3 Courts of appeals created. District court in each state. Helped to create the current
court system as the Constitution only laid out the basis for the SCOTUS.
- In Election of 1800, Democratic-Republicans overtook the Legislature and Executive branch. Jefferson sought
to bury Federalists, vowed to have them removed completely. Federalists spend months before Jefferson’s
inauguration in a “Lame duck” session.
● Led to “Midnight Judges” Act. Sixteen new federal circuit judges, which would serve life terms to help
overcome the Democratic Republican influence
● John Marshall was a Federalist and the Secretary of State (Adams) assigned him as the Chief Justice of
the Supreme Court by “Midnight” appointment. Rushing to get the oaths delivered, they could not
effectively be finished in time for the inauguration. That left them for the next Secretary of State, James
Madison, to deliver the oaths, which he proceeded to throw them away and refused to deliver them.
● This led to….
- Marbury v. Madison (1803) ● William Marbury sues government (Madison) because he did not get his job because Madison threw the
oaths away. HE argued that in the Judiciary Act of 1789, he argues that the court has a right to write a
writ of mandamus to force him to get his job.
● Marshall goes to ARticle 3, Section 2, first determining if he has the authority to hear the case, but
ignores it. He considers the writs of Mandamus unconstitutional, believing it gave the Judiciary court
too much power over the executive government.
● Helped lay the basis for JUDICIAL REVIEW that they would interpret law through the U.S.
constitution, setting the purpose of the Supreme Court.
● Marshall court believed in a strong central government, loose interpretations of the constitution, that the
national bank was constitutional, believed in commerce/business in economic pursuits, and that the
Supreme Court interprets the Constitution in the end.
● Jefferson believed in a states’ rights, strict interpretations of the constitution, that the national bank was
unconstitutional, believed in agrarian in economic pursuits, and that the states had the rights to interpret
the constitution (Kentucky resolutions)
- Harrison Land Law (1800): 320 acres for purchase with a downpayment of ¼ of it’s value. The Act of 1804
reduced the minimum purchase to 160 acres which helped western settlers. Act of 1820 reduced the land to 80
acres at $1.25 an acre (no credit, only cash).
- Liberal Land Act of 1800: allows Ohio to enter the union
- Yazoo Land Fraud
● Bribed legislatures sell west Georgia land below value to 4 companies, with the legislature later voiding
the sale
● The companies sued the state in Federal courts which resulted in Georgia surrendering the land to U.S.
companies at compensated rates
● However, “Quids” (states rights, republicans) refused to vote for the payment
● Led to…
● Fletcher v. Peck which argued that rescinding law was UNCONSTITUTIONAL as it was an
infringement on a legal contract
● Delayed the settlement of Western Georgia (Alabama, Mississippi)
● Gave rise to Quids
- Louisiana Purchase (1803) ● Jefferson technically bought the land unconstitutionally because he did so without authority, advice, or
consent of the Senate.
● Called the land a “treaty” -> Senate agreed to backdate documents to make it seem as if he had authority
and consent from Senate
● Lewis and Clark sent to explore - #1 mission was to find the Northwest Passage (doesn’t exist, news
flash), which was a direct sea route to the Pacific.
● Sacagawea was the native guide for the core of discovery, born in present day Eastern Idaho.
● Added Kentucky, Tennessee, and Vermont.
- Jefferson won extremely easily. Aaron Burr was defeated by Jefferson and was thrown aside, the Federalists
turned to him to be elected governor and lead New England secession. Hamilton exposes the plot, where he’s
challenged to a duel and ends up being killed.
- European nations paid tribute to pirates of the Barbary states on the North Coast of Africa. Federalists continued
this policy.
- In 1801, Tripoli demanded more tribute, and was dissatisfied, declaring war with the United States for 4 years
- Commodore Decatur negotiated peace in 1815.
- France/Allies -> Land power, Continental system
- Britain/Allies -> Naval power, naval blockade of Europe
- U.S. thought they deserved to trade with both of them since we were neutral. U.S. depended on exporting raw
materials to have them manufacture because Jefferson didn’t want cities to grow and spread disease and poverty
in the United States (like he had seen in Europe)
- British navy begins to impress American soldiers and ships
- British Maritime Policies
● Stop ships from supplying Napoleon from the West Indies
● Essex Decision (1805) - returned to policy of stopping indirect shipments. (French West Indies -> U.S.
-> France)
● Impressment
● Issued Orders in Council (1807) which forbade neutral trade with France and it’s allies
- Jefferson enacted peaceable coercion - Passed Non-Intercourse Act in 1806 which forbade the importation of
British Goods
- Chesapeake ship attacked by British Leopard Ship which killed 21 Americans. Led to Congress passing the
Embargo act of 1807, as a means of economic coercion, enacting tariffs on all foreign countries which
attempted to trade with the United States. Resulted in absolute failure and pissed off merchants in New
England, almost destroying the economy of the United States.
- Nonintercourse act (1809) repealed Embargo Act and forbade trade with only Spain and France.
Elected in 1808.
- Native Americans began to become angry about American’s invasion of their lands, with a revolt being led by
Tecumseh and his tribe.
- Found weapons made in Canada (assumed to be Britain) after the Natives defeat, angered people greatly,
Madison sent a war message to congress where he outlined why we should go to war with Britain, leaving the
decision up to Congress greatly.
- War Hawks, such as Henry Clay of KY and John C. Calhoun of SC pressured for war against Britain.
- British impressment of soldiers
- Trade restrictions (orders w/ council)
- Inciting/Inticing Native Americans
- Manifest Destiny, wanting to expand to North (Canada)
British prime minister (who was new) repealed all of the acts, however time of this decision didn’t reach the
U.S. in time
- Madison won the election, however only by 59% of the vote because people in America didn’t want to go to
WAR OF 1812
- America was ill-prepared for the war. The military had been cut back by Jefferson and we were financially
insecure… tariffs were not raising enough funds as Jefferson did not like income taxes.
- New England greatly opposed the war
● Jefferson offended Federalists of New England so they supplied and traded with Britain during the war
and their states withheld their militias from campaigns in Canada, essentially refusing to go beyond
State lines. The Embargo of 1807 nearly destroyed their economy and livelihoods
- Burning of Washington (August 24th, 1814)
● James Madison was able to escape, however the Capital, White House, and Treasury Department were
burned down by the British. However, Madison’s wife and other slaves preserved and saved many
historical relics from the White House
● Eventually a hurricane saves Washington as it drives people out and puts the fire out.
- Fort McHenry (1814)
● American doctor sees bombs being set off for 20 hours as he was held prisoner by the British. Sees the
U.S. flag in the morning and notices that it is still hanging ,writing the star spangled banner. Example of
nationalism that rose from the war.
- War Ends (1814-1815)
- Hartford Convention (Dec. 1814 - Jan. 1815): Delegates from New England (Federalists) meet to
suggest amendments to the constitution to Congress. Wanted ⅔ of Congress to have to approve
Embargos, Declare War, and Admit New States. Wanted NO CONSCRIPTION (drafting). Sent
these demands to congress, however at the very end they said they implore Congress to take
action or they will SECEDE From the Union. However, this was read by Congress and
announced right when the union had won the war, effectively DESTROYING THE
FEDERALIST PARTY for good as people viewed it as unpatriotic.
- Treaty of Ghent (December 24th, 1814): Agreement of Status quo ante bellum, to go back to the
way things were before the war, which was signed in Belgium. Britain and American war ended
- Battle of New Orleans (January 8th, 1815): Andrew Jackson gathered soldiers to protect New
Orleans. British were slaughtered by the Americans, it was a huge victory. Everyone hears about
this victory at the same time that news of the treaty broke, with people associating Andrew
Jackson with having won the War of 1812 despite the fact that there were no clear winners in the
- Results of the War
● Respect from the British
● American disdain over the British were renewed
● Defeat of the Natives lead to settlement east of the Mississippi
● End of European war leads Americans to be free from distraction of war (Era of Good Feelings)
● Increased nationalism… decreased sectionalism (the whole country was united against a common
● AMERICA BECOMES SELF SUFFICIENT!!! They can no longer depend on European trade partners
anymore, leading to a rise in American industry.
Elected in 1816. Known as the “ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS” -> no wars going on, relaxation, self-sufficiency,
industry growing, Ghent Nationalism (Treaty of Ghent)
Last President of the Virginia Dynasty. Continental Army Veteran. Former Anti-Federalist. Re-Election in 1820 was
nearly unnamious (99.5% to 0.5%) because of the nationalistic tendencies tied with him, everybody was happy.
The Cabinet included Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, Secretary of Treasury William Crawford, and Secretary
of War John C. Calhoun.
Foreign Policy included Canada and Britain through Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817) and Treaty of 1818 and Adam-Onis
Treaty (1819)
- Economics
● 2nd Bank of the United States halts the expansion of unsound currency (not backed up by gold or
silver), stopped paper money inflation, provided a federal depository, and John C. Calhoun and Henry
Clay moved to revive the Bank
- Panic of 1819
● Banks force state banks to redeem their paper money in specie (coins). The Banks demanded payment of
loans when due. Money panic ensued causing debtors to sell property to raise cash, eventually being
forced into bankruptcy. All because of speculation.
- Henry Clay sought for a national bank (first one expired in 1811), Internal Improvements (infrastructure) which
John C. Calhoun discussed internal improvements as necessary to help facilitate internal commerce, however
Madison vetoed it, then sent it to Congress, however internal improvements had already begun, and finally
protective tariffs to help build and protect domestic manufacturing.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
● Bank of U.S. versus Maryland. Maryland had placed a tax on the bank of the United States with them
suing in protest. John Marshall was the Chief Justice at the time. He ruled in favor of the Bank because
of Federalism, Elastic Clause, Supremacy Clause, and implied powers, stating that “The power to tax
has the power to destroy”. Essentially gives more power to the Federal government as he acknowledged
the fact that states were UNABLE to tax the Federal government.
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
● Gibbons starts running a new steamboat company and Ogden states that he can’t be on his water routes.
Said what Fulton and Livingston had set up was ILLEGAL because it was a monopoly.
● Government ruled that only Congress could regulate interstate commerce and that the states could not
restrict it. The states thereby cannot interfere with Congress’s power to regulate interstate commerce.
- Adam-Onis Treaty (1819)
● After War of 1812, Florida had trouble governing itself (under Spain) because of a lack of troops to
address the problem
● President Monroe commissioned Andrew Jackson to stop the raiders, in which Spain had become
UNHAPPY (as he hung seminole Indians and other cruel things).
● Monroe sent John Quincy Adams to negotiate peace with SPain
● Spain turned over western Florida along with all to the East along with claims in the Oregan territory to
the United States
● United States paid Spain $5,000,000
- Rush-Bagot Treaty (1819): agrees to share Oregon trail, sets the 49th parallel
- Latin America
● Several countries had won independence from Spain and Portugal
● Europe wanted her colonies back
● Monroe Doctrine (by John Quincy Adams): Non-colonization in Western Hemisphere (Americas),
warned Europe not to colonize. Promised in return that the U.S. would stay out of European affairs. We
had England as a friend because of the raw materials they exported from South America, so they
protected us and served as “Batman” in order to help secure this doctrine
- Are all states equal or are some states more equal than others?
- Can Congress impose conditions on new states that all states don’t necessarily have to follow
- Tallmadge Amendment (1819)
● When Missouri becomes a state, no new slaves will be allowed in and gradual emancipation will
happen. The House passes the bill, HOWEVER, the Senate rejects it.
- Alabama comes in, now the Slave versus Free state is balanced at 11 to 11
● Henry Clay comes in, agreeing to have Maine enter as a free state, Missouri as a slave state. Everything
south of 36’30 line would be a slave state, everything north would be free (in the Louisiana Territory).
Considered the STARTING POINT of the Civil War (the beginning of the period of Antebellum of the
war). Jefferson stated that we were holding slavery as holding a wolf by the ear, it would eventually
- Founded in 1816
- Liberia (colony established in Africa, Capital is Monrovia, for colonization of ex-slaves)
- Mechanized cotton production (increase in industry, southern cotton, king cotton)
- Helped to increase slavery
- “King Cotton” becomes America’s #1 export, increasing the South’s dependence on slaves with the North
having to manufacture this cotton to export it to Europe.
Jacksonian Democracy or Jacksonian Controversy? How do we label him?
Direct balloting of President (OLD)
- Common people would vote for state legislatures who would influence and control the electoral college
- NOW… State legislature was removed. All States adopted by 1836 (except for South Carolina). They only
changed this system in 1860 when they seceded.
Election of 1824 - Andrew Jackson had the most electoral votes BUT not the majority of the votes.
- John Quincy Adams won in the House of Representatives because of the CORRUPT BARGAIN
● Henry Clay offered votes to John Quincy Adams because of his influence in exchange for secretary of
State because this was the stepping stone of the Presidency.
● Jackson/John C. Calhoun GREATLY condemned the bargain and began campaigning, calling out both
of them and giving up the Vice PResident Office.
Jacksonian Democracy
- Belief in the common man, universal (white man) suffrage, popular campaigning
1828 Campaigning
- Candidate centered (ignored national issues), negative advertising, attacking, dirty campaigning, sectionalism
beginning to arise.
- Jackson appealed to people (bashing Adams for his wealth), arguing that he was a general in the army and had
fought in the American Revolution, had to work hard, and related to the more common people more.
- Campaign between wealthy and the middle/poor classes
- Jackson, however, was attacked for executing soldiers when trying them for treason when he invaded Florida
without a proper trial.
- Jackson ends up winning 178-83 (1,155,350 more voters voted because property restrictions were being
removed as he fought for the common man).
- Everyone was invited to the White House for a party, representing the common man
- Formed Kitchen Cabinet where he appointed Martin Van Buren as Secretary of State, trusting the kitchen
cabinet and their opinions compared to his official cabinet
- Spoils System
● Political patronage: government offices were given to political supporters
● Appointed to political offices and created jobs for supporters in city/state politics
- National Republicans (Whigs) versus Democratic Republicans (now known as Democrats)
Tariff of 1828
- Highest tariff rate EVER passed by Congress
- Protective tariff (needed money to fund the government)
- South greatly condemned the Tariff as it favored Northern industries and manufacturing
- Supported three main industries (Commerce, Agriculture, Manufacturing), however does NOT benefit the
general welfare and the South has not benefited from any tariffs as they’re mainly harmed as foreign tariffs
increase because then it makes it harder for them to export crops/cotton
- South Carolina threatened to nullify the Tariff, refusing to collect the tariff within state borders
● Led to Andrew Jackson having Congress pass the Force Bill, which allowed him to bring in the military
to forcefully collect the tax in 1832.
● Henry Clay eventually brings the Compromise of 1833 which lowered protective tariffs which South
Carolina accepts.. it also nullified the Force Bill.
Election of 1832
- National Bank was a central issue
- Jackson was against the Bank, while Henry Clay was for the bank (running in the Whigs)
- Bank shut down in 1836, Jackson vetoes Congress’s attempts to recharter it
Political Change in Jacksonian Democracy
- More political democracy by 1828
● Removal of all property qualifications and remaining religious qualifications for voting. Presidential
electors were now chosen by popular vote within the state.
● New State Constitutions made more elective offices instead of appointed offices
● Nominating conventions
- Political parties formed in which political machines organized voters to win the election
- “Spoils System”
- Jackson believed the President should assume wide prerogatives and exercise vigorously the powers of their
own office
- Social and economic changes.
Andrew Jackson had appointed him to Secretary of State so that he would win the election of 1836 and precede him.
He was a Democrat (New York, the “Little Magician”)
Panic of 1837/1839
- Assumed responsibility for the damaged economy of America from Specie Requirements (hard currency for
lands), overexpansion of credit, devaluation of land (overspeculation), crop failures (droughts), and a finacial
depression in England which led to bank closures, business failures, and high rates of unemployment
Martin Van Buren does NOTHING, going by Laissez-Faire economics, angering people suffering from the
Economic Recession, ultimately leading to him being elected out of office.
- Transcendentalist thinking (Romanticism)
- Westward Expansion
- American Nationalism -> What is America? Creation of National mythology
- Native Ameircans
- Price for progress and the advancements of civilization
- American philosophy which started in the mid 19th century in New England
- Believed in inherent goodness of both man and nature together
- Believed that individuals needed to look inside themselves for the truth
- Man’s greatness is found in the individual, not in the group
- Civil Disobedience
● Believed that there were two times when open rebellion is justified
- When injustice is no longer occasional but a major characteristic of government
- When the Machine (government) demands that the people cooperate with injustice
● Thoreau declared that “If the government requires you to be the agent of injustice to another, then, I say,
break the law”
- Painted nations most spectacular and undeveloped areas
- Created visual embodiments of the ideals of Transcendentalism (painting is the agent through which the
universal mind can reach the mind of mankind, art is the agent of moral and spiritual transformation.
- Pastoralism -> the ideal harmony between man and nature.
- “Knickerbocker” school of writers
- James Cooper: “Last of the Mohicans” (1826), first American novel
- Washington Irving: “Rip Van Winkle” (1819) / “Legend of Sleepy Hollow” (1820)
- Gothic Writing emphasized wild, tempestuous emotions, along with death, nature, love, the supernatural, and
the unexplained
- Herman Melville: “Moby Dick” (1851), great American novel which was little understood by most
- Emily Dickingson: Poetry mostly written in 1850s/1860s
- Nathanial Hawthorne: “Scarlet Letter”, we should accept the world as an imperfect place.
- Edgar Allan Poe: “Gothic” Short Stories and Poems
- Emerson
- Walt Whitman: “Leaves of Grass” (1852)
- Alexis de Tocqueville: French aristocrat who toured the U.S. during the Jacksonian period. Wrote findings in
“Democracy in America” (1835).
- Webster Dictionary
UNIT 5 (1844-1877)
Manifest Destiny
- Described what was thought to be the obvious destiny of America. Divine mission to expand borders from
Atlantic to Pacific oceans. We must do ANYTHING to complete this.
- Between 1840/1860, 250,000 people made the trek westward.
- Lewis and Clark (1804-1806) - First westward expedition
- Zebulon Pike (1807-1808) - Great Plains and Rocky Mountains
- Steven Long (1820) - Maps Great Plains
- Jedediah Smith (1822-1830) - First American to explore California
- John C. Fremont (1843-1844) - Mapped overland trails to Oregon and California
- Oregon Trail - immigration of western farmers
- California Trail - gold rush
- Mormon Trail - escape religious persecution in Utah
- Women receive more rights as they moved west, starting in Wyoming
Texas (History)
- In 1821, Mexico won independence from Spain in which the new Mexican government opted for free trade with
the United States
- Thousands of US land speculators moved to Texas (with Stephen F. Austin and Sam Houston being the
founders of Texas) because Mexico was offering cheap land grants and even free land to Anglo settlers
- Texas declared their independence in 1836 after Mexico fell under the dictatorship of Santa Anna in 1834.
Lasted until 1845.
- Armed rebellion broke out in 1835, led by Stephen F. Austin
- Slavery was banned in Texas as it was banned in Mexico, the people moving there were expected to convert to
Roman Catholocisim, and were to pay import tariffs (however, Texans never complied with these rules)
- In 1837, Texas petitioned the U.S. for annexation, in which the US government took no action because of the
border dispute and balance in Senate with Texas being a slave state
- In 1838, Texas withdrew their annexation request, seeking loans/treaties from European powers with Britain
favoring Texas
- Texas was the center of the Presidential election of 1844.
1844 Presidential Election
- James Polk (Democratic Republican + Pro-Expansion) versus Henry Clay (Whig + Anti-Expansion)
- James Polk made key promises: The Oregon boundary would be settled in the Mexican War, he would bring
California in as a free state, he would reduce tariffs, and form an independent treasury (he made a one term
pledge, completed everything he promised)
Texas (into the Mexican American War)
- Texas annexed in 1845, with president John Tyler helping to annex Texas through a joint resolution (right
before Polk became President)
- Texas Annexed
● Admitted without preliminary period of territorial status
● Might be divided into five states
● Texas would pay their own debt
● Retained public lands
● Missouri Compromise line permits slavery
Oregon Question
- Britain did not want to fight so they settled northern Oregon border at 49th parallel (same as Rush Bagot
Historical Context of Mexican War
- James Polk sent John Sidell to Mexico City with up to 25 million to spend in order to obtain California from
Mexico. The Mexican leaders refused to meet him and were insulted, leading Polk to become angry.
- Polk then sent Zachary Taylor to defend the Rio Grande river as the rightful border (between Rio Grande and
Nueces River) and asked Congress to declare war after the Thornton affair where 16 American men were killed
and the other 24 were captured by Mexican soldiers after going down to defend the border
- Abraham Lincoln opposed the war somewhat, proposing the SPOT RESOLUTION (arguing that we should
determine the exact spot in which the American soldiers blood spilled to determine if it was actually on our land
or Mexico’s land)
Mexican War
- John C. Fremont won California (Bear Flag Revolt)
- Zachary Taylor won Northern Mexico
- Stephen Kearny captured New Mexico
- Winfield Scott captured Mexico City
- Americans overwhelmingly won without much resistance.
- Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848):
● Mexican agreed to cede California/New Mexico as well as recognizing the Rio Grande as the formal
boundary of Texas
● U.S. agrees to pay Mexico $15,000,000
● Gadsden Purchase -> separate treaty made with Mexico in 1853 to obtain US southern parts of New
Mexico and Arizona. We needed the bottom of NM and AZ to avoid the Rocky Mountains for the
Transcontinental Railroad, paying Mexico up to $10,000,000 for it.
Wilmot Proviso (1846)
- Free Soil Party wanted to keep slavery but have no expansion
- Passes House, but NOT Senate. FAILS.
- Infuriated and further entrenched Southern Slave Power
- Fractured Northern Democrats (versus Southerners)
The American Party (Know Nothings) - Nativism (Anti-Immigration): they were against Irish and German Immigration because they increased
representation in government in the North
- Didn’t get much done
- Philadelphia Nativist Riots (1844)
Election of 1848 - Zachary Taylor won for the whigs, however died after a year in office, being the last Southern President until
- He believed in state’s rights, did not support secession, supported the National Bank, was against Protective
Tariffs/Expensive Internal Improvements, was a slave owner, however didn’t believe in the expansion of
- Taylor said he would veto the Compromise of 1850, HOWEVER, he then dies
- Millard Fillmore takes over and signs the compromise of 1850, being the last president who was a whig.
Free Soil Movement (1848)
- Free soil, free men, free labor
- Led by Martin van Buren, the chief Barn Burner, new York Democrat faction that was opposed to the expansion
of slavery
- Wanted to end the expansion of slavery because he wanted the Mexican ceded lands turned into homesteads for
White Americans as opposed to slaves taking up the labor and forming more southern plantations. NOT
Compromise of 1850 1) Admitted California as a FREE STATE (Northern Advantage)
2) Stronger fugitive slave law, the federal government can help (Southern Advantage)
3) Popular Soverignty, letting settlers decide for the status of slavery in Mexican Cession (Southern Advantage)
4) Texas ceded land in return for $10,000,000 from Federal Government
5) Slave trade abolished in D.C. (Northern Advantage)
- The Great Triumvirate argued about the Compromise of 1850 (Webster, Clay, Calhoun)
- Senator Stephen A. Douglas designed the compromise (although Clay took credit) and designed it into five
separate bills (omnibus bill) to pass it more easily through Senate
Personal Liberty Laws
- Made to oppose and inhibit fugitive slave acts of 1793 and 1850
- Guarantees jury trials for accused slaves
- Passed by Wisconsin and other Northern States
- De Facto Nullification (as opposed to De jure)
Gold Rush (1849)
- Flocks of people moved to California
Chinese often overlooked, working in gold mines for much lower wages, and built half of the continental
Leads to Chinese Exclusion Act (1892) - no chinese immigrants allowed at all, first ever restrictive immigration
law based on race.
Ostend Manifesto (1854)
- American foreign ministers (Inc. Buchannan) in Europe met to discuss US acquisition of Cuba
- Threatened war with Spain if they didn’t release Cuba
- Approved by Congress, but met opposition from North
Crisis of the Union (SUMMARIZED)
- 1852: Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, set under Fugitive Slave Law. Changed perception of
slavery in the South. Becomes National best seller. Made people face the horrors of slavery
- 1854: Kansas-Nebraska Act. People moving into Kansas and Nebraska to debate the issue on slavery, giving
people popular soveringty in slavery and overruling the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
- 1856: “Bleeding Kansas”. 56 dead between 1855 and 1859. Pro slavery versus Anti Slavery. “Border Ruffians”
from Missouri came to vote. New England Emigrant Aid Society (Beecher Bibles, really shipping guns into the
states for fighting)
- 1857: Dred Scott Case. Dred Scott, a slave, lived with his master in freed territory and his master died. Chief
Justice declared slaves property and thereby they cannot become citizens or argue legal cases.
- 1858: Lincoln Douglas Debates where Douglas won, but lost popularity in the South. Made Lincoln a national
- 1860: Election of Abraham Lincoln, southern states secede, civil war BEGINS.
Crisis of the Union (IN DETAIL)
- 1852 Election -> Franklin Pierce wins, he’s a people pleaser who tries to make everybody happy. Ultimately
passed Kansas Nebraska Act.
- Kansas Nebraska Act (1854):
● Sack of Lawrence (1856): Pro and Anti Slavery fought and pro slaves eventually pushed out Anti
Slavery people and took over
● John Brown was an abolitionist who organized the Pottawatomie Massacre (1856)
● Bleeding Kansas caused tension between North and South as they both saw each other as planning to
hamper each other’s ways of lives and being out to get them. Caused paranoia, that the North was
planning attacks even though they were being independently carried out.
● Topeka Constitution was Anti Slavery, Lecompton Constitution was Pro Slavery which was backed by
Preisdent Buchannan.
● Republican party FORMED​ because of Kansas Nebraska Act, including the likes of Northern Whigs
and Free Soil Democrats and New England and Northeast powers
● Charles Sumner (Massachusetts Senator) blamed Stephen DOuglas and Andrew BUtler for passage of
Kansas Nebraska Act.
● Brooks/Sumner Incident (1856) - Nephew of Butler and Charles Sumner fight (caning of
Sumner/Bleeding Sumner), highlights tension between parties.
- Election of 1856
● James Buchannan was elected but he was abroad during the Kansas and Nebraska act and following
tensions. He didn’t quite understand what was going on in the United States, so he didn’t get much done
as President
Dred Scott v Sandford (1857)
● People of African descent could NOT become US citizens (whether they were freed or not)
● Congress does not have the ability to forbid slavery in federal territories (violation of property rights)
● Declares Missouri Compromise unconstitutional since Missouri Compromise forbade slavery, nullifies
36’30 line.
● Judicial Activism: Missouri Compromise NOT mentioned in the case, therefore they’re overstepping
their powers. Branch is supposed to INTERPRET laws, not make them.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1857)
● Illinois Senate Race (Stephen Douglas who was a Democratic Incumbent versus Abraham Lincoln who
was a Republican Challenger)
● Focus is on the FREE SOIL MOVEMENT
● Significance: Douglas won HOWEVER lost popularity in the South, Lincoln became a national figure in
his House Divided Speech in 1858.
John Brown’s Raid (1859)
● Wanted to seize federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, VA
● John Brown tried for treason and was convicted and executed, influencing abolitionists with his raid
● Caused Paranoia
- North: “slave power” conspiracy. South wants to SPREAD slavery to take over United States
- South: North plans to end slavery through revolts
Election of 1860
● Abraham Lincoln wins which prompts the secession of states in the deep south (South Carolina first)
because they thought that Republicans were out to get them and would abolish slavery.
CIVIL WAR (1861-1865)
Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)
- Stephen Douglas argues that slaves are property, in which Lincoln hits back with that you CANNOT make laws
restricting property to read (showing that the South recognized that they were actually humans and not just
materialistic objects)
Election of 1860 - Lincoln only gets 40% of popular vote, Douglas gets 30%, Breckenridge got 18%, Bell got 12%. Lincoln Wins
- Unfinished Capital meant that the nation was unfinished, capital added onto in 1861 to accomodate for growing
size much like our country was growing too fast.
- Lincoln Inauguration in which he stated that he didn’t want to take away the South’s slaves but to just protect
the state of the union, never recognized the South was seceded but rather as rebelling
War Conditions
- North fully outnumbered the South and should’ve easily won the war without much of a fight (but they didn’t
fight much the first two years)
The South did NOT have the infrastructure to support the war and they could not get supplies (literally couldn’t
get shoes)
Rise in German and Irish immigrants in North (except for Kentucky)
Missouri, Maryland, Kentucky, and Delaware were BORDER STATES. So Lincoln ignored the constitution,
went to Maryland, and suspended the writs of Habeas Corpus then arrested anyone who was for secession
without any cause
Blockade around the South, Federal Conscription (Draft) which Abraham Lincoln imposed violated the
constitution because Congress was not in session (which he could’ve easily done)
President Jefferson Davis and Vice President Alexander Stevens. Jefferson Davis lost his son (toddler) who fell
from the top floor of his house while Abraham Lincoln’s son who was 8 died of yellow fever, he was so
distraught that he felt as if he couldn’t get through the war
Both sides claimed George Washington as their savior
- Fort Sumner (1861) - April 12th, officially started Civil War, Confederacy wins
- Anaconda Plan: Winfield Scott’s plan to win the war, surrounding the confederacy with a Navy and Army to
constrict them. Failed because of the size of their military. Fired as a result.
- Lincoln’s Generals
● George McClellan - brought back a second time, then fired him
● Ulysses S. Grant - helped to break confederacy into pieces successfully, he was however a functioning
- Davis’ Generals
● Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson - killed by own soldiers, unfortunate because he could’ve helped to win
the war
● James Longstreet: best friends with Grant
● Nathan Bedford Forrest - upset that the South surrendered and hated the new amendments
(13th/14th/15th) and founded the KKK to prevent blacks from enjoying life
● Robert E. Lee - originally was asked to fight for the union, but felt an obligation to fight for the
confederacy as it was his home land
- 1st Battle of Bull Run (July 1861)
● Also called 1st Manassas
● Many people in DC went out to watch the war (lots of government officials) and the confederates
destroyed the union with these people and soldiers running back to DC. People watched because they
thought it would be timid, tame, and that the union would easily win.
● Confederate Generals did not follow union soldiers in order to seize DC, letting them go
- Battle of Antietam (September 17th, 1862)
● Bloodiest day in American history with 23,000 casualties
● Turning point of the war (which was won by the union army) and this led to Great Britain to not fighting
with the Confederates
- Emancipation Proclamation (Jan 1, 1863)
● Freed all the slaves from rebelling states, however no slaves were technically freed because there was no
one to enforce it in the South
● Slaves only get freedom when the union soldiers went down to the South
● Andrew Johnson from Tennessee refused to leave the Union and therefore Lincoln did not enforce the
emancipation proclamation there
Women’s Loyal National League (1863)
● Founded in 1863 by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. Helped men get the right to vote
and were angry when the 15th amendment only gave black men the right to vote, as opposed to black
Extensive Legislation passed without South in Congress
● Homestead Act: 150 acres free to move west into the Great Plains if you stayed there for seven years,
allowed for lots of huge family units/farms
● Moral Land Grant Act (1862): Government set aside funding for A&M universities
● Pacific Railway Act (1863): Financial transcontinental railroad and decided on Northern Route
Battle of Gettysburg (July 1st-July 3rd 1863)
● Turning point of the war for the union
● 51,000 men died in 3 days, more Confederate casualties than Union
● Gettysburg Address Followed
- Dedicated cemetery to Union soldiers
- References the Declaration of Independence, saying that is what they’re fighting for. Says this is
why union soldiers must continue to fight, to preserve the union, and that the government will
NOT perish.
Sherman’s March to the Sea (1864)
● Promises the country that he WILL win the war, going through the middle of Georgia down to
Savannah, then back up. Destroyed anything that the confederacy could use, ripping the heart and soul
from the confederacy, total guerilla war.
Election of 1864
● Lincoln (Republican) versus George B. McClellan (Democrat0
Final Virginia Campaign
● Surrendered @ Appomattox on April 9th, 1865 where Lee surrenders to Grant
Lincoln’s 2nd Inaugural address
- Says that we cannot be malice towards some, but instead provide charity for all. Forgiveness for South
Ford’s Theater (April 14th, 1865)
- Lincoln and Mary Todd Lincoln (originally Grant was gonna go)
- John Wilkes Booth worked with other men to try to lure the South back into war. He was a famous actor so
nobody was suspicious and he knew the theater well. Shot Lincoln in the back of the head at point blank range.
- Lewis Powell tried to kill William Seward, the Secretary of State, by breaking into his home and stabbing him,
but Seward survives
- George Azterodt was supposed to kill Andrew Johnson, the Vice President
Amendments Passed
- 13th Amendment Passed
● Ratified 1865, Abolished Slavery
● Congress had power to enforce, NOT the President
- 14th Amendment Passed
● Ratified 1868, Gave citizenship to freed men and due process, replaced ⅗ compromise
15th Amendment Passed
● Ratified in 1870, Gave freedmen the right to vote regardless of race and color
Freedom of slaves triggered backlash from white southerners with them inciting violence and Jim Crow Laws/Black
DURING THE WAR… Legions of enslaved people rose against their masters and fled to Union territory with their
efforts convincing men and Lincoln to opt for emancipation. 180,000 black men joined the Union army. Role was
essential to making sure that they were emancipated post war.
Blacks held few legal rights and protections in the South, seeking to reunite with separated family members after the
war and desiring to build new lives which they had desired their whole lives
The Lost Cause… The idea that the South was a gracious institution attacked by Northern Aggression. The South was
devastated and their economy was destroyed. Former confederates retained that they were just fighting because the
North was trying to suppress their ways of life and society. Established common ground for all confederates
Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan
- Similar to Lincoln’s reconstruction plan which in addition to Lincoln’s Terms (allowing presidential pardons for
most Confederates who took an oath of allegiance to the Union and Constitution and accepted the emancipation
of slaves along with the fact that a state government could be recognized and accepted once at least 10 percent
of voters took the loyalty oath).
- However, added on that all former leaders and officeholders of the Confederacy and Confederates with more
than $20,000 in taxable property could no longer vote or hold political office
- However, the President could still grant individual pardons to “disloyal” Southerners, being an escape for the
wealthy planters whom JOhnson favored, allowing many former Confederate leaders to hold office by the fall
of 1865.
- The Government which Andrew Johnson set up in Mississippi passed black codes (only against African
American people) which were vagrancy laws which required black males to sign a labor contract with a white
person, in which the white people could essentially indenture their children.
- Bureau of Freemen… White settlers greatly opposed it. The Bureau had 850,000 acres of land. Held 40 acres
and blacks had 3 years to buy them as led by Howard. Andrew Johnson eventually gave Bureau land back to
farmers, essentially stripping it from the blacks and forcing freeman to enter into labor contracts with the
farmers (basically slavery). Eventually vetoed by Johnson.
Radical Republicans
- Republicans had been divided between moderates, who were only concerned with the economic gains for the
white middle class and the radicals who championed civil rights for African Americans.
- Several more Republicans became radical in 1866 out of a fear that the Democratic party would unify and then
become dominant again.
- Lead Radical Republican in Senate was Charles Sumner of Massachusetts
Civil Rights Bill in April 1866
Made to defy Andrew Jackson’s veto of the Freedmen's Bureau Act and the first Civil Rights Act . Pushes away
the prospect that African Americans were not citizens, arguing that anybody naturally born in the United States
is thereby a citizen. In response, there were revolts such as the Memphis Massacre in which black churches and
schools were burned, killing 24 black men. In New Orleans, 40 men were killed and there was lots of casual
Nullified the decision made in the Compromise of 1850 which declared African Americans as property
However, they feared it could be repealed, thereby proposing the 14th amendment.
Report of the Joint Committee (June 1866)
- Joint committee of the House and Senate reporting for the recommendation of the reorganization of the former
states of the Confederacy, arguing that they didn’t deserve representation in Congress, disallowing Southern
senators and representatives from taking their seats. Further asserted that only Congress (not the President) had
the authority for determining when these states could re enter Congress. Essentially rejected the presidential
plan of reconstruction.
Military Reconstruction
- Eventually, the 14th amendment was passed, reaffirming this and arguing that anybody born in the United
States was declared a citizen who deserved equal protection and due process. Southern governors refused to
ratify the amendment. By Spring of 1867, Republicans kept southerners from government’s, eventually
completing controlling it, and didn't recognize them at Congress.
- Republicans and military went to the southern states, arguing that they had to ratify the 14th amendment, pass
constitutions which forbade slavery, give African Americans the right to vote, and form new state governments
or else they would be fired (the governmnet officials) or overruled to make a statement that they aren’t in
control. Southern states could only then be included in the government again when they did this, called the
Bayonet Rule.
1876 Presidential Election
- Tilden almost won (needed 185 votes, but had 184), ending up going to the House of Representatives. Florida,
Louisiana, and South Carolina counted both sides with their votes. Rutherford B. Hayes said that if they gave
Redeemer Governments
- Southern White “Bourbon” Democrats reassessed authority. Laissez-Faire economics, Low tariffs. Solid south
Democartic Strongholds.
The New South
- Jim Crow Laws - segregation, preventing African Americans from where they can go (locally)
- Literacy tests imposed for voting in order to prevent them from voting. Also asked to pay poll tax
- Grandfather’s Clause - if your grandfather voted, then you could vote.
- Supreme Courts ruled they’re legal because they did NOT denote race in laws
- Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
● Louisiana Racial Segregation Case. Argued that they were “separate but equal”, eventually overturned
by Brown v Board in 1954.
UNIT 6 (1865-1898)
Westward Expansion
Free Land
- Frederick Jackson Turner: The American Frontier lies at the edge of free land (most in West)
- Homestead, Morrill Land Grant, and Dawes Act passed
- Thousands of African American families left the South after failures of Radical Reconstruction, establishing
homesteads in Kansas, not many because of money and search for family (“Exodusters”)
- Most families settled west with more equality for women
- Most people died from diseases, snakes, lack of medical care, etc (as opposed to Indians)
- Innovations such as barbed wire and dry farming helped to protect and flourish new homesteads
- National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry (Grangers 1867) which involved community gatherings and
cooperatives, pooling their resources together.
- Prostitutes helped to grow the West greatly.
- Influx of women influenced the growth of towns (around Brothels) with the women becoming leaders in the
community and helping their community with economic success. Helped lead to political equality and influence
- In 1869, Wyoming gave women the right to vote
Acts Passed/Events
- Indian Intercourse Act (1834)
● Forbade white settlers from entering “Indian Country” without a license
- Homestead Act (1862)
● 160 acres, live on there for 7 years with a permanent structure to get land (pay $18 registration free),
which helped to attract 600,000 families to the West
- Morrill Land Grant Act (1862)
● Federal lands sold to create colleges dedicated primarily to the study of Agriculture, Mechanical Arts,
and Military tactics (A&M)
● States would decree which college they wanted to create
● 30,000 Acres given out
- Carlisle Indian School (PA, 1879-1918)
● Indian culture must be killed to assimilate American/White culture into their own. However, neither
cultures would accept the other and clashed with each other.
- Dawes Act (1887)
● Reservations were broken up and tribal lands were distributed to individual Indian families (they must
live on it for 20 years but most were nomadic so it made no sense). Adds a surplus of lands to whites.
Oklahoma Land Rush (April 22nd, 1889)
● Races to claim land, remove Federal marker and put your own to claim and defend the land
● However, some people would cheat and get there early, sometimes getting caught
Transcontinental Railroad
- General Information
● Question about whether the government or private industry should control it (this was during the Civil
War). Jeffersonian (Laissez Faire economics) versus Hamiltonian (government control)
● Republican Congress (who aligned with Federalist ideals) discussed that they must intervene in the
● Pacific Railroad Act (1862): allowed for government subsidies (payments for a desired outcome) for
corporations constructing railroads. FIRST TIME government paid private corporations. Government
partially used land to pay subsidies (every other square mile within 3 miles of the railroads)
● Central Pacific Railroad (California -> East Coast) built by the Chinese
● Union Pacific Railroad (Chicago -> West Coast) built by the Irish
● Both companies paid by the mile and they drew the route (so the routes weren’t direct, thereby
collecting more money). Railroads met in 1869.
● 139,403,826 acres of people’s land which was worth $278,806,053 was used for the railroads
- Innovation
● As the telegraph allowed for more communication which went along with the railroads, Time Zones
were invented, standardized gauges were made (for railroads and train carts)
- Impact
● Allowed for more business (as cattle traveled easier, cattle drives), Mines (railroads built tracks to
mines) allowed commerce to increase greatly
- Credit Mobilier Scandal
● Executive at the Union Pacific started the credit mobilier company, which funneled money into his own
company from the government, essentially paying himself
● The government was involved (Republican Oakes Ames), beginning to sell stock in the credit mobilier
company, showing the government mingling with corporations
- Other Scandals
● Government Leland Stanford of California was president of the Central Pacific Railroad. Manipulated
the system so he was the only railroad owner in California, not allowing any other railroads to pass
through. This was a huge railroad monopoly in California controlling all these industries.
● Public perception of government saw them as being apart of the monopolies, influencing the ideal of
Crony Capitalism (the government and business working together with cooperation of one another)
- Successes of Railroad Owners
● James Hill built the Great Northern Railroad, one of the most successful in the country without land
grants or subsidies by using private investments in cash, not being reliant on the government. Subsidies
in the 1890s went bankrupt, so he ended up coming out victorious versus the other countries.
- Consequences of Railroad
● Millions of Buffalo on the Great Plains before the 1870s got in the way of railroads, with people being
hired to shoot them (Buffalo Bill Cody) to move them out of the way. They would also collect their fur
and leave the rest of the Buffalo, hunting them nearly to extinction.
● Made it hard for the Native Americans to survive… leading to the Indian Wars (1860s to 1890s) around
that time. William Sherman said all the natives needed to be killed or moved to a new area to watch
them. Called this the final solution (very similar to Hitler)
● 1851 (Ft. Lermy Treaty) which set up boundaries of protected reservations (Sioux and Comanche under
command of black Kettle), decreased boundaries ultimately in 1863
● Sand Creek Massacre (1864)
● Sioux War (1865-1867): gold mines wanted the Bozeman trail which went across Sioux hunting grounds
to connect them. 88 US Soldiers were killed
● Indian Peace Commission (1867): ended the Bozeman trail plans, made “small reservations” in the
Dakota and Oklahoma territories
● Few Native Americans settled peacefully into their reservations (Red River War in 1874, Little Big
Horn in 1876, Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890)
● Custer’s Last Stand (Battle of Little Bighorn, Montana, 1876) led into an ambush of Sioux Indians and
every man in his army was killed. Amped up wars, created more resentment of the Native Americans,
causing them to be viewed as Barbaric.
● Apache Wars (1849-1886): last tribe to offer armed resistance against the United States
Begins Gilded Age.
General Information
- Ran presidency like the military (imperfection), overly trusting people who he gave orders to. He followed the
advice of people, thinking that he could trust them. Led to scandals with people who took advantage of him.
- “Let us have peace”, continuing Abraham Lincoln’s legacy, aiming for only two simple goals, peace and
reconciliation between the North and South as well as enforcing the rights of African Americans (CIVIL
- Ratified the 15th amendment in the 1870s
● The KKK opposed this. Gave blacks voting rights. KKK Act passed in 1870 (Enforcement Acts) which
made it illegal to use terror, force, or bribery to prevent voting based on race. Imposed stricter/harsher
penalties in 1871 and empowered the President to send troops to put down conspirators and to punish
state/local officials. Successfully puts them down.
● Riots broke out throughout the South as a result, spreading to Louisiana as Grant refused to send federal
troops since they weren’t necessarily started by the KKK. Mistake.
● Restoration of Southern “Home Rule”, Louisiana, Florida, and South Carolina held out to join the union
- “Black Friday” Gold Conspiracy
● Jay Gould, Jim Fisk, Abel Corbin, and General Daniel Butterfield (who controlled the gold selling
room) involved. Gould and Fisk owned massive railroad companies
● Abel Corbin convinced Grant to not release gold into the economy to help raise the price of gold. Gould
and Fisk then bought mass amounts of gold in the millions before the price increased. They purchased it
for 135 paper dollars, with it eventually reaching 165 paper dollars.
● Grant wanted to release gold into the economy again but Butterfield convinced him to stop for a short
time. Currency speculators thereby bought the expensive gold in hopes that it would eventually rise in
price. Grant wanted to start releasing the gold, it’s price plummeted, but beforehand Gold and Fisk sold
all their gold
The Tweed Ring/Tammany Hall Scandal
● Place where Democratic party met ran by William Tweed who ran the Democratic Party in New York,
enjoying local politics
● Became famous in the first place by negotiating a deal with the Federal Government, gaining popularity
regarding the draft.
● First political machine which controlled local politics
● They schemed to steal about $200 million from New York’s tax payers (he knew where government
lines and roads would be built, so he bought property in that area so the government would have to pay
for it). Eventually exposed by Thomas Nast in the New York Times.
● More info on page 364 AMSCO BOOK
Salary Grab Act: Congress raised their salary by 50%, President by 2x
Whisky Ring Fraud: One of Grant’s tax collects for whisky only collected half of them and kept the rest
Economic Problems
- Panic of 1873
● 1869 Black Friday, 1871 Chicago Fire, 1872 Equine Influenza, 1873 Demonetization of Silver
● Collapse of Jay Cooke + Co, the biggest investor in the US
● Primary Cause: overexpansion in railroad building and industry
- Resumption Act of 1875
● Congress resumed ability of nation’s paper money to be redeemed with gold, helping creditors, but
hurting debtors as it increased the value of the dollar
- Greenback Party
● Created to help debtors who demanded an increase in the money supply, calling for the free coinage of
silver on a parity with gold (Bimetallism)
- Granger Party
● Created to help parties
● Provided social life and educational meetings for farm families
- By 1874, Americans were tired of Reconstruction because of economic problems, thereby Reconstruction came
to an end. Negative perception of colored people grew again. Democrats thereby took control (of the House of
…. Break from Grant Presidency
- American fundamentals fueling the Gilded Age Economy
● Individualism, Private Property, Free Enterprise/Capitalism (no government interference), Laissez-Faire
- Economic Factors
● Abundance of Natural Resources (timber, rivers, coal)
● Investment Capital (war bonds from civil war)
● Mass production (interchangeable parts - Eli Whitney)
● Transportation/Communication Revolution (Trans Continental Railroad)
● Cheap Labor (new immigrants)
Inventions (helped to transform life completely for people)
● Telegraph -> Telephone
● Sewing Machine (textiles)
● Type-writer
● Edison (lightbulb) changed business, they could open into the night instead of relying on daylight,
offering more jobs to immigrants
Market Revolution
● First one during Monroe’s Era of Good Feelings
● All about mass production and mass consumerism, allowing for luxuries and ease to obtain items
● Department stores started to rise in competition with one another along with chain stores rising
● Newer marketing strategies such as catalogs to order whatever you wanted on demand
Trusts and Holding Companies (new forms of businesses)
● Monopolies began forming (companies were merging and forming trusts)
● Corporate mergers (1% of all US companies controlled 33% of the economy)
Second Industrial Revolution
● Railroads, Steel, Oil
Political Factors Promoting Growth
● Morrill Tariff (1861): high tariffs to protect American industry.
● National Banking System Act (1863)
● Creation of Railroads (42) and subsidies
● Protection of Business under 14th Amendment which considered corporations as individuals and
therefore protected them under equal protection, personifying them (since they’re owned by
stockholders, protecting those stockholders). The Supreme Court recognizes them as “persons” in Santa
Clara v Southern Pacific.
● Laissez-Faire economics
- Cornelius Vanderbilt
● Family owned steamships
● Dealt with Railroads as they stimulated the growth of coal, petroleum, oil, and steel
● Overtook smaller railroads, striking deals with Rokcefellar’s oil in exclusive relationship
● Owned the 4 main trunk railroads in Northeast, building up an Empire
● Railroads highly competitive using special prices/discounts (which doomed them) and speculators were
investing for profit instead of the future
- JD Rockefeller
● Controlled oil (refined high quality oil)
● New machines required kerosene/lubricant with all homes requiring kerosene for their own lamps,
which was all powered by oil
● Had lower costs because of how much he was able to refine at a high quality, owning 90% of the oil in
the United States (controlling the market)
● Vanderbilt struck a deal allowing him to ship oil everywhere, eventually outgrowing the deal since the
railroads could not sustain the amount of oil he was producing, getting a better deal from Tom Scott and
his partner Carnegie.
● Horizontal Integration, he owned a whole part of production (Rockefeller owned oil refining), but not oil
Andrew Carnegie
● Owned every part of steel production, or at least some part in every process (vertical integration)
● Steel was stronger, but lighter, making it desirable
● Used the Bessemer-Kelly process which could produce a steel beam 4x faster than the normal process
● Connected through railroads, buildings, etc, out producing smaller companies
● US became #1 producer of steel by 1990s
JP Morgan
● Saved railroads by personal financing, ended traffic sharing, stabilized rates of railroads, ended rebates,
created the “Board of Trustees” which weeded out the weaker companies (Social Darwinism/Gospel)
and by 1900, 7 main railroads dominated the United States
Social Darwinism
● Capitalists used this argument by exclaiming that natural competition weeds out the weak, only the
strong end up surviving and it is in the best interest for America. Survival of the fittest. Argued the
“Gospel of Wealth” that it’s God’s will that some men attain great wealth, arguing that they must attain
wealth to give back to society (Carnegie Library/Hall and Rockefeller Center)
- Factors of Production
● Land (natural resources), labor (human effort), and capital (investment)
- Who owns the products?
● Capitalism, argued that the capitalists owns the means of production and decides what to do with the
● Socialism, workers own the means of production and share the profits that come from their labor
● In the Gilded Age, the people thought they should own the products in which they make
- Combinations began to form
● Trusts (combination of businessmen designed to make profits so people can’t leave to other companies
for better pay). ILLEGAL NOW.
● Unions (combinations of workers) who wanted increased wages, decreased hours, and improved
● Craft Unions which were organized by craft or trade, you needed a level of skill to join
● Industrial Unions which were organized by all workers in the industry without skill or trade
- National Labor Union (1866-1873)
● FIRST UNION to form, 600,000 members, no Chinese allowed, blacks/women not encouraged to join
● Won the 8 hour workday for federal employees
- Knights of Labor (1869)
● Started as a secret society formed by Terence V. Powoderty, being opened to all workers, seeking
reform in the way of worker cooperatives (chapters), ending child labor, and abolishing
- Ways to break up Union Strikes
● Lockouts, refused allowing them to come back to the factory
Hiring Scabs, replacing workers with immigrants
Yellow dog contracts, workers signed contracts saying they wouldn’t join unions or they’d get fired
Blacklists, share people’s names in unions to other businesses
Pinkertons, mercenaries hired to put down strikes through violence/force
Labor Violence
● Great RR Strike (1877): Baltimore and Ohio RR cut people’s wages and workers went on strikes and
encouraged other RR workers to strike. ⅔ of RR’s closed. Went on for 45 days. Rutherford B. Hayes
called the Commerce Clause to break the strike with state militias and federal troops because they were
affecting interstate commerce. 100 dead by the time it ended
● Haymarket Square Affair (1886): Influence from new immigrants wanting socialism. Organized by the
Knights of Labor, protesting for an 8 hour workday. Printing center for the flyers were a group of
anarchists so they added a line “arm yourself and bring your full force” causing increased police
presence. A bomb went off (probably from an anarchist), killing a police officer. Public opinion conveys
that labor unions = socialism, communism, anarchy. 8 anarchists were arrested and executed. Ruined the
reputation of the Knights of Labor, bringing them to an end.
● Homestead Strike (1892): The wages of workers at Carnigae’s factory were cut, resulting in strikes for
better working conditions. Carnigae ordered Henry Frick to deal with it, simply wanting a lockout, but
Frick refused and instead hired scabs and ordered pinkertons to help get them out of the factory. The
pinkertons eventually fired and 16 were killed in the Battle of Homestead.
● Pullman Strike (1894): Made sleeper cars for RR. Workers lived in a company town in Chicago, in
which all expenses were deducted from their wages weekly. The Panic of 1893 made Pullman induce
lower wages, but they didn’t decrease the rent so they organized a strike for higher wages and lower
rents. Pullman couldn’t afford to put down the strike so he wanted the government’s help, but they
refused. So they converse with other RR’s to connect mail cars to each train, allowing the government to
issue a federal order to end the strike under the Commerce Clause. Leader of the strike, Eugene V. Debs,
tells strikers to refuse the government order, sues the government, but gets arrested. He read the
communist manifesto in jail and became a socialist, wanting industrial unionism. Case goes to court
called In re Debs (1895), in which the SCOTUS upheld the Federal Government’s decision. Started the
Industrial Workers of the Worlds (IWW).
American Federation of Labor
● Association of craft unions. Members were skilled white men. Dominated at the end of the 1800s along
with the IWW.
● Merged with Congress of Industrial organizations, now the largest network of unions in the US Today
Craft Unionism (AFL) vs Industrial Unionism (IWW)
● Craft Unionism was founded by Samuel Gompers, consisting of skilled workers, were discriminatory
(only allowing white men), were nationalist/nativists/against strikes during war, and cooperative with
● Industrial Unionism was founded by Eugene V. Debs, consisting of skilled and unskilled workers, were
nondiscriminatory, internationalist/nativists/for strikes during war, and advocated socialism.
From 1870-1900, populations in cities grew by 700%. European, Latin American, and Asians flooded cities.
Blacks migrated to the North. Farmers migrated to take NEW Factory jobs.
By 1920, 50% of the American population lived in cities (caused by industrialization, farm mechanization,
redeemer south governments, and immigration)
Steel’s Impact on Cities
● By 1880s, steel allowed cities to build skyscrapers
● Chicago Fire (1872) caused more models such as New York. John Root + Louis Sullivan were the
fathers of modern urban architecture.
● Cities developed distinct zones including central business districts with working and upper class
residents, middle class residents in suburbs, and electric street cars elevated rapid transit and improved
Muckrakers, journalists who used publicity to expose corruptions and attacked abuses of power in business and
City Poverty Issues
● Tenement/Sham living, most often where people who were poor had to live
● Jacob Riis “How The Other Half Lives” exposed this poverty
● ½ of NYC’s buildings were tenements which housed the poor working class
● They were plagued by fire traps and being cramped
● They had poor sanitation, polluted water and air, and tuberculosis
● Homicide, suicide, and alcoholism rates rose in the United States
● From 1880-1920, 23 million immigrants came looking for new jobs, leading to a resurgence of nativism
and attempts to limit immigration and they kept their language, religions, and created ethnic newspapers,
Impact on Society
● Increase in self-sufficient female workers
● Most states had compulsory education + Kindergarten
● 150 new public + private colleges
● Cities set aside land for parks and American workers found leisure time for vaudeville and baseball
● “Family Time” disappeared for the working class.
- New Immigrants (1890-1920)
● Southern Europe (Italy, Greece) and Eastern Europe (Russian, Poland), coming to escape economic
hardships and political hardships such as the Russian Revolution.
- Demographics
● Catholic, Jewish, Orthodox (different from Americans Christianity)
● Non-english speaking countries and most were illiterate
● NO Republican traditions (different from our democratic government)
● Formed ethnic enclaves and would pass through Ellis Island in New York
- Hull House (1889)
● Created by Jane Addams in Chicago, IL to provide education, job training, child care, etc for immigrants
and children
● Social and economic opportunities for working class (poverty)
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
● First U.S. law to restrict immigration based on nationality and race
● Remained on books until 1943 (in WWII)
● Chinese were used as scabs for cheap labor
- Gentlemen’s Agreement (1907)
● Negotiated agreement with Japanese government which had them disallowing immigration and in
response, the United States agreed to treat currently residing Japanese-Americans well.
- Not much difference between Republicans and Democrats. Congress was split with Democrats controlling the
House of Representatives and Republicans controlled the Senate. 5 Presidential elections from 1876-1892 were
the most contested elections (within 1% of popular vote)
- Legislation
● Interstate Commerce Act (1887)
● Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883)
● Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
● McKinley Tariff Act (1890)
- Blurred lines as spoils system led to a larger federal government, GOP dominance, and endorsements of
national policies. Graft/corruption (gifts for political office).
● Stalwarts (GOP) led by Roscoe Conkling, supported the spoils system, and fed off of political machines
● Half-Breeds (GOP) led by James G. Blaine, supported civil service reform, opposed political machines
- Voting Blocks
● Democratic Block which was supported by white southerners, farmers, immigrants, and the working
poor who favored white supremacy and labor unions
● Republican Block which was supported by northerners, whites, blacks, and nativists who favored big
business and anti-immigration laws
- Civil Service Reform
● Federal bureaucracy swole in size after the 1860s, positions appointed by patronage.
● Congressman often took bribes or company stock for their votes
● Political machines ruled cities through bribes and personal favors
● ENDS when Garfield is assassinated by Charles Guiteau (convinced Garfield would give him an
appointed job, was crazy, shot him as a result)
● Chester Arthur was disappointed, saying patronage MUST end. In 1883, Congress created the pendleton
act for merit-based exams for civil service jobs. Went into state and local justifications
● Pendleton Act weakens Patronage and helps to end political machines and led to funding to campaigns
from big business and private companies.
- Only around for 10 years, pushed the progressive movement towards reform, growing from the farming
community. Farmers made up 7.5 million out of 21 million workers nationwide, however they were often
ignored. Farmers, hurt by Tariffs, costing them more to run businesses (having to pay American goods because
foreign goods were becoming overpriced because of tariffs). Surplus of food causing prices to go down. Most
were independent contractors.
- Farmers Uniting
● Socially -> The Grange
● Economically -> Farmer Alliances
● Politically -> Populist Party (most successful 3rd party)
Problems they faced
● Harsh farming conditions
● Declining grain and cotton prices
● Rising RR rates and mortgages (random charges)
● Government deflation policies (dropping prices)
● Farmers ended up lashing out @ banks, merchants, railroads, and the U.S. monetary system (gold
● Led to the Grange (underlying focus is the currency, gold versus silver standard, they wanted the money
supply to go UP so the interest went DOWN, allowing for inflation and a rise in prices of the goods
which they were selling)
Silver Issue
● Crime of ‘73 (aka coinage act of 1873) which demonetized silver as the government stopped coining it
● Bland Allison Act (1878) which limited silver coinage (2-4 million ounces a month)
● Sherman Silver Purchase (1890) Act which the U.S. treasury must purchase another 4.5 million ounces a
month of silver, overvalued silver, causing gold to be overbought by investors.
● Benefits of Gold
- Sound currency, stable economy, supports banks, creditors, investors, and industries, with a
strong dollar meaning more interest HOWEVER hurt borrowers and debtors
● Benefits of Silver
- Expands credit, increases prices for crops, supports borrowers, debtors, and western farmers
HOWEVER hurts creditors and bankers
● Combine Gold and Silver into Bimetallism.
Grange Movement (1870s)
● Cooperative associations, “granger laws” in which transportation rates (long versus short hauls) were
required to post their rates and a maximum was set for grain storage prices (by the U.S. government)
● Declined by the end of the decade, mostly contained in the Midwest, South, and Texas
Supreme Court Decisions
● Munn v Illinois (1877) which upheld Granger laws, states are allowed to regulate business inside their
own states and set price ceilings
● Wabash St. Louis and Pacific Railroad Company v Illinois (1886) which stated that individual states
could control trade in their states, but not regulate railroads which were simply passing through their
Farmers Alliance (1880s)
● Northern Alliance (Midwest) and Southern (Texas) combined into alliance
● More political and less social compared to the Grange
● In the 1890s, they controlled 8 state legislatures and had 47 representatives in Congress because they
were putting people up for office.
● Northern and Southern movements merge in 1889
- National meeting in Ocala, Florida setting demands on the country. They argued for 1, an
increased money supply (including silver) to create inflation, 2, federal storage for farmer’s
crops, and 3, federal loans for farmers.
Election of 1888
● Proposal to lower the tariff rates (Cleveland)
● True division between Republicans (higher tariff rates) and Democrats (lower tariff rates)
● Big business backed Republicans with money, therefore Harrison won.
- Billion Dollar Congress
● McKinley Tariff (1890) which was a 48% tax on foreign goods (higher tariff since abominations in ‘32)
● Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) which outlawed “combinations in restraint of trade” which made
combining companies illegal through government collusion only
● Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)
- Western and Southern Farmers versus Eastern Banking and industrial elites (including Eastern union members)
- Nominates James B. Weaver as Presidential Candidate
- Omaha Platform
● Direct election of senators
● Right of initiative and referendum and recall
● Use of secret ballot
● Coinage of silver
● Graduated income tax
● Federal loans to farmers
● Abolition of National Banks
● Nationalize railroads, communication, and other public utilities
- Cleveland wins election of 1892
- Panic of 1893
● Causes
- U.S. Treasury Gold reserves fell below $10,000,00 (SSPA)
- Reading Railroad declares bankruptcy (largest railroad)
- Foreign investors pull their funds
● Effects
- Unemployment hit 18.4% in 1894. 35% in NYC.
- Over 16,000 businesses went bankrupt and 500 banks failed
- Pullman strike (1894)
● Coxey’s Army (1894)
- Marched on Washington and lobbied the government to create public work jobs (shovel ready
jobs, road builders, etc). President Cleveland ordered Coxey’s arrest for trespassing in the U.S.
Capitol grounds, disbanded the “army”
● J.P. Morgan and Cleveland
- U.S. Treasury Gold Reserves depleted
- Sherman Silver Purchase Act repealed
- Federal government considered selling bonds to the general public
- J.P. Morgan (brings us out of the depression) by selling $65,000,000 of gold to the Federal
Government in exchange for a 30 year bond.
- Caused further distrust of people thinking that monopolies and governments were working
together (crony capitalism)
- Election of 1896
● A Populist-Democrat merger looked possible in 1896 when William Jennings Bryan (who was the
“great commoner” who appealed to farmers, the working class, and the middle class) received the
Democratic nomination against Republican William McKinley with his “Cross of Gold” speech in
which he called for free silver/income tax tax and attacked trusts and injunctions, visiting 26 states in his
whistle-stop campaign to educate America about silver.
● Why did Bryan lose? He was so focused on bimetallism that he did not reach other groups of people.
McKinley appealed to everybody, had heavy funding, the press behind him, and more.
McKinley’s Presidency
● Republicans benefitted from an improving economy, better crop production, and discoveries of gold
● From 1860 to 1890, Republicans had promoted industry (time to regulate)
● Election of 1896 commenced Republican rule for 30 years and became party of prosperity
● McKinley communicated well with the press and the Spanish-American war brought the USA respect as
a world power.
● The Gold Standard Act (1900) ended the debate on silver
- Muckraker Journalists who exposed political/business corruption or Reformers
● Upton Sinclair: The Jungle, expose on meat packing industry in 1906, immediately selling 150,000
● Florence Kelly: Worked to prohibit child labor, regulate sweat shops, limit hours of work for women,
Muller v Oregon (Oregon could regulate number of hours for workers)
● Mother Jones: Irish immigrant who was inspired by personal experiences. Organized unions for miners
in West Virginia and Colorado.
● Ida Tarbell: Famous expose of the standard oil company -> Standard Oil v US declared the company a
monopoly and it was broken up
● Lincoln Stevens: Investigated political delay in Americas, with cities starting to use commissions and
city managers (as opposed to elected)
● Ida B. Wells: collected statistics on lynchings in the United States, working with the NAACP to get
anti-lynching legislation
- Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire in 1911
● 146 workers died in the whole factory because the doors were locked and many women jumped to their
deaths. A lot more worker safety laws were implemented after it including workers compensation and
disability insurance, minimum wage laws, and 8/10 hour workdays.
- Socialism
● Wanted to end capitalism, see an equal distribution of wealth, and wanted the government to take over
- Temperance and Dry Laws
● Targeted salons as directly associated with boss politics and crimes (thereby attacking society)
● “Dry” counties within “wet” cities
- Political Progressivism
● Started in cities in response to corruption from political machines
● Elected mayor and city council, the city council appoints the city manager (or mixture of all 3)
● Zoning laws (specifically where buildings can be built)
● Public work departments (water, electricity, utility)
● City beautification (parks, sanitation departments)
- Progressive Reform in States
● Helped to make state governments more democratic through Initiative (if enough citizens want a new
law and get enough support, it can be added to the ballot to vote on), Referendum (allows citizens to
vote on laws suggested by state legislature), and Recalls (directly remove an elected official
● Passage of the 17th amendment in 1912 which provided for the direct election of senators
● By 1916, most states had direct primaries to allow voters to choose candidates
Progressive Governors (State)
● Robert ‘Fighting Bob” La Follette (Wisconsin) who introduced the “Wisconsin Idea” which involved
going to academic researchers to help research and write bills to benefit the people, was the first state to
use primary/income tax, create industrial commissions, set utility prices, and regulate railroads.
Progressive Federal Government
● Wanted strong central government based on scientific principles, moral improvement, regulation of
business, and political democracy.
● Four amendments from Progressive Era including 16th (Federal Income Tax), 17th (Direct Election of
Senators), 18th (Prohibition), and 19th (Women Suffrage)
- Assumed presidency in 1901 following McKinley’s assassination, was an activist president who knew how to
guide public opinion, was only made VP because Republicans feared that he was too radical, refused to ignore
social inequalities, and believed government agencies should be run by experts (Wisconsin Idea)
- Anthracite Coal Strike (1902)
● United Mine workers went on strike to demand higher pay and an eight hour workday, which last 11
months and threatened the nation as winter approached
● Teddy Roosevelt threatened to nationalize coal mines, forcing both sides to arbitrate because this
threatened their money, and did not side with either the owners or the workers.
● Both sides got a fair takeaway
- Square Deal
● Control of Corporations, argued that bad monopolies were greedy and consolidating money and power
at the expense of people. Wanted to keep them on a leash.
- Put Department of Commerce and Labor to investigate business misconduct
- Ordered Justice Department to charge the Northern Securities Company of Sherman Antitrust
Act; First time SCOTUS broke up monopoly.
- Regulates “good trusts” to prevent them from becoming corrupt
- Not always entirely consistent, went to J.P. Morgan for advice, Morgan told him to allow some
monopoly mergers thereby.
- Ultimately busted 44 trusts
- Regulated Railroads through Elkins Act of 1903 which introduced a federal rate regulation of
railroads and the Hepburn Act of 1906 which expanded the regulatory power and jurisdiction of
the Interstate Commerce Clause.
● Consumer Protection
- Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
- Meat Inspection Act (1906)
- Both in response to The Jungle by Uptoin Sinclair.
● Conservation Policy
- Teddy Roosevelt defined “conservation” as a wise use of natural resources
- Used executive order to set aside 150 million acres of forest
Newlands Reclamation Act of 1902 promoted irrigation in western states and over 230 million
acres of land were put under protection
Antiquities Act of 1906 in which the president made a proclamation for the protection of national
National park service eventually set up in 1917
- Hand picked by Teddy Roosevelt because he was ready to carry on his policies
- Poorly equipped to continue Roosevelt’s presidency however
● Did not trust the government to regulate business behavior, he did not have the “flair” of Teddy
Roosevelt being too honest and too sincere, and sided with conservative Republicans
- Payne-Aldrich Tariff
● Protective tariffs passed by conservative republicans, progressive republicans were angry, raised tariff
rates overall.
- Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
● Taft appointed Ballinger, who opened reservation lands to private interests, Pinchot criticized Ballinger
as corrupting (Pinchot helped TR with his conservation policies) and ultimately Taft fired him, which
infuriated TR.
- Progressive Reforms
● He wrote the 16th and 17th amendments (however, did not pass them during his term), induced safety
codes for miners and railroad workers, and created the Child’s bureau
Election of 1812
- Conservative Republicans refused to nominate Teddy Roosevelt over Taft, so Teddy Roosvelt ran under the
new Bull Moose progressive party. Split Republican vote.
- Teddy Roosevelt ran under “new nationalism” which stressed national reform and a stronger President along
with Social Justice Reformation and was the first to enlist women in his campaign
- Woodrow Wilson proposed his “new freedom” which stressed a smaller government, free trade, and open
competition between businesses (capitalism)
- Democrats nominated Woodrow Wilson, Woodrow Wilson ends up winning because the Republicans were split
between two parties
- New Freedom (strong, activism, leadership)
● Underwood Tariff Act (1913) which reduced tariffs and created the first graduated income tax
● Federal Reserve Act (1913) in which the Federal Reserve regulated the economy by regulating the
money supply and interest rates thereby
- Progressive Policies
- Anti-Trust Legislation
● Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) which prohbited many forms of price discrimination, regulated
mergers/acquisitons, prohbitied types of monopolies, recognized unions as legal entities (the
government could thereby not regulate peaceful strikes)
● Federal Trade Commission (1914) which was meant to prevent unfair and deceptive business practices,
enforce antitrust laws, and investigate consumer complaints
UNIT 7 (1898-1929) PART A
- America, up until this point, had long been an isolationist country, not building alliances (but still trading). They
wanted to stay neutral from problems and avoid conflicts at all costs. We only saw interest in engaging other
nations if it was in the best interest of the United States. The United States promoted trade with European
countries but avoided diplomatic conflicts.
- Why did we start intervening?
● We had reached Manifest Destiny, but we still wanted to expand
● With new communications (telegraph), we became more involved internationally
● We needed new markets for our surplus of goods, in turn needing a larger navy to protect merchants
● We weren’t looking to add to our country but rather “colonies” for mercantilism
- The Beginning...
● The United states noticed Britain’s influence
● We started to look for new markets (American Industrialism made the United States a major exporter,
and we feared for the future of the American economy without newer markets)
- Darwinism’s Influence
● Social Darwinism (white superiority) and the “White Man’s Burden”, the belief that it was the U.S.’s
duty to help civilize lesser developed countries through trade, democracy, and christianity (making the
world a better place)
- How did we go from ISOLATION to WORLD POWER...
● The United States used the Monroe Doctrine in Latin America because it promised to protect western
countries, seeing it as a market for potential new goods/markets.
● Alaska Purchase (1867) known as “Seward’s Folly” since the United States was still trying to rebuild
from the Civil War. Seward thought they could get all of Canada if they did this and Mexico. Ended up
discovering massive amounts of gold and oil!
- William Blaine (Secretary of State) emphasized the “Good Neighbor” policy and created bilateral treaties with
Latin America. U.S. business then flooded Latin America with American goods and undercut Latin American
businesses (American Fruit Company became one of the largest landowners in Central America)
Overview of 1898...
● Sea Power (1890) which emphasized that great nations have great navies, we’ll be stronger the larger
our navy is (Alfred Mahan)
● Hawaii Annexation - Missionaries and prospectors arrived in the 1820s. By the 1870s, they were
landowners and asked for the US to annex Hawaii. The United States said NO because a sovereign
Queen was running Hawaii. United States planters in 1891 overthrew the Queen, declaring themselves a
Republic and therefore the United States annexed Hawaii in 1898, being the gateway to the rest of the
Pacific and Asian countries. Social Darwinism!
● Spanish-American War - Cuba was fighting for independence from Spain and requested help from the
United States, with Congress passing the Teller Amendment, saying that WE DON’T WANT CUBA to
avoid conflict with Spain.
● De Lome Letter (1898) - criticized American president William McKinley as weak (by the Spanish
- Historical Context of War
● By the 1860s, the only remaining pieces of the Spanish Empire were Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the
Philippines. Jose Marti led Cubans in revolt against Spain in 1895. The Spanish general used a
“reconcentration” policy in which he viciously starved the people and abused them for revolting. This
made Americans feel sympathy for Cuba, with newspapers using “yellow journalism” to depict the
horrors in Cuba. In 1898, the USS Maine was sent to protect US interests in Cuba.
● Yellow Journalism: Joseph Pulitzer and William Hearst were owners of New York World and New
York Journal, using sensational headlines to increase circulation to get people behind the idea of war
and the “White Man’s Burden”
● February 16, 1898: The USS Maine exploded and killed 260 men. Immediately assumed to be the
Spanish, with yellow journalism and newspaper headlines spreading this information. Came up with the
slogan “Remember Maine, to hell with Spain!”. Drove the American people to call for action and the
American Congress declared war.
● In April 1898, Congress declared war on Spain, however, passing the Teller Amendment (1898) which
stated that they weren’t trying to obtain Cuba and that was not the aim of them declaring war.
- Helped to boost patriotism (women, ex-confederates, and African Americans fought together) allowing us to
unify more, especially after the Civil War.
- Teddy Roosevelt gained his name after the war, with his volunteer unit (“Rough Riders”) battling on San Juan
Hills successfully, spreading a name for himself. Elites fought in regiments. Buffalo Soldiers really won the
Battle of San Juan (AA Soldiers) as they led the charge, but the Rough Riders received all the recognition.
- War only lasted 113 days, with 5500 American deaths (only 379 in battle)
- Treaty of Paris (December 10, 1898)
● Cuba gains independence**
- However, this was under the Platt Amendment! Not really independent...
● U.S. gained Puerto Rico territory
● U.S. annexed the philippines even though they didn’t want it (but Germany wanted it)
● Gave Spain $20,000,000
- Platt Amendment
● Made Cuba protectorate of the United States (limited sovereignty)
● No treaties without the US’s approval
● No excessive public debt (or else we would intervene)
● US can intervene in the event of civil unrest
● Perpetual Naval Lease @ Guantanamo Bay
● Constitution only allowed with the US's approval.
While Hawaii, Alaska, and Puerto Rico were immediately made territories and got the same rights as American
citizens, Guam and Samoa were controlled by the Navy and the Platt Amendment caused unrest in Cuba
because they were promised independence.
● Led to a shift in United States forieng policy with the US gaining oversea territories and were now
recognized as a world power, increasing the power of the American President.
- Fillippinos welcomed war with Spain and aided the U.S. in the Pacific, but they grew angry when the United
States refused to grant their independence.
- Emiliano Aguinaldo led a guerilla-style rebellion which lasted 3 years.
● US resorted to Weyler-Style brutality, torture, starvation, and rape
● The United States didn’t think they were ready for self rule (White Man’s Burden)
- Americanization: Freedom of religion and English as official language along with the same government style
- Torture and concentration camps were held by both sides. 200,000 - 1,000,000 Fillippino citizens were killed by
the United States.
- McKinley appointed William Taft to the Phillippine Commision
● Helped build schools, roads, and bridges
● Improved taxes and sanitation
● Created local governments that incorporated fillippino culture
● Aguinaldo was captured and urged to stop fighting.
- Independence eventually gained on July 4th, 1946.
- U.S. asserted its dominance in 1898, building the 3rd largest Navy
- We annexed Hawaii, Philippines, Puerto Rico, and many pacific islands
- Asserted economic power over Latin American markets
- Wanted MORE wealth through the acquisition of new markets
- The United States was eager to trade in China, but multiple countries (European countries such as Russian,
Japan, England, Germany, and France) already had influence set up there.
- John Hay pronounced the Open Door Policy in the 1900s which stated that no nation would have an exclusive
sphere of influence in China. Europe didn’t respond, so the US began to move their markets into China.
- Boxer Rebellion (1899-1901) - Chinese natives rebelled against the United States and imperialist countries. The
United States partnered with Europe to help end the rebellion, therefore allowing the United states to move their
sphere of influence into CHina.
- Anti-Imperialist League - composed of Mark Twain and Andrew Carnigae as the leaders, with people believing
that the United States wasn’t ready for self government if we were controlling these countries. We are what we
hate essentially. Mark Twain asks if the constitution follows the flag (in acquired territories)...
Insular Cases (1901-1905) - decides that those in US territories do not obtain the same rights as American
All revealed a desire to increase American wealth, military power, and stature in the world, especially in Latin
- Believed in the superiority of American protectant culture and hoped to spread these values
- To increase American economic and political stature in the world, the United States needed to be militarily
strong and ready to fight if needed.
- Uses this most effectively in Latin America
- Panama Canal
● Would allow the United States to control western hemisphere trading and for the U.S. to domestically
● The United States asked Colombia and they rejected. Teddy Roosevelt used big stick diplomacy to get it
by supporting revolts for Panama Independence.
● The United States sent ships off to the coast of Panama and in 1903, Panama with the United States
Navy became a nation and a lease agreement for a canal was made. The United States offered
$10,000,000 to build the canal and leased it for $250,000 a year (until Dec 31, 1999 by Andrew Carter).
- Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
● European countries should stay out of America’s all together (central, southern, northern).
● In 1903, Germany and England threatened to invade Venezuela to recoup debts. Teddy Roosevelt paid
Latin America’s debt for them to pay back. Acted as “police” or “parent”.
● Sometimes the United States may have to get involved (despite them saying that they wouldn’t
● Lodge Corollary (1912): no foreign countries could buy ports or establish military sites in Latin
● Great White Fleet -> obsolete Navy vessels painted white to look brand new, sent around the entire
world, primarily as a way to discourage European countries and use big stick diplomacy.
● Attempts to maintain order in Latin America led to pro-American regimes that relied on dictatorial rule
over its citizens (which benefited America economically)
- Asian Foreign Policy/European
● Russo-Japan War, in which Russia and Japan couldn’t agree on who would get parts of Korea and
Manchuria, in which the United States got worried about an open-door policy into China, wanting it to
remain instead of Japan solely getting power in China, therefore Teddy negotiated a treaty between
Japan and Russia (Portsmouth treaty), gaining the nobel peace prize for it.
● Root-Takahira Agreement (1908) - protect Asian status quo, uphold Open-Door policy, and respect
China’s independence.
- Wanted to protect Wall Street investments with Foriegn Policy, using the United State’s wealth rather than
military strength in foreign policy.
- In Latin America, United State banks assumed debts to Europe
- Taft’s attempts to build railroads in China alienated Japan and ended the Open-Door policy. Makes the United
State’s China’s #1 ally, with them simply ignoring other countries
- Improved opportunities for American business, using private capital to further United State interests overseas
- The US could create stability and order abroad that would be best to promote America’s commercial interests
- Support democratic (and denounce undemocratic) governments in Latin America
- Great domestic policy but really zero experience in foreign affairs
- Believed moral diplomacy could bring peace and democracy to the war without any militarism/war
- Wilson talked of “human rights” in Latin America, but defended the Monroe Doctrine and intervened overall
more than Taft and Roosevelt.
- Apologized to Colombia for Teddy Roosevelt supporting the Panamanian revolt
- In 1913, Mexican President Madero was overthrown by the Dictator Heurta. Wilson asked him to step down for
elections, to which he refused. Wilson used minor incidents (arrests of American sailors) and sent the military
to occupy Mexico and put down the dictator.
Causes of the War
- MAIN (militarism, alliances, imperialism, nationalism).
- Militarism -> stockpiling weapons for war, European Armies (Great Britain, Russia, Austria-Hungary,
Germany, and France) were building, and advanced technologies.
- Alliances -> Germany and Austria-Hungary, Russia and Serbia, Germany and the Ottoman Empire (since they
both hated Russia), and Russia and France (since they both hated Germany)
- Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand from Austria-Hungry by Serbian terrotirsts (black Hand) on June
28, 1912, led to the full outbreak of the war, with Austria-Hungry declaring war on Serbia and then Germany
declaring war on Serbia then Serbia declared war on them, bringing in Russia.
How the United States became involved in the war…
- First, there were divided loyalities in the country (Allies -> Greeks, Russians, and Native-Born Americans /
Central Powers -> Germany and Austria-Hungary immigrants) along with the fact that we had been an isolated
country for so long, remaining neutral. Young men wanted the valor of war, however in the Election of 1916,
Wilson won stating that he would “keep us out of war”! Important!
- Submarines (U-Boats)
● New German technology, Germany declares Great Britain a war zone, however Wilson believed in the
freedom of the sea no matter what, without any problems. The Lusitania is sunken, 1200 are killed, 128
Americans are killed, rising tensions as Vanderbilt was among the missing. Germans argued that they
reminded people it was a war zone.
● Sussex Pledge (1916) - Germany promised not to torpedo passenger ships, as long as they’re not used to
carry munition (which the Lusitania actually was). Wilson did NOT get involved and accepted their say.
● Zimmerman Note -> Unrestricted Submarine Warfare, eventually, Germany said that they were gonna
sink any ships they see with German submarines off the coast of America in a message to Mexico where
they urged them to declare war on the United States, being backed by Germany, and saying that they
would gain New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas if Germany won.
Russian Revolution
● Bolsheviks led by Lenin overthrew Tsar Nicholas II. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1917) in which Russia
created a treaty with central powers, essentially coming out of the war. Germany shifted primary power
to the western front, along Great Britain’s territorial lines.
Following the Zimmerman Note, Wilson asked for a Declaration of War from Congress in April 1917, with the
note being a direct cause of declaring war. We also felt the need to make America and the world safe for
democracy (moral diplomacy).
Wartime Industry/Culture in the United States
- Espionage Act passed which prohibited the interference of military operations, obstruction of recruitment and
enlistment, and the Sedition Act of 1918. (which were declared constitutional in Debs v US)
- All Immigrants were expected to be loyal and German culture was removed from America, with Germans being
targeted with hate and lynching.
- American Expeditionary Force
● 1,000,000 Troops / 53,402 Combat Deaths / 63,114 Non-Combat Deaths / 204,000 Injuries
● Recruitment and Draft (18-45 Males required) in the Selective Service Act of 1917, only 110,000 of
them were army personal out of the 2 million drafted along with 2 million who volunteered.
● Doughboys, men who went over to fight
● 380,000 African Americans served in the war, keeping supply lines going to maintain soldiers
● 369th Infantry Regiment, African American troops who fought with French Soldiers. They were given
French honorary awards.
- Propaganda
● Recruitment -> focus on American manhood, with women calling to serve in the Red Cross (catalyst
that got Congress to pass the 19th amendment)
● Financing War -> attempting to get people to buy war bonds
● Conserving Resources -> women were required to say they wouldn’t waste food, didn’t eat bread or
steak because it removed food from soldiers, children asked to herd sheep to make wool for suits
● Dehumanizing Enemies -> shows women being attacked by Huns
- War Agencies
● War Industries Board coordinated purchase and allocation of war materials
● National War Labor Board prevented strikes (American Federation of Labor didn’t believe strikes
during wartime were just, arguing that Labor will win the war)
● Woman and African Americans took over positions left by men to war
● Food Administration promoted voluntary rationing
● The Creel Committee promoted patriotic duty to war, censored anti-war propaganda, used
advertisements, movies, and four minute men. Keeping nationalism and patriotism was their main goal.
End of the War…
- Armistice signed (November 11, 1918 at 11am) which was essentially a cease fire.
- Versailles Treaty Controversy (Wilson’s 14 Points)
● Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points declared that the United States will be the guide for the outline for no
more war. Involved freedom of the seas (neutral waters), reduction of arms, open-treaty negotiations (as
opposed to just between two countries), self-determination or all people (democracy), and a League of
Nations to oversee and maintain peace.
Wilson wanted peace with victory, no blaming, etc. European countries held an issue with this because
of the mass casualties they faced in the war (whereas the United States did not face many)
European nations wanted Article 231 -> “War Guilt Clause” in which Britain and France wanted
Germany to claim responsibility for the war and pay reparations to the allies.
Eventually a compromise was reached using both things from the fourteen points and Article 231.
Wilson needed to get Senate approval, needing ⅔, technically he was supposed to have their advice
when making the treaty/14 points but didn’t have any.
The League of Nations was seen simply as an entangling alliance, which displeased the Republicans in
Congress, leading them to refuse to ratify the treaty (Article 10).
There were three views of the treaty…
- Internationalists -> ratify the treaty as if
- Reservationists -> ratify the treaty with revisions/reservations such as the fact that America
should engage the world on its own terms.
- Irreconcilables -> don’t ratify the treaty at all arguing that America must avoid all foreign
Henry Lodge passed the 14 Points Reservations
Woodrow Wilson goes to the States with senators on railroads to rally the people behind his 14 point
plan, but ends up having a stroke, was recognized as invalid, but his wife and the administration ran the
government anyways.
The United States NEVER ratified the treaty.
- From 1919 to 1939, the GOP held a majority in both chambers and in the Presidency.
- Domestic policy included cutting income taxes, protectionism, and americanism
- Foreign policy included isolationism and disarmament
- Manufacturing and Technology (due to lower taxes)
● Driven by mass production, mechanization, and scientific management
● Electricity replaced steam (which made up 70% of the industry)
● The United States produced 40% of the world’s manufactured goods. Because of devastation, people
relied upon us now following World War I.
● Average output by workers increased by 32%, however wages only increased by 8%.
- Industries
● Automotive (Ford Model T), Petroleum (Synthetic rubber for tires and gasoline), Aviation (air mail and
commercial flight), Electrical Appliances (consumer goods), and Chemical Industries (rayon and cell
phone dupots)
- Welfare Capitalism
● Incentives and benefits to appeal to the good will of the worker, leading to a higher productivity
● Personal management, higher wages, benefits (life insurance, pension plans), anti-union policies (yellow
dog contracts), but allowed some unions, with Henry Ford leading this as he paid $5 a day (compared to
the $11/wk average), allowing for higher productivity and thereby workers can afford his product.
- Warren G. Harding ran in 1920 and wins, serving from 1921-1923, eventually dying of natural causes
“Ohio Gang”
● Teapot Dome Scandal -> oil companies bribed government officials for prime oil leases on government
land. Albert Fall takes the fall, the Secretary of the Interior, serving a prison sentence.
● Herbert Hoover -> Secretary of Commerce (future president of 1929)
● Andrew Mellon -> Secretary of the Treasury, believed in cutting taxes because if you lower them for the
rich, they’ll create more businesses and will create more taxes for revenue. When taxes are excessive,
people will not want to pay them or will solely save money just to pay taxes instead of spending it. Cut
taxes from 76% to 25% for the rich, lesser for everybody else.
Foriegn Policy
● Americanism, putting the United States first. We must return to normal in order to rebuild our country.
“Let Internationalists Dream”
● We weren’t really returning to isolationism in the 1920s (however, we still maintained no alliances)
● Washington Naval Conference (1921) led by Harding to prevent armants in the sea. 9 countries were
- 4 Powers Act -> United States, France, Great Britain, and Japan respected each other and their
colonies in the Pacific
- 9 Powers Act -> We will all respect China’s sovereignty and their open door policy, with no one
holding any particular power over them.
- 5 Powers Act -> Set up ratios for how big each Navy could be based on population and the size
of their coastline. 5/5/3/1.67/1.67. Required us to dismantle ships (U.S.S. Carolina in 1924).
Japan didn’t, eventually the act became obsolete in 10 years.
Calvin Coolidge took over after Harding passed away (1823-1828), keeping the taxes low, government
operating with a balanced budget, a booming economy, believed in supporting American businesses, and
thereby easily won reelection in 1924.
● Foreign Policy
- There’s NO way we can stay out of the global community
- Dawes Plan (1924) in which the United States loaned Germany $2.5 billion to help them pay off
their way payments and to rebuild their country. Kept $500,000,000 to rebuild, gave $2 billion to
Allies, the Allies then paid the United States $2.6 billion in war debt. Germany becomes angry,
with the Nationlist Socialist Party, believing that the United States was thereby oppressing them
and indebting them to ourselves.
- Kellogg-Briand Pact (1924) which denounced war as an “instrument of national policy”, initially
being between the United States and France, however the United States asked for France to
gather more people to join the pact, which was extremely hard to enforce and could only be
enforced by going to war, so it was rendered invalid.
1920’s CULTURE
- Bolshevik Revolution of 1917
● Vladimir Lennon, Americans feared that a revolution like that could happen here
● Red Scare (1919), because of Unions protesting/striking, immigrants were deported, labor unions were
dismantled, and progressives were attacked. Slippery slope as people perceived the labor strikes, walk
outs, riots, and disorders we had as paralleling the Russian Revolution.
● Palmer Raids (Attorney General) which targeted communists, anarchists, socialism, and “radical
immigrants”, arresting thousands and deporting thousands as well, ignoring people’s civil liberties (such
as their own beliefs)
Nativism Strikes (1920s)
● Because of the “red scare”, Southern/Eastern Immigrants (newer immigrants) along with Russian,
Austrian-Hungrian, and Italian were threatened and shut out of the country
● Emergency Quota Act of 1921, where they only allowed 3% of each immigrant group to the United
● National Origins Act of 1924, where they change caps to 2%, changed the year to compare populations
to the 1890s where there were barely any new immigrants compared to the older immigrants
● Sacco + Vanzetti trials who were admitted anarchists, being charged for murder (with questionable
evidence) and were put to death, leading to lots of pushback against the evidence and riots.
Womanhood (1920s)
● Help in factories and assisting in World War I allowed for the 19th amendment in 1920.
● Household appliances (bread maker, electric vacuum, and the electric toaster, etc) influenced women to
stay at home and take care of the house.
● Flappers (young women) who challenged social norms through jazz, short skirts and hair, and
premaritial sex. Discovery of adolescence (eliminated child labor) allowing children (above 10) to have
freedom from work. Mid teens to twenties, being seen as a cultural threat to traditional gender roles
● 18th Amendment in 1819 which made alcohol illegal
● Treasury Department seen as enforcement arms for it
● Supposed to lower crime rates (but in fact, illegal clubs rose, speakeasies, and organized crime such as
● Failed experiment
● Repealed in 1933 through the 21st Amendment.
Mass Consumerism (radio, movies, baseball, leisure activities)
- African Americans were moving to Northern Cities from 1916 to 1930 from southern states to Chicago, New
York, etc. for factory jobs.
- Started in 1916 (when we’re ramping up production in factories for war)
- Pull factors included educational opportunities and factory jobs
- Push factors included injustice, KKK (lynching), black codes, jim crow laws
- Leads to Race Riots in major cities (such as the Chicago Race Riot of 1919)
- Harlem Renaissance
● Jazz and Blues expressed the social realities of blacks (Louis Armstrong)
● Langston Hughes poetry, novels, and plays promoted equality, condemned racism, and celebrated black
- Marcus Garvey
● Founded the UNIA (United Negro Improvement Assocation) which advocated for the African
Americans to return back to Africa, saying that it would only work if blacks are completely segregated
from whites and that there could be no blending of cultures.
● Started the Black Star Shipping Line and Newspaper
● W.E.B. Du Bois called him dangerous, saying that African Americans must fight for freedom
● Booker T. Washington argued that African Americans needed to become educated and then do their
absolute best to earn respect from their white counterparts.
- Evolution versus Religion
● Argued whether or not the bible was true (creation versus evolution)
● People were opposed to Darwinian Evolution being taught in schools
● Fundamentalists said that the bible is without errors, versus modernists who argued that it needed to be
● Debated in courts
● John Scopes versus Monkey Trial. Substitute worked with ACLU to teach evolution to be arrested to
challenge Tennessee laws against evolution. Clarence Darrow (who was nationally recognized)
defended him against WIlliam Jennings Bryant. Did not win, but made a point)
KKK targeted Catholics, Jews, African Americans, and Immigrants. WASPLOM. By 1930, their membership
had declined.
UNIT 7 (1929-1945) PART B
- 20th Amendment switched Inauguration to January 20th
- “I pledge myself to a new deal for the American people” -> never really had a deal
- Overview of the Deal
● Laissez-Faire economics GONE -> Government was thereby responsible to make sure that the economy
ran smoothly, increasing the size and power of the federal government.
● Relief -> Provided relief checks and job programs to lower unemployment
● Recovery -> Programs to stimulate agriculture, industry, and the economy to end the depression.
● Reform -> programs to correct problems in the economy and prevent future depressions.
- Public Relations to Bring Relief to PEople
● Fear Speech on Inauguration, wanting to increase the moral of the American people
● Fireside chats in which he went on the radio to explain the success of the government
● Eleanor Roosevelt traveled around the country, bringing hope and encouragement to American people.
- First 100 Days (which he created essentially)/New Deal Programs
● Emergency Banking Act (1933) -> 4 day bank holiday, categorized banks as whether they could open,
limit their withdrawals and deposits, only accept deposits, or completely closed the banks.
● Glass-Steagall Act (1933) -> created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation which guaranteed all
bank deposits covered up to $5,000.
● Reconstruction Finance Corporation (1932-1957) -> Modest relief checks were given to 15% of
Americans (technically created by Hoover), however Roosevelt created the Federal Emergency Relief
Administration in 1933, and pumped 500 million into state welfare programs.
● Civilian Conservation Corps (1933-1942) -> set up temporary job program for Americans, got men up
and working, gave them a purpose to raise their morale
● Civil Works Administration (1933-1934) -> same as Civilian Conservation Corps, but added roads
building, etc.
● Agricultural Adjustment Administration (1933) -> Raised crop prices by limiting crop production,
government paid farmers to leave some land unseeded, and resulted in higher yields and crop prices.
● Tennessee Valley Authority (1933) -> created jobs and hydroelectric power and introduced new farming
techniques but eminent domain (displaced people) 15,000 families and the Federal government was in
direct competition with private businesses.
● National Industry Recovery Agency (NIRA, 1933) -> regulated industry for fair wages and prices to
stimulate the economy. The NRA effectively fixed wages and prices.
● Public Works Administration (1933) -> built Hoover Dam and La Guardia Airport
● Gold reserve Act (Jan 1934) which devalued the dollar to gold, outlawed private ownership of gold and
gold certificates, hoping to increase the money supply and lowering interest rates for investments.
New Deal Legislation
● Works Progress Administration (1935) -> 651,000 miles of highway, libraries, schools, and airports
were built. Congress appropriated $5 billion to people. Purpose was to employ unemployed people until
the economy recovered. Hired people of ALL skills. National Youth Administration (16-25) trained new
people for new jobs.
● Social Security Act (1935) -> Provided old-age pensions, disabilities, and unemployment compensation.
Funded by a payroll tax on workers and employees. Administered by Social Security Administration
through state-federal corporations.
● National Labor Act (Wagner Act) (1935) -> guaranteed the right to join and form an independent labor
union and collective bargaining. NLRB. Often described as the “Magna Carta” for labor.
● Fair Labor Standards Act (1938) -> established child labor laws, right to minumum wage, and
guarenteed overtime pay (over 40 hours)
Radical New Deal Opposition
● Charles Coughlin… National Union for Social Justice, nationalization of major industries, free coinage
of silver, all connected to socialist ideals.
● Francis Townsend… old-age revolving pension, anybody over the age of 60 offered a stipend of $200
on the condition that they spent it.
● Huey Long… “share our wealth”, progressive tax code including 100% tax on income above $100mil,
wanted a $5000 estate with an annual income minimum of $2500 for people. Wanted free college
education, old-age pensions, vocational training, and veteran’s benefits.
● Supreme Court reversed several new deal programs
- Schechter Poultry Co. vs United States (1935) declared the NIRA unconstitutional
- Butler vs United States (1936) declared the Agricultural Administrations Act unconstitutional
- Both declared unconstitutional because of their mass taxing power
● Justice Reorganization Bill appointed new justices for every justice over 70. Would’ve added 6 new
justices. Congress said NO!
FDIC, SEC, NLRB, Social Security, TVA, and FHA all exist TODAY!
- 3 Examples of the United States practicing Isolationism
● Kellogg-Briand Pact which attempted to outlaw war, with 62 countries signing it, however it proved to
be impossible to enforce.
● Stimson Doctrine in which the US government vowed to not recognize any forieng government that
gains land in aggressive maneuvers, particularly in response to Japan attempting to expand their Empire,
looking for raw materials such as oil, starting in Manchuria
● Neutrality Acts which prevented America from becoming involved in war and vowed to not provide
arms to belligerents.
- In the 1920s and 1940s, Americans wanted to avoid another meaningless war. Munitions makers and bankers
were labelled “merchants of death” and blamed for involvement in the war as the Nye Committee investigated.
- Neutrality Acts
● Reaction to the Nye Committee
● Neutrality Act of 1935 -> banned arms to nations at war and warned citizens not to sail on belligerent
● Neutrality Act of 1936 -> banned loans to any warring nations
● Neutrality Act of 1937 -> made 35/36 permanent, required all trade to be on a cash and carry basis
- September 1931: Japan invades Manchuria in violation of the League of Nations (Second Sino-Japanese War)
- January 1933: Hitler appointed Chancellor, given power over German military, begins to remilitarize in
violation of the Treaty of Versailles
- October 1935: Benito Mussolini takes over Italy, invading Ethiopia and further into Northern Africa
- March 1936: Hitler remilitarized the Rhineland (western section of Germany next to France), against the Treaty
of Versailles
- 1937: Japan invasion of Nanjing, known as the Rape of Nanjing. The League of Nations had no power to stop
these actions because the United States was not involved.
- March 1938: Austria annexed to the German Empire without much resistance.
- September 1938: Great Britain sends Nevel Chamberlain to discuss the Munich Agreement, why does Hitler
need Sudetenland. Hitler affirms he simply wants to bring German speaking people back to his country.
Approved to take Sudetenland through the Munich Pact. Was simply appeasement, attempting to avoid all
future conflicts.
- March 1939: Hitler takes the rest of Czechoslovakia
- August 1939: Non-Aggression Pact, Stalin agreed to stay neutral with Germany, with Germany offering half of
Poland as a result of the agreement (Molotov/Ribbentrop Pact), done in secret
- September 1st, 1939: Germany invades all of Poland, Germany comes from the West, the Soviet Union comes
from the East. England and France declare war on Germany.
- 1939: Cash and carry trade ONLY extended to Great Britain and Allies, cut off from other belligerents
- 1940: Invasion of France from Rhineland. Fell into control of Germany within three months.
- 1940: Battle of Britain, mainly air battles and German navy. Military targets and cities/civilian targets. Winston
Churchill becomes Prime Minister. Great Britain pleads for help from the United States. American people
didn’t want to become involved. Franklin D. Roosevelt emphasizes that we must become Great Arsenal in order
to protect Democracy
- 1940: Destroyers for bases, destroyers were sent to Great Britain in exchange for naval bases in the Carribean
- 1941: Lend-Lease Act, lended materials for Britain to borrow military equipment, known as the Allied Convoy
- 1940: Selective Service Act to prepare the military for War in the United States. Helped to rebuild the military
and ready the United States. Some factories reopen for wartime production. First peacetime draft. Begins
pulling the United States out of the Great Depression.
● American First Committee attempted to start a movement towards isolation again. Charles Lindberg (the
first man to fly across the ocean) became the face of the movement. He went to Europe, became friends
with Hitler, retracted from the United States Air Face, thereby having people see him as a Nazi (said
Roosevelt, Britain, and Jewish people pushed the United States towards war)
- August 1941: Atlantic Charter, discussed what’s going to happen following the war
● No territorial gains would be made, all people have the right to self-determination, trade barriers
lowered, freedom from want and fear, freedom of the seas (neutrality), and disarmament of aggressive
November 1941: Americans simply wanted to stay out of war. German invasion of Russia drew the Soviets into
the war on the side of Great Britain. Ultimately failed to invade because of winter.
The United States took action against the Japanese Empire including embargos on all exports to Japan, freezing
Japanese assets in United States banks, and sending supplies to China (to defend themselves against Japan)... all
eventually led to Pearl Harbor.
- December 7th, 1941: Japan attacks Pearl Harbor. Franklin D. Roosevelt asked for an immediate declaration of
war, causing Germany and Italy to join in the war against the United States
- Doolittle Raid (April 1942): The United States used bombers, reducing their weights, and training the pilots to
be able to take off of aircraft carriers (which they previously could not do). Dropped bombs all throughout
Tokyo, most planes were ditched in China or crash landed.
- On the American Homefront
● Demand for labor ends the Great Depression. To raise money, the government issued war bonds. The
success of selling these war bonds illustrated the high level of volunteerism. Victory gardens were
planted to maintain food. Americans were asked to ration food and other materials through rationing
● Office of Price Administrations in which the government controlled price ceilings in the country.
● Office of War Information (OWI): made pro-Allied and anti-Axis propaganda. Citizens were
encouraged to contribute time and money, also encouraged to stay quiet out of fear of spies.
● Women worked in factories for four years, leaving their jobs from marketing, with teenagers filling
these jobs. Consumers marketed towards kids now.
● Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Executive Order 8802: prohibited racial discriminiation in the defense
production industry. African Americans created the Double Victory program, stating that they would
fight for their equal rights after the victory of the war, gaining a double victory.
● Tuskegee Airmen: African Americans who had one of the highest kill ratios
● Dorris Miller: Cook on the USS West Virginia, manned one of the guns during PEarl Harbor and shot
down many Japanese planes, inspiring American Nationalism.
● Korematsu v United States: Loses 6-3, internment of Japanese Americans does NOT violate
● Civil Liberties Act of 1988
- Franklin D. Roosevelt decided to focus America’s efforts in defeating Germany First. If we focus on Europe
first, and once we defeat Hitler, then the Allies could help America come and defeat Japan.
- Franklin D. Roosevelt and Churchill promised Stalin they would attack Germany from the West to help the
Soviet army.
- General George Pattron ran Operation Torch in 1942. We’re going to take control of North Africa and attack
Italy and the rest of Europe from there.
- D-Day (June 6th, 1944): Operation Overlord. Britain, Canada, America, and France attacked Germany on
Normandy Beaches. Unexpected from Germans. Completely mobilized beaches, forces marched through France
and recaptured it.
- Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945): The Allies were caught off guard by a last offensive attack by the
Germans. Some of the war's fiercest fighting occured here before the Allies were able to invade Germany from
the West.
Yalta Conference (Feb 1945): Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Stalin all discussed what to do with
Germany after the war. Began to divide Germany between allied forces. Berlin divided.
- April 12th, 1945: Roosevelt dies. Harry Truman takes over and has little information about the war.
- May 8th, 1945: V-E Day, Germany surrenders, Berlin falls. We discover the Holocaust when we liberated
Poland and Germany, we discovered death camps. Original plan was to push out European Jews. Proved to be
too slow, so over 1000 concentration camps were set up. Jews used as slave labor or killed in the masses.
- Bataan Death March, 1942: Japanese Army captured the Philippines and forced US soldiers to surrender.
Prisoners were forced to march 60 miles through the jungle. 5000 Americans died.
- Island Hopping
● General Douglas McArthur was the commander of the US Army in the Pacific who was forced to
surrender the Philippines, but has promised “I Will Return”.
● McArthur and Nimitz began a campaign called ‘island hopping’ to retake lands which the Japanese had
captured in the Pacific.
● One by one the American forces took back the Philippines, Guam, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa.
- Battle of Midway: Turning point of the war in the Pacific because we have the new Enigma Machine which can
decode secret Japanese messages, allowing us to be aware of the Battle of Midway, allowing Admiral Chester
Nimitz to sink four Japanese Aircraft carriers (out of 6), leading to the Japanese to retreat
- Iwo Jima (February 1945): Island of little or no value to us, other than airstrip, famous photo where the
American flag raising is taken.
- Potsdam Conference (July/August 1945): Churchill (eventually transferred to David Atley) , Truman, and
Stalin. Discussing what to do with Japan after the war. Note delivered to Truman that the Trinity Test was
successful, we now have nuclear technology which successfully worked.
- Hiroshima (August 6, 1945) and Nagasaki (August 7, 1945) used Fat boy and Little boy bombs.
- Japan surrendered on September 2nd, 1945, surrendering to Douglar McArthur
- Nuremberg Trials: Many German Nazi’s were found guilty and were executed, bring retirbutions from the
atrocities of Germany.
- United Nations (UN): Formed with Security Council made of the “Big Five” allied powers (United States,
China, Russia, Britain, and France), possessing veto power on the Security Council which oversees any
international problems (aggressive actions of countries, relationships between countries, response of UN),
having the ability to veto any decision made by the Security Council. Governing authority as opposed to the
League of Nations which had very little power.