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Hypertext is a non-linear way to present information and is usually accomplished using “links”. Such links help the readers navigate
further information about the topic being discussed and may also lead to other links that can direct the readers to various options.
Hypertext also allows the readers to create their own meaning out of the material given to them and learn better associatively.
Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references to other text that the reader can immediately
access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically activated by a mouse click, keypress set, or by
touching the screen. Rather than remaining static like traditional text, hypertext makes a dynamic organization of information possible
through links and connections (called hyperlink).
The World Wide Web (www) is a global hypertext system of information residing on servers linked across the internet. Hypertext is the
foundation of World Wide Web enabling users to click on link to obtain more information on a subsequent page on the same site or from
website anywhere in the world.
The term hypertext was coined by Ted Nelson in 1963.
Hypertext allows readers to access information particularly suited to their needs. Example, if a reader still needs more background on a
particular item that a text is discussing, such as when a reader does not know a particular term being used, the reader can choose to
highlight that term and access a page that defines the term and describes it.
Conversely, a Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its
location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it. URLs occur most commonly to reference web pages (http) but are also
used for file transfer (ftp), email (mailto), database access (JDBC), and many other applications.
Most web browsers display the URL of a web page above the page in an address bar. A typical URL has this form:
Protocol Host Name
File Name
Today, links are not just limited to text or documents but may also incorporate other forms of multimedia such as images, audio, and
videos that stimulate more senses. This is called hypermedia.
Why hypertexts?
● In a hypertext system, the reader is free to navigate information by exploring the connections provided.
● Hypertext is very different way of presenting information than the usual linear form.
● Text no longer flows in a straight line through a book. Instead, it is broken down into many smaller units (lexias, to borrow a term from
literary criticism), each addressing a few issues.
● It acts as a bridge between two basic, opposite, and complementing elements that may be called gender of knowledge representation:
free and shortcut.
Intertextuality or intertext is one method of text development that enables the author to make another text based on another text. It
happens when some properties of an original text are incorporated in the text that is created by another author. One good reason why it
occurs is perhaps the second writer is greatly affected or influenced by the first writer leading to a combination of imitation and creation.
Intertext Defined
Intertext or intertextuality is technically defined as a process of text development that merges two more processes such as imitation and
creation in doing a text. It involves imitation because the author as highly influenced by another author comes up with his own version of
the text consciously or unconsciously incorporating the style and other characteristics of the text done by that author.
Elaboration on Intertextuality
Intertextuality has rooted from the work of a Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913). Meanwhile, the term itself was first
used by Bulgarian-French philosopher and psychoanalyst Julia Kristeva in the 1960s.
Intertextuality is said to take place using four specific methods namely: retelling, pastiche, quotation, and allusion.
Table 1. Elaborating Intertextuality
It is the restatement of a story or re-expression of a narrative.
It is the method of directly lifting the exact statements or set of words from a text another author
has made.
In this method, a writer or speaker explicitly or implicitly pertains to an idea or passage found
in another text without the use of quotation.
It is a text developed in a way that it copies the style or other properties of another text without
making fun of it unlike in a parody.
Table 2. Identifying Intertext
Questions Used to Validate Intertext
1. Are there two or more stories involved?
2. Does the text show a direct or an indirect connection to another piece of work?
Note: If the reader has affirmation towards these questions, the texts he/she is dealing with contains intertext.
Critical reading is engaging in analytic activity which involves the reader by asking questions about the text and the author’s claim.
Critical readers are doing the process of evaluating, analyzing, and interpreting the assertion of the hidden meaning of the whole text.
While reasoning as defined by Merriam Webster dictionary is an act of giving statements for justification and explanation. It is the ability
of someone to defend something by giving out reasons.
Therefore, when reading critically, it is necessary to question the different arguments used by the author, as any problem can weaken
the authenticity of the conclusion.
Remember that critical reading is not meant to criticize but to assess the validity of textual evidence.
Steps Used in Critical Reading as Reasoning
by Maxine Rafaella C. Rodriguez and Marella Therese A. Tiongson
1. Identifying assertions
Identify by a common type of assertion such as fact, convention, opinion and preference
2. Formulating counterclaim
Counterclaims are made to rebut a previous claim
3. Determining evidence
Evidence is the details given by the authors to support his/her claims
You are asking your father for an android cellphone, that is your claim. Then your father answers you. “No, you can’t!” this is his
counterclaim. He might say that you already have a cellphone.
Therefore, when you are going to formulate reason for the counterclaim, you should state the reason why you are asking for an
android cellphone. You might say that you could use it in your online classes because Android cellphone would be very useful in
this new normal classroom set-up.
When you write your counterclaim, you are expressing unfavorable statements. Therefore, it is needed to use hedges words or
phrases to be able to give a courteous tone.
Different forms of hedges:
Modals: may, could, would, should, might, certain, must, etc.
Frequency adverbs: usually, generally, commonly
Probability adverbs: probably, possibly, presumably
The common colds caused by a virus.
With hedges:
The common colds must be caused by a virus.
The common virus is certain to be caused by a virus.
What is an Evaluative Statement?
It is a statement that states one's sound judgement about something through writing which is supported by reasons and evidences. It
also presents the strengths and weaknesses of something based on a set of criteria which needs to be factual, substantial, and unbiased.
How to Formulate an Evaluative Statement:
To formulate an evaluative statement, one needs to read the entire text carefully and critically to understand and to check for possible
fallacies in the argument presented by the writer. Just like any other writing, the formulation of the evaluative statements is done in the
same way except that the statement is about your own judgment of the text’s content and properties. You may formulate your evaluative
statements in two ways such as formulating assertions and counterclaims.
The question now is, how are you going to form evaluative statements? It’s very simple! Just remember the following pointers:
1. Begin with the positives before you point out the negatives. Remember that your evaluative statement should be factual, substantial,
and unbiased. When giving your negative feedback, it should not sound insulting on the part of the evaluatee (one who is evaluated).
2. Suggest a solution/s or suggestion/s on how to improve the written material being evaluated and provide justification how these will
3. Keep your feedback concise and precise.
4. Be careful in giving your feedback. Since evaluations pass judgment onto works of authors, they must be written and expressed
with care and much diligence.
Take a look at the given example below:
A student was tasked to compose a poem that would express his thoughts and feelings about various events around him. After a
while, he submitted it to his teacher before the set deadline. As the teacher evaluated his output, she was impressed about the way
the student wrote his concrete poem using the shape of a dove as the poem’s structure to help the readers to easily understand the
meaning of his writing. Surprisingly, he chose a theme about the 2019 Corona Virus Disease that gives hope to the readers who
may be affected by the pandemic. In addition to this, a good physical and grammatical arrangement of words were evidently shown.
Figurative language and imagery were also used. However, the teacher found out that the poem was written in forced rhyme that
may have caused him to use inappropriate words. Since the teacher wanted to improve the writing skill of the student, she then
suggested to consider the use of appropriate language over rhyme to better connect with the audience.
1. You (referring to the writer) composed an impressive poem. It has a good physical and grammatical arrangement of words
that enhanced the readers’ overall experience. Another good thing is that your chosen theme is very timely that gives hope to
the readers in this time of pandemic. When it comes to the elements of poetry, you used figurative language and imagery that
added spice to the overall quality of your composition. These literary devices stir up and startle the readers’ imagination.
Furthermore, the choice of writing a concrete poetry (a poetry of which visual appearance matches the topic of the poem) with
a dove as the shape of the poem’s structure contributes a lot in understanding the meaning of the poem.
The evaluation begins with an evaluative statement that says, “You (referring to the writer) composed an impressive poem.” It
is followed by giving a positive feedback to the writer specifying the strengths of the poem.
2. However, the rhyme of your writing is forced. It seems that the words were chosen for the sake of having a rhyming effect that
somehow affect the emotional connection between the reader and the poem itself.
In the second paragraph, the evaluator mentioned about the weaknesses she saw in the writing.
3. To improve your work, you should be careful in choosing the appropriate words to be used to best express the meaning and
emotions you would like the readers to understand and feel. It should be considered over the rhyme of the poem. Remember, a
poem may or may not have a rhyme but if you choose to have one, the meaning and the emotional appeal of the poem should not
be compromised. In this way, you can have a good connection with the readers and would therefore make them appreciate your
poem more.
Finally, a suggestion was given to the writer at the third paragraph for the improvement of the poem.
A good critical reader does not only understand the meaning of a reading material but also logically evaluates whether the claims of the
writer are true or false. Assertions serve as a primary way for the readers to consider and possibly agree with the claims presented by
the writer in an expository writing.
Assertions are declarative sentences that give one’s belief about something else as if it is true though it may not be. It is expressed as
an argument. Usually, these assertions contain languages that expresses evaluation such as useful, significant, important, insightful,
detailed, up-to-date, comprehensive, practical, impressive, etc.
For example, you were asked to answer the question, “Do you believe education should continue regardless of the situation we are facing
right now?” and you would give your opinion or argument about it. Afterwards, you would make an assertion whether you agree or
disagree with the issue, thus, take a stand and support it with your reason/s.
There are four types of assertions which are classified according to the degree of certainty they can be judged as true or false.
1. FACT - is a statement that can be proven objectively by direct experience, testimonies of witnesses, verified observations, or the
results of research.
According to experts, seawater contains high amounts of minerals such as sodium, chloride, sulphate, magnesium, and calcium.
(The first sample sentence is classified as a fact since the mineral contents of seawater can be tested and proven through
experiments and researches.)
2. CONVENTION - is a way in which something is done similar to traditions and norms. Its truthfulness can be verified only by reference
to historical precedents, laws, rules, usage, and customs. Something to note about conventions is that they may sound factual due
to their being derived from customs, but because they are socially accepted ways of doing things, they cannot be verified objectively
by measurements.
Seawater is classified as a heterogenous and homogenous mixture.
(The second sample sentence is a convention because the classification of seawater is based on the classification system made
by scientists and is acceptable to the scientific community.)
3. OPINION - is a statement based on facts but is difficult to objectively verify because of the uncertainty of producing satisfactory
proofs of soundness. Opinions result from ambiguities; the more ambiguous a statement, the more difficult it is to verify. Thus, they
are open to disputes.
Swimming in seawater is the best activity to refresh and relax your mind, body, and soul.
(The third sample sentence is an opinion since the claim is difficult to prove. The truthfulness of the claim may be true to some but
not to others.)
4. PREFERENCE - states a personal choice in which the writer is under no obligation to support or prove the truthfulness of the
statement. They are subjective and cannot be objectively proven or logically attacked.
I love to make frequent trips to places with seawater than those without it.
(The last sample sentence is a preference because it expresses the personal choice of the writer to places with seawater over those
places without it.)
Formulating Counterclaims
To be an effective critical thinker, it is not enough just to be able to identify claims and assertions. The ability to analyze an argument is
essential to understanding the text more deeply, but understanding the claim is not the only facet of the argument. You must also learn
how to analyze the counterclaims and evidence provided by the text. Being able to recognize and formulate counterclaims in reaction to
an argument is a characteristic of a good critical reader.
Counterclaims are claims made to rebut a previous claim. To rebut means to contradict someone’s statement through a formal
argument. They provide a contrasting perspective to the main argument.
To be able to locate counterclaims to an argument, remember the following:
1. Show competence and familiarity with the writer’s topic.
2. Examine different perspectives and not just passively accepting the writer’s claim.
3. Consider the topic, and make sure you are willing to engage different viewpoints from your own.
4. Clarify your personal position on the topic.
Martha is an incoming Grade 11 student. She has been using a basic cellphone ever since she was in junior high school. She is very
eager to go back to school and be productive, but when she learned about the integration with technology and digital tools to extend in
the classrooms beyond the constraints of traditional walls particularly in the public school due to the global pandemic, her excitement
turned into frustration. Martha desperately wants to have a smartphone, so she can have access to online learning. Having this in mind,
she tells her father, Mang Tonyo, that she needs a smartphone. Mang Tonyo, thinking only of the additional expense, simply says, “No.”
Martha has made her claim – asking for a smartphone.
Mang Tonyo has made his counterclaim – opposing Martha’s claim
Martha must offer valid reasons to convince Mang Tonyo that she needs the smartphone because it has access to internet and so he
needs to provide her with one. Martha might provide evidence of the necessity of using smart phone nowadays as part of the new normal
life in the time of coronavirus. Martha’s reasoning may include a description of how important a smartphone is as far as convenience and
flexibility in online distance learning are concerned.
In this example of counterclaim, Mang Tonyo now needs to support his refusal to provide Mildred with a smartphone. He should be ready
to give solid, substantiated reasons for his refusal to provide something that the family has been spending for all those years. This may
include evidence of the family’s inability to send her and her siblings to a private school, and that his budget is not sufficient enough to
afford a brand new smartphone since the family income has suffered due to COVID-19.
Four Elements of Argument
1. CLAIM - is a statement that asserts facts based on one’s understanding about a particular topic or issue.
In the given example, Martha asking his father to buy her a smart phone is an example of a claim.
2. COUNTERCLAIM - is just the opposite of claim. It is a statement that contradicts one’s claim and is usually proven and supported
by both reasons and evidences.
Mang Tonyo’s negative response to Martha’s claim is an example of counterclaim.
3. REASON - is the part of an argument where a statement offers an explanation behind a party’s claim.
Martha’s offering of valid reasons to convince Mang Tonyo that she needs the smart phone is an example of reason.
4. EVIDENCE - is the statement that proves the truth of a claim and generally leads to the conclusion of an argument.
Martha provides evidence of the necessity of using smartphone as part of the new normal life in the time of corona virus is an
example of evidence.
Textual evidence is defined as the details given by the author in order to support his/her claims. It reveals the position of the writer and
makes the reading more interesting. Evidences are details that strengthen, add variety or weight to any argument.
Let’s take this paragraph as a sample essay about the poem:
Harlem by Langston Hughes gives me the feeling, or mood of anger and depression. It feels like the idea of deferring dreams is
Hurtful and maybe even causes one to become resentful before eventually being overcome by anger. I know this because the
poem uses the words “foster like a sore,” which gives me a feeling of pain. Further, describing deferred dreams as if they
“stink like rotten meat” is an unpleasant image, giving me the feeling of resentment. Finally, when the poem end with “Or
does it explode?” makes me think of a person who boils over in anger.
Here, the author claimed that the poem gives him the feeling of anger and depression. He uses exact words from the poem like foster
like a sore, stink like rotten meat, or does it explode which are directly relevant to his idea of anger and depression. Thus, we can say
that the writer’s claim in this essay is valid and relevant.
In addition, finding textual evidence on a read text helps you make inferences using concrete evidences on your claim. To support one’s
claim, you should explicitly cite the ideas that support your claim in your writings.
There are different ways on how you can present textual evidence in your writings. It can be through paraphrasing or restating the text
in your own words, through summarizing or stating in a shorter way the text and other relevant details to support the idea, through
referencing or mentioning a specific section in the text, and through quoting or directly restating a part of the text
In the poem Harlem, the author claimed that a person may feel disappointed when dream
deferred for he questioned the reader’s feeling about withholding dreams. (What
happens to a dream deferred?)
The movie Seven Sundays (2017) is a heart-warming story and shows the importance of
family in our lives. The movie tells about the Bonifacio siblings who were reunited
because of their father who was mistakenly diagnosed with cancer. It presented the
different struggles of their lives and how they were able to overcome them.
The Department of Education ensures the delivery of quality education and safety of the
learners in the opening of classes for this school year amidst COVID 19 as stated in the
Deped Order no.7 s. 2020 on DepEd School Calendar and Activities for S.Y. 20202021 paragraph 2 and 3.
Langston Hughes described deferred dreams as if they “stink like rotten meat” in his
poem which suggest an unpleasant image, giving me the feeling of resentment. He also
ends the poem with the line “Or does it explode?” that made me think of a person who
boils over in anger.
Remember that textual evidences validate and strengthen your writings, showing that you read and understand a text.
A book review describes and evaluates a work of fiction or nonfiction and offers the book’s overall purpose, structure, style of narration
to the unknown readers. It tells not only what a book is about, but also how successful it is at what it is trying to do. It is a sneak peek at
a book, not a summary.
As a reviewer, you bring together the two strands of accurate, analytical reading and strong, personal response when you indicate what
the book is about and what it meant to readers. Hence, in writing a book review, you combine your skills of describing the content of the
pages, analyzing how the book achieved its purpose, and expressing your most personal comments, reactions and suggestions.
But before you start writing a book review, you have to read the book first and ask yourself these questions: What are the au thor’s
viewpoint and purpose? What are the author’s main points? What kind of evidence does the author use to prove his or her points? How
does this book relate to other books on the same topic? Does the author have the necessary expertise to write the book? What are the
most appropriate criteria by which to judge the book? How successful do you think the author was in carrying out the overall purposes of
the book?
If it is a short review, you may not be able to fulfill your purpose. If it is too long, it may stray too much of the plot or of the content, you
may lose the interest of your readers. Take this general guideline: the length of the review depends upon the length of the book itself,
and a review should not be less than 100 words. Longer books usually asks for more than 500 words.
A book review title should be based on your total impression of a book. Similar to creating passwords, strong titles might be “Drew girl
power to new height”, “A night owl that seldom sleeps even during daytime,” “Beautiful illustrations with a story to match,” “Perfect for a
weekend getaway” while weak titles are: “State of the art book,” “Five stars,” “A breath of fresh air,” “Fast and furious.”
How do you START writing a book review?
1. Identify the book by author, title, and sometimes publishing information.
2. Specify the type of book (for example: fiction, nonfiction, biography, and autobiography). Help your readers to review with
3. Mention the book’s theme.
4. Include background, if necessary, to enable reader/s to place the book into a specific context.
5. You may also use an interesting quote, an interesting fact, or an explanation of a concept or term.
What do you DO with the content?
1. For nonfiction books like biography, history and the like: pay primary attention to the major points (the argument) the author is
putting forth and to the sources the author has drawn upon to back up his/her point of view.
2. For fictional works such as novels, chic lit, graphic novels, manga: pay attention primarily to the novel or book’s setting, plot,
style, characters, theme/s, use of language and voice. Caution: Do not give away the story for no one appreciates a spoiler!
3. Provide your reactions to the book.
4. Describe the book.
5. Respond to the author’s opinions and analyze it.
6. Explore issues the book raises.
How do you CONCLUDE?
1. Relate your argument to other books or authors.
Relate the book to larger issues.
Tie together issues raised in the review.
Briefly restate your main points and your thesis statement.
Indicate how well the book has achieved its goal, what possibilities are suggested by the book, what the book has left out, how the
book compares to others on the subject, what specific points are not convincing, and what personal experiences you’ve had related
to the subject.
How do you REVISE the draft?
1. Allow time to elapse, at least a day, before starting your revision.
2. Correct grammatical mistakes and punctuation as you find them.
3. Read your paper through again looking for unity, organization and logical development.
4. If necessary, do not hesitate to make major revisions in your draft.
5. Verify quotations for accuracy and check the format and content of references.
A literature review (LR) is a type of academic essay that examines what has already been written about a topic. As a collection of
published research about your topic by recognized scholars and researchers, it is a way for you to examine also what has already been
done in regard to your research question or problem. Likewise, it summarizes and synthesizes the conducted research driven by guiding
principles. Although, it is not a research paper, it provides background for your problem and a rationale for your research (Abadiano 2016,
Literature reviews consist of the following components and its purposes:
 Defines the topic and the scope being considered
 Notes intentional exclusions
 States the general findings of the review and the availability of the sources
Main Body
 Organizes the evaluation of the sources whether chronologically or thematically
 Showcases the critical summary and evaluation of the research’s premise, methodology, and conclusion
 Uses grammatical connectors, relational words or phrases and transitional devices
 Summarizes the key findings of the review
 Offers the reviewer’s justification of the conducted research
 Reflects the in-text citations
 Contains complete and correct citations
Here are four literature review strategies:
State briefly the argument and main points of relevant research
Combine ideas in order to form an integrated theory or system through critical evaluation, compare/contrast, etc.
Examine closely the elements or structure of the research
Assess the research based on the criteria or rubric that you choose, state, and explain. Support it with another similar
A Research Report is a long, formal essay, usually five to fifteen pages in length, which presents the writer’s views and findings on a
chosen subject. However, it is not just a long composition which follows the principles of good writing. It is a scholarly work and not just
a collection of notes lifted from many different sources and strung together, one after the other.
The components of a research report are as follows:
It reflects the content and emphasis of the project described in the report. Similarly, it should be as short as possible, including
essential key words.
It is an overview of the research study and is typically two to four paragraphs in length containing 200-300 words. Think of it as
an executive and technical summary that distills the key elements of the remaining sections into a few sentences.
It provides the key question that the researcher is attempting to answer and a review of any literature that is relevant. In addition,
the researcher will provide a rationale of why the research is important and will present a hypothesis that attempts to answer
the key question. Lastly, it should contain a summary of the key question following the completion of the research.
This is arguably the most important section for two reasons: (1) it allows readers to evaluate the quality of the research, and (2)
it provides the details by which another researcher may replicate and validate the findings. Typically, the information in the
methodology section is arranged in chronological order with the most important information on top of each section.
In longer research papers, the results section contains the data and perhaps a short introduction. Ideally, the interpretation of
the data and the analysis is reserved for the discussion section.
This section is where the results of the study are interpreted and evaluated against the existing body or literature. In addition,
should there be any anomalies found in the results, this is where the authors point them out. Finally, it is an attempt to connect
the results to the bigger picture and show how the results might be applied.
This section provides a list of each author and paper cited in the research report. Any fact, idea, or direct quotation used in the
report should be cited and referenced.
How do you format a research report?
There is no one best format for all reports for a format depends on several relevant variables. You must employ a suitable format to
create a desirable impression with clarity. Report must be attractive. While you should write systematically, you must use the format (or
often called structure) that best fits the needs and wants of its readers.
A project proposal is a document that is written for problem solving, service provision, event planning, or equipment selling. Generally,
proposals are used to convince the reader to do what the proposal suggests, such as buying goods or services, funding a project, or
implementing a program. Proposals in the professional world are used for internal (within an organization) and external (from one
organization to another) purposes. They are ways of generating income for companies or seeking funding for projects. This is provided
to the sponsor of the project for approval.
A proposal stands out depending on its ability to clearly answer questions about what is being proposed, how the plan will be carried out,
when it will be implemented, and how much money will be needed or spent. In other words, they are persuasive documents that need to
do the following: highlight reader benefits, prove your credibility in carrying out the project, and allow the reader to respond easily.
As a student, you have been familiarized with writing proposals - maybe even without you knowing it. Whenever you envision, plan, and
complete a project for your science class or your club outreach, you are thinking about fulfilling a need for something. This process may
involve writing a paper or doing a presentation in front of an audience to get their approval. While proposal writing may seem like an
intimidating task, they can be made easier by following the guidelines in writing and familiarizing yourself with the parts of a project
(Projectmanager 2018)
Guidelines in Writing the Proposal
1. Gathering the Data. One of the characteristics of an effective proposal is being well- researched. It needs concreted data to back
up its claims so it can become more credible. You can gather data from primary and secondary sources, and apply the strategies
that you learned in writing a research paper in the previous lessons.
2. Organizing the Data. A proposal becomes more effective if the information on it is clearly organized. You can use the parts of the
proposal to guide you in your organization, or use an outline to structure your discussion more effectively.
3. Writing the Proposal. Fill out the parts of the proposal with the relevant data.
4. Revising the Proposal. Make sure to review your proposal for accuracy and organization before you send it out. A good proposal
will be comprehensive and will put your organization in the best light.
(Tiongson and Rodriguez 2016)
Formatting the Project Proposal
Proposals are primarily categorized according to their length. An informal proposal is about 2-4 pages long. Meanwhile, a formal proposal
has 5 or more pages. Regardless of their purpose and audience, they have standard parts such as the following:
1. Introduction. This part provides the background necessary for understanding the project, which is done by telling your reader the
Rationale - this identifies the problem to be addressed and shows the need to solve it.
Objectives - these reveal what the project intends to achieve in terms of results. It also gives the reader an idea of the intended
solution. Good objectives are SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Results oriented, and bound within a realistic Time
Benefits - these show what the reader or the target audience can gain from the proposal, which may be improvements in
processes or systems, an increase in revenue, or a change in behavior of the beneficiaries of the proposal.
2. Project Description. This section gives specific information about the project itself. It indicates how the project will address the
identified problem through the following parts:
Methodology – this entails the different activities, the project will take on, including the manpower (i.e., the people involved
and their duties), resources to be utilized and the expanded output.
Schedule - this discusses the task duration and expected start and end dates of each activity in the project.
Budget - this presents an analysis of all the costs anticipated in the project, which can be itemized or shown as a whole,
depending on the needs of the project.
Note: Organizations usually provide interested parties with a required format for project proposals, so make sure that you
follow the prescribed format.
(Brighthubpm 2009)
The position paper is a composition that highlights an opinion of an author or specified entity about an issue. As a debate, it presents
one side of an arguable opinion and persuades the readers or audience that the author has a well-founded knowledge about the issue.
In writing the Position Paper, your goal as a writer is not only to state and defend your position on the issue but also to show how your
stance relates to other position. Do remember that arguments should be supported with reasons and evidences.
Writing Center of the University of Hawaii, stated that in choosing the issue or problem to be discussed, you may ask yourself the following
questions as issue criteria to ensure that you will be able to present a strong argument:
1. Is it the actual and real issue?
2. Can you clearly identify two positions?
3. Are you an advocate of one of these positions?
4. Is the issue narrow enough to be manageable?
After choosing the argument to take, you must present relevant supporting evidence like:
1. Factual knowledge, which valid and verifiable information
2. Statistical inferences, which are conclusions drawn from data gathered
3. Informed opinions, which are based on knowledge of the facts and carefully considered principle, and rely on evidence instead
of limited personal experience
4. Personal testimony, which are personal or first-hand experience of the writer or knowledgeable party
Rutgers 1998)
Now, here are the components of a position paper.
The Introduction – identifies the issue that will be discussed and states the author’s position on that issue.
A. Introduce your topic with background information
B. Build up your thesis statement which asserts your position
 Fast food restaurants are bad for our health.
 Fast food packages should contain warning labels.
The Body – contains the central argument and can be further broken up into sections:
A. Possible objections to your position (counter argument)
 Whose job is it to determine which restaurants are bad?
 Such labels would affect the profits of major corporations.
B. A discussion of both sides of the issue, which addresses and refutes arguments that contradict the author’s position (your
 It would be difficult and expensive for any entity to determine which restaurants should adhere to the policy.
 Nobody wants to see the government overstepping its boundaries.
C. Explain that your position is still the best one, despite the strength of counter arguments. This is where you can work to
discredit some of the counter arguments and support your own.
 Restaurants might improve the standards of food if warning labels were put into place.
 The role of the government is to keep citizens safe.
Conclusion – restating the key points and when applicable, suggest resolution to the issue.
A. restate your position
B. provide Plan of Action
(Thoughtco 2020)
Résumé originated from the French word résumé which means, “summary”. It is a concise document that highlights your education, work
experiences, and other qualifications such as your skills and strengths. These are information or qualifications that your future employer
might look for in the job that you are applying for. A résumé is usually an enclosure to an application or cover letter so it is recommended
that you prepare the résumé first since the information that you include there will be the basis of your letter.
Structure and organization of a sample résumé:
Personal Details
- Include your full name and contact information
Career Objective/ Summary
- Convey your goals or highlights experience
- List the most recent first
Work Experience
- Use action verbs for descriptive phrases and list the most recent
Additional Information
- Optional part; headings could be languages, awards, achievements, skills, etc.
- 2 to 3 reliable people to endorse you; could be former professor or employer
Structure and organization of a sample résumé:
Answer the given questions to help you prepare a draft of your application letter.
1. Why am I writing a letter? Is it for college admission or for job application?
2. Who will receive my letter?
3. Which format (Block, Modified, Semi-Block) will I use in writing my letter?
4. What is my purpose for writing a letter?
5. How does my background make me a great candidate to consider?
6. How could I ensure that I would be considered/admitted?
7. What contact information should I include?
College Admission Letter is also known as the "letter of intent". It is a brief discussion of your intention to be admitted in a specific
course in college.
Employment Application Letter is widely known as a "cover letter". It is used to introduce yourself to a prospective employer. You write
this to demonstrate your interest in the company, sell your services and qualifications in written form, and show that you are fit for a job
position. It is usually submitted with a résumé. Using any of the three letter formats (Block, Modified Block, and Semi-Block) depends on
your preference as an applicant, but the most common layout for business letter is the block format which means that all parts of the
letter are aligned to the left. In a modified block format, the heading, date, complimentary close, and signature are placed slightly to the
right of the center of the paper. The least used format is the semi-block which is similar with modified block except that the paragraphs
of the body are indented.
Below are the parts of an application letter:
- The sender’s mailing address
- The date when the letter was written
Inside Address
- Receiver’s name, job title, and address
- Usually begins with “Dear” and uses colon (:) at the end
- Consists of the opening, middle, and closing
Complimentary Close
- A polite way of ending your letter; ends with a comma (,) Signature -the complete name and signature of
the sender
Office Correspondence, or business correspondence, is a written interchange of internal (communication between company
departments) and external communication (communication between a company to another firm) to assist the flow of business
Business letter is the traditional way of communicating information from one company to another or used in external correspondence.
The format can either be full block, modified block and semi-block. Various types of letters are sales letter, order letter, complaint letter,
inquiry letter, adjustment letter, acknowledgement letter, follow-up letter, cover letter, letter of recommendation, and letter of resignation.
Here is an example where you can identify the different parts of a letter.
Additionally, Business memorandum or memo is a written communication strictly between the company’s offices to another, or used in
internal correspondence. A memo has its title line and series number. Employees tend to read the memorandum if the title line is related
to their job description. Memos are also used to implement internal guidelines or procedures that the employees must follow.
Here are some reminders in completing the parts of a memorandum:
This segment follows this general format:
TO: (Identify the recipient/s)
FROM: (Your name)
DATE: (Complete and current date)
SUBJECT: (What the memo is about)
Body Basically, the body of the memo has two parts: the purpose statement and the explanation. It is usually presented in single
spaced paragraphs with a line skipped between each paragraph.
Special Notations Notations at the bottom of the memo are used to indicate specific things to the reader.
 If you have an attachment on enclosure notation, type “Enclosure” or “Attachment”.
An Enclosure is something included with the memo while an Attachment is a supporting document attached by a paper clip,
staple, etc.
 If copies are being sent to others, add notation cc (carbon copies or courtesy copy) line and list of names at the bottom of
the memo.
Lastly, Business e-mail is an office correspondence that can either be internal or external. There is no required format in writing e-mail
correspondence but it is expected that the writer maintains a professional tone. Note that the header of the letter is written on the blank
fields including the ‘from’ and ‘to’ fields. ‘From’ contains e-mail from the sender while the field ‘to’ contains the email of the recipient.