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Topic 1: Developing and Delivering an
Informative Speech
INFORMATIVE SPEECH as the term implies, is a
type of speech that aims to inform the audience and
not to advocate a cause or influence people to act
and think as you want them to be.
Types of Informative Speech
1. Speech about objects
6. Speech about concepts
A concept refers to beliefs, theories, principles, and
ideas. One characteristic of a concept is its abstract state.
Financial Freedom
Ways in Organizing Informative Speech
Object refers to something that is visible, tangible, and
stable in form that can be experienced through physical
senses. Objects can be living or non-living.
Mayon Volcano
3D glasses
The poodle
Light Rail Transit
A Syringe
2. Speech about processes
Process refers to sequence of actions or steps that
lead to a specific product or income.
How a tornado develops
How papaya soap is made
How to play the piano
How to cook adobo
3. Speech about people
Speech about people is like speech about objects –
except of course, they should be represented as human
The Sacrifices of Mother Teresa
The Legacy of Pres. Ferdinand Marcos
President Rodrigo Duterte: The Road to the
Malacanang Palace
4. Speech about events
An event refers to anything that happens or is happening.
Miss Universe 2018
Recent Philippine Elections
National SCUAA
5. Speech about issues
An issue refers to a point or matter of discussion,
dispute, and public concern.
Truancy among students
Professional Conflicts
Sexual Harassment
Corruption in the Philippines
involves sequencing of events or steps.
How to print a document from a computer
How to cook spaghetti
The Life of Oprah Winfrey
spatial arrangement which allows the audience to
visualize locations, appearance, distances, and
arrangement of objects.
Asia’s best tourist spots
Describing a newly built condominium
Different regions in the Philippines
Categorical or Topical
this approach which allows the audience to see how the
subject is divided into subgroups or subtopics.
• Types of learners
• Different branches of science
• Body systems (i.e circulatory, digestive,
Cause and Effect
consider using the cause-and-effect approach. It
allows the audience to see the causal relationship of
If you intend to show the differences and similarities
of an event, place, person, things, and other
concepts and objects.
Comparison and Additional Tips for an Effective
Informative Speech
1. Use plain language.
2. Relate your topic to the audience.
3. Do not overestimate not underestimate your
audience’s knowledge about the topic.
4. Use active and concrete language over
5. Enlighten and entertain your audience
Topic 2: Developing and Delivering a
Persuasive Speech
Informative Speech
Persuasive Speech
Presents options
Pushes for a choice
among options
Speaker acts as an
Uses supporting
materials to justify
Asks for strong
audience commitment
Speaker’s credibility is
more important
Strong appeals to
Higher ethical
Speaker acts as the
Uses supporting
materials to enlighten
the audience
Asks for little audience
Speaker’s credibility is
Fewer appeals to
High ethical obligation
Four Types of Persuasive Speech
1. Speech to Convince
In this type of speech, no direct action is
needed from the audience.
2. Speech to Actuate
In this type of speech, an action is needed
from the audience.
3. Speech to Inspire
In this type of speech, the audience usually
share the same beliefs and thoughts with the
4. Debates and Public Argumentation
In this type of speech, two groups of people
or two individuals discuss a certain
proposition; one is “for’ and the other one is
Persuasion process:
Presentation-Involves exposure to
communication .
Attention -Involves attending to
the message and liking it
Comprehension -Involves learning the
“what” and the “how” of the message
Yielding =Involves attitude change
Retention-Involves memory
storage and/or argument.
Behaviour-involves acting out of desired
Tips in Dealing with a Reluctant Audience or a
“Tough Crowd”
Establish goodwill early in your speech.
Begin with points of agreement.
Make good eye contact but not aggressive.
Speak with conviction.
Emphasize positive motives and emotions,
such as fairness, safety, sympathy, love,
ambition, respect, and patriotism.
6. Give emphasis on explanation rather than
being argumentative.
7. Mention experts and authorities that the
audience respects.
8. Do not push your audience to believe in all
of your arguments.
9. Compare your views with others but make
sure your comparison is favourable on your
10. Anticipate possible questions from the
audience and then supply them as you talk.
11. Never threaten the values of the audience.
instead, reason out on the perspective of
your listener’s values.
12. Demonstrate a clear and specific plan of
13. Be enthusiastic and sincere.
Designs for a Persuasive Speech
Problem-Solution Method
a speaker presents a problem then proposes a
Step I. Persuade the audience that a
problem exists.
Step II.
Persuade the Audience that your
solution is the best.
Topic 3: Talking That Fits the Occasion
Impromptu Speech
Impromptu speech involves unrehearsed speaking
with very short time for preparation. In fact, many
of the speeches you give are impromptu. You can
be asked to speak to introduce, to thank, to inspire,
to welcome, to entertain, and to congratulate.
Methods or Patterns of Organizing an
Impromptu Speech:
1. PREP method
Point: State your position on the topic.
Reason: State your reason for taking the position.
Example: Provide an example that helps
explain your reason. Restatement of Point:
Summarize and Restate your position.
The point I wish to make is that
Impromptu Speaking is an essential skill to
Being able to speak effectively with
little preparation is very empowering
I can remember my sister being
called to speak in front of her colleagues.
At first she struggled; but because she
knows some techniques in delivering an
impromptu speech, the struggles were
turned into opportunities – opportunities to
showcase her speaking skills and wit.
Now, she is more confident, more vibrant,
more alive, more willing to take risks not
only in speaking but also in whatever she
When a person becomes more
comfortable in speaking even with less
preparation, he or she becomes empowered
and stronger.
2. Point-Support-Conclusion (PSC) Method
Provide your point of view, key
idea, or objective.
Provide stories or examples that
help prove your point.
Conclusion: End by restating your point of
view or key idea and by
making your call to action.
3. Past-Present-Future (PPF) Method
State your Key Point
Discuss what happened in
the past.
Tell your audience about
what will or could happen
in the future.
Summarize by restating
your key point.
Delivering Functional Speeches
No matter what the situation is, we need to consider
these points:
1. Functional speeches must be brief.
2. Functional speeches concern emotions.
3. Functional speeches, especially the
language used, must be appropriate to the
situation. You do not want a highly
entertaining speech during a funeral.
Introducing a Speaker
Generally, introducing speakers should not be
longer than two minutes.
Welcoming Attendees and Guests
The purpose of a welcoming address is to make the
participants feel comfortable.
Accepting and Thanking
Use the following tips when thanking those who
recognize us:
1. Keep the speech short, usually not more
than two minutes.
2. Do not forge to thank the Award-giving
3. Do not forget to thank those who are
instrumental to your success.
Wedding Wishes
A wedding is a day of hope, love and
Topic 1: Effective Workplace
Workplace Communication
the process of exchanging information and ideas, both
verbal and non-verbal, within an organization. An
organization may consist of employees from different
parts of the society..
1. Good Communication Mitigates Conflict
2. Good Communication Increases Employee
3. Good Communication Creates Better Client
4.Good Communication Results in a More
Productive & Talented Workforce Employee
Effective workplace communication ensures that all
the organizational objectives are achieved.
Ineffective workplace communication leads to
communication gaps between employees, which causes
confusion, wastes time, and reduces productivity.
communication, prevents barriers from forming among
individuals within companies that might impede
progress in striving to reach a common goal.
Communication Skills for Workplace Success
The following are the communication skills that
would lead you the way to success. Just remember
the mnemonics PORN FACCCE
 Positive Feedback
 Open-Mindedness
 Respect for people and their ideas
 Nonverbal Communication:
 Friendliness:
 Active Listening:
 Clarity and Conciseness:
 Confidence:
 Choosing the Right Medium:
 Empathy:
The Power of Good Communication in the
Good communication is an important skill in any
environment with human interactions. However,
when it comes to communication in the workplace,
good communication is an integral element to
business success.
Tips for Effective Workplace Communication
1. Make work fun. Making work fun will keep
workers motivated and productive.
2. Don't just hear. Listen.
3. Take your emotions out of the equation. You
can't be professional if you're angry at your
employees. Learn to react stoically.
4. Make employees feel like owners.
5. Trust your people. If you want to keep morale,
make sure they know you trust their instincts.
6. Give employees what they want.
Motivators for employees:
*the desire for compensation and
material things
*the need to bond with others and
feel as though they belong
*the need to make sense of their
*the desire to defend their
7. Give good feedback. If you like your
employees' work, let them know it.
8. Respect cultural differences.
9. Revive the great lost art of conversation. Even
in our modern world, face-toface
communication can work wonders for morale.
10. Handle conflicts with diplomacy.
Résumés can be used for a variety of reasons, but
most often they are used to secure new
A typical résumé contains a "summary" of relevant
job experience and education.
Cover Letter
A cover letter serves a vital purpose: it presents the case
for why you should be hired and distinguishes you from
other candidates. Your cover letter is where you can
show your passion for the position and the company,
and highlights your most relevant qualifications.
résumé is typically limited to one or two pages of
size A4 or letter-size, highlighting only those
experiences and qualifications that the applicant
considers most relevant to the desired position.
A strong cover letter can make your application stand
out from the others. Remember to:
1. Reverse chronological résumé -A résumé that lists a
Topic 2: Communication for Employment
(The Cover Letter and the Resume)
candidate's job experiences in chronological order,
generally covering the previous 10 to 15 years.
Highlight Your Relevant Qualifications
2. Functional résumé -A résumé that lists work
Customize your letter and
experience and skills sorted by skill area or job
Edit Your Cover Letter
Cover Letter Writing Tips
1. Include a salutation. The greeting you choose
depends on how much information you have about the
2. Write the first paragraph of your letter. This is
where you will mention the job for which you are
applying and how you found the job listing. It only
needs to be 1 to 2 sentences in length.
3. Write the body paragraphs of your letter. Most
cover letters will only have 1 or 2 body paragraphs. You
don't want to overwhelm the hiring manager or use up a
great deal of their time.
4. Write the final paragraph of your letter. This is
where you wrap up and discuss how you proceed with
the application.
5. Wrapping up the Cover Letter. Reiterate why you
are a perfect fit. Sum your qualifications up in one
compact sentence to remind the manager why you are
the best person to hire.
time and I look forward to speaking with you soon.”
6. End your cover letter with a respectful closing
statement. “Best” or “Sincerely” are both classic
options. Then, type your full name and affix your
3. Combination résumé -As the term suggests, this
combines the features of the first two kinds of
resume. As such, this highlights job history as well as
4. Online résumés -The search for employment has
become more electronic,Many employers now find
candidates' résumés through search engines, which
makes it more important for candidates to use
5. Infographic, video and website résumés-Video,
infographic, and even Vine résumés have gained
popularity, though mainly in the creative and media
Reminders in Writing Resume
-Do not write the word RESUME in the heading.
-Arrange the parts of the resume according to your purpose.
-Keep sentences brief yet informative.
-Check the contents to avoid errors.
-Edit you work for clarity of thought and correctness of
-Avoid the first person pronouns “I, me or my”…
-Try not to have “character references available upon
A résumé or resume is a document used and created by
a person to present his/her background, skills, and
- Be emphatic by using more than one font type, but never
overuse them.
-Use appealing font style with readable size.
-Properly format headings, margin and spacing.
--Affix your signature to authenticate its content.
2. Address the recipient appropriately.
-Include your latest photo.
-Use high quality paper for printing.
3. Add additional recipients in the CC line.
Topic 3: Communication within a Company
(The Memorandum)
4.Write your name in the “From” line.
4. Include the date.
A memorandum, more commonly known as a
memo, is a short message or record used for
internal communication in a business.
5. Choose a specific phrase for the subject line.
Types of Memorandum
Memorandum that requests. This document
makes a favor.
Memorandum that responds. This used
when there is a prior document that needs a
Memorandum that informs. This is used to
state, explain, or clarify a policy, issue and others.
Writing Effective Memos
An effective memo, wrote Barbara Diggs-Brown, is
"short, concise, highly organized, and never late. It
should anticipate and answer all questions that a
reader might have. It never provides unnecessary or
confusing information." ("The PR Styleguide,"
Be clear, be focused, be brief yet complete. Take a
professional tone and write as if the world could
read it—that is, do not include any information that
is too sensitive for everyone to see, especially in
this age of "click and forward" copy and paste age.
Start with the basics: to whom the article is
addressed, the date, and the subject line. Start the
body of the memo with a clear purpose, state what
you need the readers to know, and conclude with
what you need readers to do, if necessary.
Remember that employees may just skim the memo
upon receipt, so use short paragraphs, subheads,
and where you can, use lists. These are "points of
entry" for the eye so the reader can refer back easily
to the part of the memo that he or she needs.
Writing the Heading of the Memo
1. Type “MEMORANDUM” at the top of the page.
6. Format the heading properly. The heading should
be at the top of the page, aligned to the left-hand
side of the page. Capitalize the words “TO:”,
“FROM:”, “DATE:”, and “SUBJECT:”
A sample heading would look like:
TO: Name ad Job title of the recipient
FROM: You name and job title
DATE: Complete date when the memo was
SUBJECT: (or RE:) What the memo is
about (highlighted in some way)
*When constructing the heading, be sure to double
space between sections and align the text.
*You may choose to add a line below the heading
that goes all the way across the page. This will
separate the heading from the body of the memo.
Writing the Body of the Memo
1. Consider who the audience should be.
2. Skip a formal salutation.
3. Introduce the problem or issue in the first
4. Briefly give them the context behind the action
you wish them to take.
5. Give context for the issue at hand.
6. Support your course of action in the discussion
7. Suggest the actions that the reader should take.
8. Close the memo with a positive and warm
summary. The memo’s final paragraph should
restate the next steps to address the issue at hand. It
should also include a warm note that reiterates the
solidarity of the organization.
4. Analytical- gathering the data,
Topic 1. Research: Meaning,
Characteristics, Values of Research to
Mankind and Classification of Research
What is Research?
Adanza, Bermudo, Rasonable (2009),
research is looking for answers to a query
using the most logical and valid methods.
Baac (2008), discoursed that researched is
the process by which the collection and
analysis of data to generate a theory or test
a theory is done systematically.
Calmorin (2007) defines research as the
scientific investigation of phenomena which
includes collection, presentation, analysis
and interpretation of facts that link an
individuals’ speculation with reality.
Dejillas(2000) expresses that research is a
systematic and scientific way of
investigating a problem with the view of
understanding it and finding solutions to it.
Mugo(2000), states that research is a
careful or diligent search, studious inquiry
or examination especially at the
whether historical, descriptive,
experimental or case study.
5. Critical- exhibits careful and
precise judgment.
6. Methodical- methodical manner
without bias using systematic
method and procedures.
7. Replicable- replicated or repeated
Moreover, other characteristics of research
were stressed as follows:
1. Research originates with a question
or a problem.
2. Research requires a clear
articulation of a goal.
3. Research follows a specific plan of
4. Research usually divides the
principal problem into more
manageable sub-problems.
5. Research is guided by a specific
research problem, question or
6. Research accepts certain critical
7. Research requires the collection and
interpretation of data in attempting
to resolve the problem that initiated
the research.
Characteristics of Research
Calmorin(2007), research has the
following characteristics.
1. Empirical- direct experience or
observation by the researcher.
2. Logical- valid procedures and
3. Cyclical- starts with a problem and
ends with a problem.
Values of Research to Man
Research is said to affect people’s lives and
endeavor. Calmorin (2007) listed the
following values of research to man.
1. Research improves quality of life.
2. Research improves instruction.
3. Research improves students’
4. Research improves teachers’
5. Research satisfies man’s needs.
6. Research reduces the burden of
7. Research improves the
exportation of food products.
8. Research responds to the
economic recovery and austerity
measure of the country.
9. Research trains graduates to
become responsive to the
economic development of the
country and compete globally.
Kinds of Research
Adanza, Bermudo, Resonable (2009):
Basic Research deals with the processes of
objects and things, or information about
different topics with no concern for a direct
Applied Research probes into the unknown
using directly the results to a current
Empirical Research is more specific than
basic research, but implies its nature from
the use of data, whether quantitative or
Classification of Research
Research can be classified as follows:
Evaluation Research.
This is concerned with the application of
theories and facts in evaluating the relative
worth of two or more possible alternatives
or decisions.
Research and Development. This research
is concerned with the application of existing
theories or body of knowledge in
developing new products, systems or
Action Research. This is concerned with
the application of existing theories in the
conceptualization of a possible alternative
solution to an existing problem situation.
Library Research. Research is conducted in
the library. Data needed to solve the
research problems are available in the
Field Study. Research is conducted in the
natural setting.
conducted in artificial or controlled
conditions by isolating the study.
Topic 2: Research:
Selecting the Subject
it is indeed but vital to look into researchable
topics which in line with your interest.
Must be interesting
Must be significant
Must not be too broad
Must not be too technical
Sufficient reference materials must
be available for it.
Limiting a subject is the process in which a broad
subject is narrowed down into a specific phase of
the study.
Broad Topic: Food Shortage
Delimited Subject: The Rice Shortage in the
Philippines Today:
(limitation by type) (limitation by country)
(limitation by time)
Topic 3: Parts of a Research Paper
A researcher must familiarize himself/herself on
the different parts of a research to facilitate easier
writing of its parts. They are as follows:
The title of a research paper
• accurately describe what the paper is about
• make the reader want to read the paper
People often ask, "Why the titles of research are
documents so LONG? Two reasons:
1. Researchers want people to read their
papers! A vague title will not catch the
reader's' interest and make them want to
read more.
2. Scholars search databases (even Google is a
database!) using key words. The more
relevant words in the title make it more
likely that others will find the document in
a search.
Abstracts should be about 250 words long. Even
though it comes first in your paper, it should be
written last. It is a concise summary of your study.
It is not an introduction to your paper.
The following are written in the abstract: the
purpose of the study, the research design and the
significant findings of the study.
The introduction should include a statement of the
research problem. This section points out the
practical relevance of the problem, states what the
given state of affairs is currently and what is
unsatisfactory about it.
Statement of the Problem
A statement of the purpose of the investigation and
the specific problems you are trying to answer.
Significance of the Study
This part presents the contributions of the study in
relation to: solving a problem, bridging knowledge
gap, improving social, health, and economic
conditions, etc.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This should include the specific scope of the
problem, the nature of any subject treated, and their
number. The scope is expected to indicate a
reasonable area of study which is large enough to
permit careful treatment.
Limitations are factors beyond the control of the
research. Delimitations are restrictions purposely
placed on the study by the researcher.
Delimitations may include:
This section in the research manuscript should also
specify the research design, the respondents of the
study, the research instrument, and the data
gathering procedure, the data analysis and the
statistical treatment.
Research Design
This section describes in sufficient detail the most
appropriate design that is applicable to the study. It
also describes the method of gathering the data,
methods for observations and interpretations,
modifications and statistical methods used.
Must be written in the past tense.
Must not be written as though it were directions in
a laboratory manual.
Methods of data collection
document review
Respondents of the Study
This part explains HOW and WHERE, HOW
MANY are the respondents taken.
Research Instruments
This describes the research/ data gathering
instruments used, e.g. questionnaire, test,
interview, checklist or rating scale.
Data Gathering Procedure
This part describes the procedure/process of
obtaining the needed data.
Statistical Treatment and Data Analysis
This part describes how the gathered data were
analyzed. It also describes the statistical tool/s and
formula/e used to answer the research questions of
the study.
This chapter presents the results, analysis and
interpretation of data. All specific questions under
statement of the problem are answered.
The reference list must include full reference
documentation for all articles and texts mentioned
in the study. All references should be listed
alphabetically and formatted according to the
American Psychological Association’s style of
How to cite sources?
APA Style requires 2 elements:
 Located in the text of the paper
 Tells the reader what information
was barrowed and where it came
 Located at the end of the paper
 Tells the reader what sources were
used to write the paper and provides
complete information about the
The in-text references and list of references
work together to give complete
credit to the sources that are used in
writing the paper. The in-text
reference in the paper should
correspond with the beginning of
the citation in the list of references.
APA style requires brief references in the text
of the paper and complete reference
information at the end of the paper.
Below are some general guidelines:
An in-text reference is generally given in one
of two ways:
Why cite sources?
When information is barrowed from others, you
must give them credit. Citing sources accomplishes
the following:
 provides a way to give proper credit to the
sources used in writing the paper
 enables the reader to find the information
for themselves
 adds credibility and provides strength for
your arguments
When to cite sources?
Credit must be given whenever:
 quoting from a source (copying for the
source word for word)
 summarizing or rephrasing information
from a source into one’s own words
For rephrased information (information put into
your own words)