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Monthly, Peer-Reviewed, Refereed, Indexed Journal
ISSN: 2456-6683
Volume - 3, Issue - 1, Jan – 2019
Impact Factor: 4.526
Publication Date: 31/01/2019
Detection of Adulterants in Food by Physical-Chemical test
Department of Chemistry,Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut, India
Department of Chemistry,Swami vivekanand subharti University, Meerut, India
E-mail: dewanteja@gmail.com
Abstract: Food is very important to human being for survival. But in that time impurity present in food and it causes
very harmful diseases, and it also decreases the value of food. In this research paper we will discuss about the
different food products to detect the presence of adulterants or impurities by physical chemical test in given food
sample like fat, oil, butter, sugar, chilli powder, turmeric powder, pepper, pulses, cumin seeds, asafoetida and wheat
flour which we collected from different villages of Meerut region. The main purpose of this study is bring
awareness among the students and society.
Key words: Adulterants, Fat, Sugar, Chilli Powder, Cumin Seeds, Turmeric Powder, Pulses, Pepper.
A Food adulteration is a growing menace that unscrupulous traders and manufacture all over the world indulge
in to exploit consumer to make and easy money. Adulteration in food is mainly present in the crudest form. The mixing
Key Words:
of unwanted substance or impurities in food is done either for money gain or due to carelessness and lack of proper
hygienic condition of processing, storing. The result of this awareness is that the consumer is either cheated and falling
in the harmful diseases. Every nation on earth has suffered cases of adulteration. Government authorities with great
efforts have succeeded in reducing the recurrent occurrences, but have not been able to completely stop it. Impure food
product reduces the keeping quality of the substance. Such types of adulteration are generally happened in rural area.
The study of adulteration and various methods to determine the presence of adulterants in food products was discuss in
this research paper. In this study we see how we detect the food adulterants present in different food products. It is most
important for the consumer to know the common adulterants and their effect on health The unfair market behaviour may
endanger consumer health and misleading can lead to poisoning. Generally, adulterants are not easily seen in the food
product but it can be detect. Use of adulterated food causes serious diseases like cancer, diarrhoea, asthma, ulcers, kidney
stone, severe pain etc.
Food products like fat, oil, butter, sugar, cumin seeds, turmeric powder, pepper asafoetida, pulses, coriander powder,
chili powder and wheat flour which we collected from Meerut region, and by the use of different chemicals like Acetic
acid, Acetic anhydride, conc. nitric acid. conc. HCl, conc. Sulfuric acid, HNO3, Potassium Iodide solution, dilHCl,
CCl4 are were used to detection of adulterants.
(a) Detection of presence of adulterants in fat, oil and butter
- Detection of Vanaspati ghee in Pure Ghee or Butter : Take one teaspoonful of melted ghee or butter with equal
quantity of Conc. Hydrochloric acid in a test tube. Add to it a pinch of cane sugar. Shake well for one minute and let it
stand for five minutes. Crimson red colour in lower layer shows the presence of Vanaspati.
- Detection of Castro oil in Vegetable Oil: Castor Oil Take 1ml Oil in a dry test tube. Add 10 ml of acidified petroleum
ether. Shake vigorously for 2 minutes. Add 1-2 drops of ammonium molybdate reagent. Turbidity indicates adulteration
with castor oil
- Detection of dyes in fat: Heat 1ml of fat with a mixture of conc. Sulfuric acid 4ml of acetic acid. Appearance of red
colour indicates the presence of dye in fat.
(b) Detection of adulterants present in the sugar and salt
- Detection of chalk in Sugar Powder, Salt :Chalk Dissolve sugar in a glass of water, chalk will settle down
- Detection of chalk powder, washing soda in sugar :Take small amount of sugar in a
test tube and add few drops
of dil. HCl. Brisk effervescence of CO2 shows the presence of chalk powder or washing soda.
(c) detection of adulterants present in turmeric powder and pepper:
-Detection of Metanil Yellow in turmeric powder: Add a few drops of HCl to turmeric in water. Instantly a violet colour
appears. Persistence of violet colour when diluted with water indicates the presence of Metanil yellow.
Available online on - WWW.IJRCS.ORG
Page 12
Monthly, Peer-Reviewed, Refereed, Indexed Journal
ISSN: 2456-6683
Volume - 3, Issue - 1, Jan – 2019
Impact Factor: 4.526
Publication Date: 31/01/2019
- Detection of aniline dyes in turmeric powder: Take some turmeric powder in a test-tube and add water to make a
solution. Add 1 to 2 ml of rectified spirit. An immediate separation of yellow colour in the rectified spirit will indicate
the presence of added dyes.
- Detection of papaya seed in Black Pepper: Papaya Seeds Float the sample in alcohol. The mature black pepper berries
sink while papaya seeds and light black pepper float
- Detection of papaya seed in pepper - Take small amount of sample of pepper to beaker containing water and stir with
a glass rod. Dried papaya seeds being lighter float over water while pure pepper settled at the bottom.
(d) Detection of adulterants present in red chilli powder
- Detection of Brick Powder in red chilli powder: settles fast chilli powder settles slowly when put in water.
- Detection of Red Colour dye in red chilli powder: Sprinkle some Chilli powder on the surface of water in a glass
beaker. Artificial colorants will descend as coloured streaks.
-Detection of Sudan red III colour in red chilli powder: Take 1 g of suspected chilli powder in a test-tube, add 2 ml of
hexane to it, and shake well. Allow it to settle. Decant the clear solution into another test tube. Add 2 ml of aceto-nitrile
reagent in water (7:3) and shake well. The appearance of a red colour in the lower aceto-nitrile layer indicates the
presence of Sudan red III
- Detection of red lead salts in red chilli powder - To a sample of chilli powder add dil. HNO3. Filter the solution add
2 drops of potassium iodide solution to the filtrate. Yellow ppt. obtained indicates the presence of lead salts in chilli
(e) Detection of adulterants in pulses
- Detection of Metanil Yellow or Lead Chromate in pulses :Extract the colour with luke warm water from the sample of
pulses. Add drops of HCl. A pink colour indicates presence of Metanil yellow / Lead Chromate.
(f) Adulterants of Asafoetida
- Detection of Soap stone in Asafoetida: Shake the little quantity of powdered sample with water some heavy particle
like soap stone or earthy matter settled at the bottom
- Detection of Colophon residue obtained after the distillation of turpentine oil in Asafoetida: Take 1 g of asafoetida,
powder it thoroughly, and take it in a test-tube. Add some rectified spirit and filter/ decant the solution. Take 5 ml of
filtrate and add few drops of ferric chloride (6%) solution. Olive green colour shows the presence of adulteration with
other resins.
We take a different food product and analysed that refer table given below: S. No
Food Sample
Colophon residue obtained after the Olive green colour is appear
distillation of turpentine oil
Soap stone
It settle down
Iron filling
No found
Turmeric powder
Metanil yellow
Violet colour persist
Aniline dye
Yellow colour persist
Washing soda
No Briskeffervences observed
Chalk powder
No powder settle down
Vegetable oil
Castro Oil
Turbidity appear
Red chilli
Red lead salts
Light yellow ppt is observed
Brick powder
It settle down
Sudan red III
Red colour is appear
Pure ghee
Vanaspati ghee
Crimson red coloured is observed
Papaya seed
No Dried Float over water
Metanil yellow/lead chromate
Pink colour
We take this food sample in the Meerut region. The physical and chemical test which is listed above are
performed in the laboratory, by the help of the test we ensure that the supplier mixed the adulterants in the food product
for gain more money. Appearance of colour, change in colour, and formation of ppt., evolution of gas and floating of
foreign particles over the surface of food sample and the water surface has been given above in the table:
Available online on - WWW.IJRCS.ORG
Page 13
Monthly, Peer-Reviewed, Refereed, Indexed Journal
ISSN: 2456-6683
Volume - 3, Issue - 1, Jan – 2019
Impact Factor: 4.526
Publication Date: 31/01/2019
The adulterants found in the food product of Meerut region. The main moto of the study to give an awareness
to the people to buy good and best product and if any case, we have a doubt that the product contains any prohibited
colouring matter, preservatives, or contains any permitted colouring matter or preservative in excess of the prescribed
limits, then as the Indian we have right to file a report against the supplier.
1. S. Abhirami and R. Radha, “Detection of food adulteration in selected food items procured by homemaker,”
Int. J. Recent Scientific Research, vol. 6, 5938-5943, 2015
2. S. Awasthi, K Jain., A. Das, R. Alam, G. Surti and N. Kishan, “Analysis of food quality and food adulterants
from different departmental and local grocery stores by qualitative analysis for food safety,” IOSR J.
Environmental Science Toxicology and Food Technology, vol. 8, 22-26, 2014.
3. “Identifying the common adulterants in food” by Dr. Sitaram Dixit - Consumer Guidance Society of India.
4. The guidelines of the “Food Safety and Standards Authority of India.”
5. H. Faizunisa, Vaishnavi, I. Priyadarshini, P. Chaly, “Evaluation of food adulteration among selected food
items-In vitro study,” Int. J. Health Sciences and Research, vol.6, 129-145, 2016.
6. Dipak and Dash, “Nationwide survey to check food adulteration,” Department of food adulterations (2014).
Available online on - WWW.IJRCS.ORG
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