Effect of Level of Owner-Provided Design on Contractor’s Design Quality in DB/EPC Projects Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University of Virginia on 11/10/18. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Shuibo Zhang 1; Xinyan Liu 2; Ying Gao, Ph.D. 3; and Pei Ma 4 Abstract: Although previous studies have suggested that the level of owner-provided design can influence the performance of design-build (DB) projects, few have explicitly and empirically investigated the effect of the level of owner-provided design on the contractor’s design quality. This paper fills this gap by empirically investigating the effect of the level of owner-provided design on the design quality of contractors in DB projects. Questionnaires were collected from 243 Chinese project professionals and hierarchical regression analysis was conducted. Empirical results reveal that the level of owner-provided design negatively affects design innovation and positively affects design change. The contractor’s competence strengthens the effect of owner-provided design level on design innovation. A minimum proportion of owner-provided design can improve design quality. It is also necessary to ensure the clear articulation of requirements in the request for proposal (RFP). The findings contribute to the understanding of the relationship between the level of owner-provided design and the contractor’s design quality in DB projects. These findings also give owners insight into the preparation of the RFP with regard to the optimal level of design. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0001587. © 2018 American Society of Civil Engineers. Author keywords: Owner-provided design; Design quality; Contractor’s competence; Design-build; Request for proposal (RFP). Introduction Design-build (DB), sometimes called engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) in some industrial sectors in which tailor-made plants and equipment are often involved, is an integrated project delivery approach in which the owner enters into one contract with a single entity that performs both the design and construction. Much research has been conducted to examine the effectiveness of DB projects and has found that, because of the single point of responsibility, shortened duration of construction projects, and other advantages (Hale et al. 2009; Konchar and Sanvido 1998; Molenaar et al. 1999), DB has become increasingly popular all over the world (Wardani et al. 2006; Xia and Chan 2008). However, quality performance in DB projects is still unclear and under debate (Akintoye 1994). In the engineering sense, quality conveys the concepts of compliance with defined requirements, value for money, fitness of purpose, and client satisfaction (Ashford 2002; Hellard 1993). Because design is the initial phase of a project, design quality is the most fundamental aspect of quality and becomes the foundation of subsequent phases. Design quality represents the degree to which the design of the facility conforms to the client’s needs and satisfaction (Basu 2014); design quality can be divided into expected design quality and exciting design quality (King 1989). 1 Professor, College of Management and Economics, Tianjin Univ., Tianjin 300072, P.R. China. Email: email@example.com 2 Postgraduate, College of Management and Economics, Tianjin Univ., Tianjin 300072, P.R. China. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 3 Assistant Professor, College of Management and Economics, Tianjin Univ., Tianjin 300072, P.R. China. Email: email@example.com 4 Ph.D. Candidate, College of Management and Economics, Tianjin Univ., Tianjin 300072, P.R. China (corresponding author). Email: mapei@ tju.edu.cn; firstname.lastname@example.org Note. This manuscript was submitted on January 17, 2018; approved on July 12, 2018; published online on November 10, 2018. Discussion period open until April 10, 2019; separate discussions must be submitted for individual papers. This paper is part of the Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, © ASCE, ISSN 0733-9364. © ASCE Design plays an important role in the success of construction projects (Dulamimi et al. 1995), and it gradually becomes clear and certain as the project proceeds. Although the contractor in a DB project assumes the design responsibility, this does not mean that the owner is free from any involvement in the design. In most cases, the owner is required to accomplish a certain level of design in the request for proposal (RFP) in order to articulate the project requirements and convey the scope of the project to the contractor (Janssens 1991; Konchar and Sanvido 1998). Deciding on an appropriate level of design in the RFP is the first step forward when an owner initiates a DB project. Based on the characteristics of the project, owners can complete any amount of design for their unique design needs (Fredrickson 1998). The report Design-Build Environmental Compliance Process and Level of Detail: Eight Case Studies published by AASHTO notes that the level of design completed in the RFP can influence the performance of the DB project. An appropriate level of owner design is enough to describe the owner’s requirements but not so much as to discourage the contractor from offering innovative design solutions (Xia et al. 2012). When much owner-provided design is conducted before contractor selection, the design and construction phases are fragmented and are more like the traditional Design-bid-build (DBB) procurement method. The contractor’s low level of involvement in design and limited responsibility for only the execution of the project may have a negative impact on subsequent quality (Heravi et al. 2015). In addition, there will redundant work completed, because the owner and the contractor are not coordinated (Fredrickson 1998). Although the contractor is able to systematically focus on optimizing the design and construction process when there is a lower level of owner-provided design, the main concern of the owner is the quality of design and the final building (Preece and Tarawneh 1997). Shane et al. (2013) used an empirical survey to determine that there is no significant difference in construction project quality between DB and DBB projects. These studies lacked both a clearly expressed theoretical model of the linkage and a systematic empirical investigation to identify the relationship between the level of owner-provided design and design quality in DB projects and did not consider the concept of quality specifically. 04018121-1 J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 2019, 145(1): 04018121 J. Constr. Eng. Manage. Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University of Virginia on 11/10/18. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. The best-value method, which gives a contractor’s competence more weight than price, is used primarily in the selection of DB contractors (Abdelrahman et al. 2008; Scott 2006), because the contractor’s competence plays an important role in the quality of the whole project (Xia and Chan 2008). Inappropriate contractors increase the chances of the expected construction project failing to be executed (Hatush and Skitmore 1997). Projects with the competent contractors will most likely achieve higher quality and create more end value. This suggests that there is a place for systematic research in the context of contractor competence. Therefore, this paper aims to fill the aforementioned research gaps and address the following research questions. First, how does the level of owner-provided design in DB projects influence the contractor’s design quality? Second, how does the contractor’s competence moderate these influences? This study extends the insights of the underlying mechanism through which the level of owner-provided design affects the contractor’s design quality based on an empirical investigation. Unlike previous studies, this paper presents the concept of a spectrum of owner-provided design rather than two discrete levels represented by the DB and DBB methods. The findings of this paper may help project owners to prepare RFPs for DB projects. Theoretical Background and Hypotheses Contractor’s Design Quality There is no unified measurement system for quality. Good quality means that facilities, the end products of construction, should be tested and inspected to conform to project specifications and standards (Yasamis et al. 2002). Recently, more research on quality has focused on the satisfaction of the owner and conveyed the concepts of compliance with defined requirements, value for money, fitness of purpose, and client satisfaction (Ashford 2002; Chan et al. 2002; Hellard 1993; Lam et al. 2008; Molenaar et al. 1999). Quality also encompasses how efficiently the project management process has been, which can be indicated by change and dispute (Arditi and Lee 2004; Baccarini 1999; Cserhati and Szabo 2014). The indicators of product (or facility) and process quality include conformance, serviceability, accessibility and convenience, accuracy, and others (Al-Momani 2000; Idrus and Sodangi 2010; Lee and Arditi 2006). From the owner’s perspective, King (1989) divides quality into expected quality and exciting quality. Expected quality is quality that meets the conditions stipulated in the RFP, which must be achieved by the contractor. Exciting quality is the element of the product or service that goes beyond the owner’s requirements, can surprise the owner, and increases owner satisfaction. A construction project is a complicated and difficult undertaking that involves many participants and goes through many development stages. The output of one phase is the input of the next phase and will influence the final quality of the project (Heravi et al. 2015; Tan and Lu 1995). Barrie and Paulson (1992) concluded that design quality is the foundation of subsequent phases and has the greatest influence on a construction project. Design quality represents the extent to which the design of the facility conform to the client’s needs and satisfaction (Basu 2014). Design quality is not an end in itself but is a means to achieve the final quality. Project management must shift from product creation to value creation (Musawir et al. 2017). In order for owners to receive more value, the definition of design quality must expand to include the innovative practices, or value engineering, of the contractor, because client satisfaction is derived from that innovative performance (Yasamis et al. 2002). Analyses based on different © ASCE quality dimensions can achieve significantly different results (Garvin 1984). This study focused on design quality, which can be classified into two basic categories: (1) conformance quality and (2) performance quality (Hendricks and Singhal 1996; Yu et al. 2017). Conformance quality emphasizes the control of defects and conformance to quality standards, which can be measured by indicators such as incidence of defects, conformance to quality requirements, extent of callbacks, frequency of defect occurrences, and elimination of failures. Design change and design dispute are used to measure conformance quality (Sullivan et al. 2017). By contrast, performance quality represents a consumer-oriented viewpoint that focuses on providing valuable construction attributes for consumers (Desai 2001; Garvin 1984; Hendricks and Singhal 1996) and is measured by design innovation in this paper (Mallon and Mulligan 1993; Ngacho and Das 2014). Combining quality performance indicators from previous works, this paper selects design innovation, design variation or change, and design dispute as the three dimensions of the contractor’s design quality in order to highlight the objectives of the design process and its impact on the later phases of a construction project. Design Innovation The construction industry is often criticized for its lack of innovation. Innovation is a construct borrowed from economics and organizational behavior. Innovation is defined as an idea, practice, or material artifact perceived to be new (Zaltman et al. 1973). Innovation can be either a hardware change (a change in a product, plant, or equipment) or a software change (a change in ideas, processes, or systems) (Marcus 1981). Innovations vary in the degree of novelty to the adopting party, and there is a continuum of innovations that ranges from radical to incremental (Dewar and Dutton 1986; Hage 1980). In the construction industry, there is no general definition of innovation. Some characteristics of innovation in construction have been accepted, such as something new, efficiency, and satisfaction (Murphy et al. 2008; Slaughter 2000). Therefore, the design innovation definition in this paper includes some new ideas, materials, practices, or methods encompassed in the design solution that will improve construction efficiency and increase the value of the whole project if they are adopted. We refer to other industries and borrow the meaning of innovation to generalize one dimension of design quality. Design innovation is a deeper level of design quality than the premise of conformance to the basic requirements of the owner. It is more critical to the performance of construction projects, yet is often neglected. Level of Owner-Provided Design In DB projects, the owner needs to communicate requirements to potential contractors in a RFP. The design information is documented in terms of program, performance, plans, and specifications. In most cases, owners also resort to drawings to fully convey their intentions (Ndekugri and Turner 1994). The amount of information needed in a RFP is the practical problem of owners in DB projects. Instead of considering DB as just one thing, owners should consider DB as a spectrum according to the operational variations of designbuild, which can be categorized as direct design-build, the design criteria method, and preliminary engineering (Beard et al. 2001). For example, owners can immediately contact a design-builder, or they can select a design-builder after producing a conceptual design with consultants. There are different impacts on project outcomes among the DB delivery methods. As AASHTO (2005) notes, decisions regarding the level of owner-provided design can influence the degree of a project’s success. In the 1999 International Federation of Consulting Engineers (FIDIC) Silver Book Conditions of Contract for EPC Turnkey Projects (FIDIC 1999), the owner is suggested to 04018121-2 J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 2019, 145(1): 04018121 J. Constr. Eng. Manage. Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University of Virginia on 11/10/18. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. complete approximately 10% of the design. Different organizations and institutions suggest various levels of owner-provided design, but there is no consensus on the appropriate level (Xia et al. 2012). Level of Owner-Provided Design and Design Innovation The level of owner-provided design is the contractor’s criteria for the design development phase. If owners provide a lot of design before engaging a suitable design-builder, there will be many prescriptive requirements rather than performance requirements (Slaughter 1998). The contractor’s lack of control over the design prevents the production of alternative design solutions. With a detailed design from the owner, the contractor’s goal shifts from satisfying the needs of the owner to constructing the project according to the owner’s design criteria, because the owner is responsible for the correctness and quality of the provided design information. Therefore, the contractor may have limited and superficial influence on the final design (Beard et al. 2001). In addition, if more design is provided by the owner, the owner is inclined to place a high weight on price when selecting a contractor. As a result, contractors might opt not to use innovative but expensive materials, equipment, or technical methods in order to win the bid. As the only entity responsible for the design and construction in a DB project, the contractor must accept and respond to the owner’s quality objectives in order to avoid performance failure. Contractors are motivated to input their construction knowledge in the design process and effectively apply value engineering and constructability reviews (Chan and Yu 2005). The integration of tasks and human resources in the design process fosters value creation (Demirkesen and Ozorhon 2017). In line with the self-efficacy theory proposed by Albert Bandura, consciousness of self-efficacy is largely affected by the evaluation of surrounding people, especially important people (Robbins 2009). With a lower level of owner-provided design, the contractor is treated more as a professional by the owner. Dong et al. (2015) recently showed that employee empowerment is positively related to employee creativity. With a lower level of owner-provided design, the contractor can provide more positive and innovative design solutions for the owner, improving efficiency and accountability. It is hypothesized (Hypothesis 1) that the level of owner-provided design is negatively related to design innovation on the part of the contractor in DB projects. Level of Owner-Provided Design and Design Change In traditional procurement methods, the designer and contractor are separate entities that have incongruent goals, because the processes of design and construction are split. According to the concept of bounded rationality, designers cannot foresee all future conditions and seldom consider the effectiveness and efficiency of the construction phase, which is beyond their responsibility. This possibly results in more omissions and errors or infeasible solutions in the designer’s documents (Anumba and Evbuomwan 1997). However, it is the owner as the middleman between the designer and contactor that ensures that the drawings and specifications submitted by the designer are complete and free of errors (Beard et al. 2001). All errors and omissions will lead to design changes in the construction phase. As the level of owner-provided design decreases, change orders due to errors and omissions are eliminated, because correcting these are the responsibility of the design-builder. Additionally, contractors have experience in site work and can input their own construction knowledge into the design. Therefore, overall unsuitable practices are also reduced. Shrestha and Fernane (2016) recently showed that the number of construction change orders were significantly lower in DB projects than in DBB projects. Construction is a multistage process that involves many participants, such as the owner, the contractor, suppliers, consultants, and © ASCE others. When contractor receives the design from the owner, the receiving entity is a customer (Al-Momani 2000). Every party can be considered as a customer, and there are transactions in the middle of the process. If we treat the delivery of the owner’s design to the contractor as a transaction, then design change can be regarded as a transaction cost. The design process of construction projects is usually characterized by uncertainty and specificity. According to the logic of transaction cost economics (TCE), high uncertainty and specificity will internalize the transaction to reduce the transaction costs (Williamson and Mueller 1986). Therefore, a more integrated design process will result in fewer design changes. It is hypothesized (Hypothesis 2) that the level of owner-provided design is positively related to design change in DB projects. Level of Owner-Provided Design and Design Dispute Design liability should be considered in the process of determining the proper extent of design information to be provided. The two distinct levels of design liability are “reasonable skill and care” and “fitness for purpose” (Gaafar and Perry 1999). In DB projects, with lower levels of owner design, the liability of the contractor is judged more by the final outcome of the delivered facility. It is the contractor’s responsibility to ensure that the facility is fit for purpose. The lack of a legal definition of fitness for purpose increases the ambiguity of design liability allocation and the likelihood of disagreements between the owner and the contractor, which may increase disputes after construction. It is hypothesized (Hypothesis 3) that the level of owner-provided design is negatively related to design disputes in DB projects. Moderating the Effect of the Contractor’s Competence Contractor selection is a critical decision for project owners because the final facility is built by contractors (Migliaccio et al. 2009). The performance of the project is largely affected by the contractor’s competence, especially for DB projects, in which the contractor provides almost all of the construction service. The two-phase best-value selection process is often used in DB projects (Migliaccio et al. 2009; Ramsey et al. 2016; Xia et al. 2012). If the owner provides a large amount of design information, design innovation may be discouraged, because the contractor has no room to apply his experience to the design. All the contractor has to do is to comply with the design in the RFP. The contractor’s competence in finalizing such a design may not make much difference. However, if the owner provides less design information, contractors can propose alternative design solutions. In such circumstances, a contractor with a high degree of competence may perform better than another with a low degree of competence. Thus, when the contractor has a high degree of competence, it is obvious that the level of design innovation will decrease as the level of owner-provided design rises. It is hypothesized (Hypothesis 4) that a higher degree of contractor competence will strengthen the negative influence of the level of owner-provided design on design innovation. Under a low degree of contractor competence, a contractor’s final design may fail to satisfy the owner’s needs because of the contractor’s limited ability and experience. Design change in a DB project may not be reduced when an owner provides comparatively little design information. A high degree of contractor competence with less owner-provided design information may result in more integration and reduce design change. It is hypothesized (Hypothesis 5) that a higher degree of contractor competence will strengthen the positive influence of the level of owner-provided design on design change. The proposed hypotheses are summarized in Fig. 1. 04018121-3 J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 2019, 145(1): 04018121 J. Constr. Eng. Manage. survey. In the CFA model, an unmeasured latent method factor was connected to all items with multiple-item variables to calculate the model goodness-of-fit indices. The results showed chi-square χ2 =df ¼ 9.589 > 5; comparative fit index ðCFIÞ ¼ 0.553 < 0.9; and root mean square error of approximation ðRMSEAÞ ¼ 0.188 > 0.08, indicating that the model did not fit the data well. There was not a single factor that could explain most of the variance and was not a serious disturbance of CMV in this research. Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University of Virginia on 11/10/18. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Measures Fig. 1. Theoretical model. Methods Sample and Data Collection This research used a questionnaire (survey) method. First, questionnaires were distributed to professionals and practitioners working in large contracting enterprises and to project management companies involved in several training programs on project management at the university. During training programs on project management at the university, participants were invited to fill out the electronic questionnaire on site. Second, electronic questionnaires were sent to construction professionals in DB projects through contact information provided by part-time lecturers on construction industry practice engaged by the university. The survey lasted two months and an estimated total of 1,000 electronic questionnaires were distributed through the aforementioned two methods. A total of 294 electronic questionnaires were collected. After deleting responses with missing data, outliers, and unmatched data, 243 valid responses were obtained, resulting in a total valid response rate of 24.3%. Demographic information of the sample is presented in Table 1. Concerning potential common-method variance (CMV) in the survey methodology, the questionnaire contained a statement that all the responses would be confidential and used only for academic research purposes (Podsakoff et al. 2003). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on all items with multiple-item variables to assess the CMV in this survey. The results of the EFA showed that there were four factors whose eigenvalues were above 1; these factors explain 66.91% of the total variance. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was also performed on all items with multiple-item variables in the same data to assess the CMV in the Table 1. Demographic information Characteristic Work experience Designation Project party © ASCE Category Frequency Percentage ≤5 years 5–10 years >10 years Total Senior leader Project manager Contract administrator Engineer Others Total Owner DB contractor Total 68 94 81 243 21 67 61 40 54 243 55 188 243 28.0 38.7 33.3 100.0 8.6 27.6 25.1 16.5 22.2 100.0 22.7 77.3 100.0 To find appropriate questionnaire items to measure the constructs included in the empirical model, the scales of all constructs were based on the views and measurements of previous research and were modified according to the needs of this research. The questionnaire was carried out in Chinese. Ten Chinese-speaking professionals in related fields were interviewed to make sure the validity. Some of the wording in the questionnaire was revised according to their advice in order to reduce the deviation derived from language. A seven-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree) was applied to scaled items to evaluate the extent of respondents’ agreement. Table 2 presents the measurement items. Design Innovation Design innovation begins with problem recognition and the generation of ideas or solutions, either novel or adopted. Based on the scale used by Scott and Bruce (1994) and Zhou and George (2001), a seven-item scale was developed for the present study that incorporated the constructability practice measurement proposed by Trigunarsyah (2004). Design Change Design change is a variable that is more objective than subjective. The authors developed only one item to measure it. The item was: “Design change frequency is high in this construction project.” Design Dispute Conflict emerges when there is a difference between two views, ideas, or interests (Conlin et al. 1996). A dispute occurs when a conflict becomes an explicit situation. One party makes a claim or assertion that is rejected by another party, and this rejection is not accepted by the former party (Kumaraswamy 1998). Dispute is the manifestation of conflict and can be measured by its frequency and severity. Based on Aibinu et al. (2008), design dispute was measured on a three-item scale with appropriate modifications. Independent Variable The level of owner-provided design can be measured by the amount of design carried out by the owner before the contractor’s involvement. Most studies have used a percentage to quantify the amount of design provided by the owner. According to the formatted content of a RFP, owner-provided design was measured through three kinds of owner-provided design requirements conveyed in terms of program and performance (the description of the project’s function), plans and specifications, and layout and drawings (Beard et al. 2001). Moderating Variable To select the proper contractor to perform a DB project, an owner will be inclined to conduct a prequalification to access potential contractors (Wardani et al. 2006). In the prequalification, the contractor’s competence is evaluated by reputation, past performance, contractor resources, and other specific criteria (Plebankiewicz 2010). In this research, contractor competence was measured by 04018121-4 J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 2019, 145(1): 04018121 J. Constr. Eng. Manage. Table 2. Validity and reliability assessment of measures Variable ODL1 ODL2 ODL3 SFL 0.884 0.913 0.791 DI5 DI6 DI7 Design innovation: α ¼ 0.903; AVE ¼ 0.574; CR ¼ 0.904 Contractor used proper techniques, equipment, and materials in the final design Contractor used new techniques, equipment, and materials that can satisfy the owner in the final design Contractor considered the convenience of scheduling people, materials, and machines Contractor considered major construction methods (utilized optional preassembly) for complicated structures in the final design Contractor’s experience was input into the final design Contractor’s final design makes construction easy and convenient Contractor proposed a new design solution DD1 DD2 DD3 Design dispute: α ¼ 0.793; AVE ¼ 0.580; CR ¼ 0.802 Frequency of disagreements related to understanding the requirements is high Frequency of disagreements related to the contractor’s design and construction is high Extent to which disagreements cause negative effects is high 0.610 0.758 0.891 CC1 CC2 CC3 Contractor’s competence: α ¼ 0.766; AVE ¼ 0.541; CR ¼ 0.774 Contractor’s design and technique competence are high Contractor’s financial competence is high Contractor’s management competence is high 0.652 0.645 0.884 DI1 DI2 DI3 DI4 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University of Virginia on 11/10/18. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Construct and measuring Items Level of owner-provided design: α ¼ 0.897; AVE ¼ 0.747; CR ¼ 0.900 The functional description of the project in the RFP is detailed and exhaustive The plans and specifications in the RFP are detailed and prescriptive There are detailed drawings and a site layout in the RFP 0.790 0.695 0.821 0.801 0.741 0.768 0.677 Note: α = Cronbach’s alpha; AVE = average variance extracted; and CR = composite reliability. three dimensions based on design and technique, finance, and management. Control Variables To remove the influence of other variables on design innovation, design change, and design dispute, project type and RFP clarity were selected as control variables. Different project types have unique features and properties. Thus, design quality is different among different types of projects. Project types are also significantly related to the level of owner-provided design (Xia et al. 2012). A clearer RFP results in better design quality. If the owner is very clear about the project’s goals, scope, and expected outcome, then the DB system will work to the owner’s benefit. It can be very harmful if incorrect information is provided by the owner to the contractor at the outset of the design build process (Mogaibel 1999). Each control variable was measured by one item. Project types were classified as residential/commercial, industrial and processing, infrastructure, municipal engineering, and other. Table 3. Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s correlation matrix Variable Mean Standard deviation ODL DI DD CC 3.575 5.296 5.386 4.265 1.556 0.983 1.137 1.019 1 2 3 0.864 — — −0.113 0.757 — −0.007 −0.209 0.762 0.090 0.553 −0.162 4 — — — 0.735 Note: Bold values are square roots of AVE. the correlation coefficients of the same row and column, which demonstrate adequate discriminant validity of the scales. Cronbach’s alpha value of all the multiple-item scales was then calculated using statistical product and service solutions (SPSS) 23.0 to assess the internal consistency and reliability of the measurements. As Table 2 shows, the Cronbach’s alpha values of all constructs reached the basic threshold for reliability (0.7), indicating that all the multiple-item constructs used in the measurements had high internal consistency and reliability (Robinson et al. 2013). Construct Validity and Reliability Amos 24.0 was used to perform a confirmatory factor analysis at the first-order level to test construct validity. The model showed chisquare χ2 =df ¼ 2.269 < 3; CFI ¼ 0.938 > 0.9; and RMSEA ¼ 0.072 < 0.08. The goodness-of-fit indices of the structural equation model (SEM) in this research showed a sufficient and satisfactory fit to the collected data. In the SEM, standard factor loading (SFL), construct reliability (CR) and average variance extracted (AVE) are regularly used to assess the convergent validity (Bagozzi and Yi 1988). As shown in Table 2, the results of the CFA showed that all the SFL values were above 0.5, the AVE values of all constructs were above 0.5 (Fornell and Larcker 1981), and the CR values of all constructs were above 0.6, indicating a good convergent validity of the scales. To test the discriminant validity, the square root of AVE was compared with the offdiagonal correlation coefficients. As Table 3 shows, the square root value of the AVE for each construct was higher than © ASCE Analysis and Results Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to analyze the collected data. Because design quality comprise three dimensions— design innovation, design change, and design dispute—three models (Models 1, 2, and 3) were developed, respectively, to verify the effect that the level of owner-provided design has on each of these three dimensions. The results of the hierarchical regression analysis are shown in Table 4. Models 1a, 2a, and 3a examined the effects of control variables, and indicated that RFP clarity is positively related to design innovation on the part of the DB contractor and negatively related to design change and that project type is related to design dispute. Model 1b showed that the level of owner-provided design (β ¼ −0.156, p < 0.05) is negatively related to design innovation of the DB contractor, which supports Hypothesis 1. Model 2b showed that the level 04018121-5 J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 2019, 145(1): 04018121 J. Constr. Eng. Manage. Table 4. Results of hierarchical regression analysis Design innovation Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University of Virginia on 11/10/18. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Variable Control variable Project type RFP clarity Independent variable Level of ODL Moderator Contractor’s competence Interaction ODL × CC F R2 ΔR2 Design change Design dispute Model 1a (β) Model 1b (β) Model 1c (β) Model 2a (β) Model 2b (β) Model 2c (β) Model 3a (β) Model 3b (β) −0.027 0.187b — −0.032 0.218b −0.050 0.093a −0.156c 0.528a — — — 4.320c 0.035 0.035c — 4.900b 0.058 0.023c 0.059 −0.130c — 0.064 −0.161c 0.158c 0.826b −0.789c 26.231b 0.357 0.299b — 2.322a 0.019 0.019a — 3.563c 0.043 0.024c 0.065 −0.156c 0.126a −0.099 0.127a −0.102 −0.112 — 0.014 −0.131 — — — 2.885a N/A N/A — 1.931 N/A N/A 0.302 2.250c 0.046 0.003 p < 0.10. p < 0.01. c p < 0.05. a b Fig. 2. Graphical representation of contractor’s competence. of owner-provided design (β ¼ 0.158, p < 0.05) is positively related to design change, which supports Hypothesis 2. However, Model 3b showed that the coefficient between the level of owner-provided design and design dispute is not significant, which fails to support Hypothesis 3. Model 1c showed that the interaction between the level of owner-provided design (ODL) and contractor’s competence (ODL × CC, β ¼ −0.789, p < 0.05) is significant, which supports Hypothesis 4. The effect of the contractor’s competence as a moderating variable is shown in Fig. 2. As Model 2c showed, the moderating effect of the contractor’s competence on the effect that the level of owner-provided design has on design change is not significant. Hypothesis 5 is not supported. Discussion The results of the hierarchical regression analysis support Hypotheses 1, 2, and 4, but Hypotheses 3 and 5 are not supported. Previous studies have indicated that DB projects can generate more innovative designs than DBB projects and that design-build promotes constructability and innovation in the same manner as a value engineering plan if used correctly (Levy 2006; Songer and Molenaar 1996). Furthermore, in this study DB was considered as a spectrum of possible arrangements rather than a single model; as such, it can involve different levels of owner-provided design. High levels of design input/prescriptive specifications in DB projects cause less © ASCE extensive design innovation to increase design innovation in DB projects, owner-provided design input and specifications should be decreased (Park et al. 2009). The findings empirically reinforce the fact that less owner-provided design information can promote more design innovation on the part of the contractor. This results from the early involvement and single-point responsibility of the contractor for both design and construction (Korkmaz et al. 2010). DB by definition creates a contractual environment in which the builder is directly involved with the design (Gransberg and Windel 2008); the contractor is motivated to emphasize quality throughout the design and construction process and to provide constructability input, which is consistent with self-efficacy theory. In addition, the results show that the level of owner-provided design is positively related to design change in construction process. With less owner-provided design information, the owner has reduced administrative tasks and faces fewer risks (Park and Kwak 2017; Songer and Molenaar 1996). As a result, design changes in the construction process are reduced (Shrestha and Fernane 2016). In DBB projects, the owner is the arbiter between the designer and the constructor (Beard et al. 2001), so any disagreements between the designer and constructor must be resolved through the owner by change orders. The fragmentation of design and construction processes increases the likelihood of change orders in conventional project procurement methods (Hsieh et al. 2004). The owner is the most influential factor related to the occurrence of design changes (Yana et al. 2015); an owner’s appropriate and effective design management avoid the necessity for design changes. Omissions and errors in design documents are reduced with less owner-provided design information, because they are solely the responsibility of the design-builder, not the owner (Songer and Molenaar 1996). A study done by Yates and Battersby (2003) concluded that early construction contractor involvement in design development could minimize preventable errors as well as produce a constructable final design. The results of this study show that a higher degree of clarity in RFPs can reduce design changes. Clear statements promote mutual understanding and lead to fewer design changes. Contrary to the original hypothesis, the empirical results failed to support the posited relationship between design dispute and the level of owner-provided design. This research started with the assumption that design dispute is more frequent when there is less owner-provided design information because of ambiguity in design liability. However, owners and contractors in DB projects communicate more than they do in DBB projects (Xia and Chan 2008). The contractor’s design development and construction documents 04018121-6 J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 2019, 145(1): 04018121 J. Constr. Eng. Manage. Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University of Virginia on 11/10/18. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. must be reviewed and approved by the owner in order to conform to contract requirements in DB projects. The owner’s comments and instructions, if any, from reviews of design development documents can be reflected in the DB contractor’s final design. It is not common for a contractor to fail to meet the fitness for purpose criterion because of the close communication with the owner (Anumba and Evbuomwan 1997). Meanwhile, passing the buck for design errors, omissions, or delays, which may result in design disputes, tend to disappear (Beard et al. 2001). Because of the owner’s responsibility for the construction documents, project owners in cases with more owner-provided design apply contractual governance to ensure their own interests, and design dispute is more frequent (Beard et al. 2001; Lumineau and Henderson 2012). Considering the two opposite explanations, the relationship between design dispute and the level of the owner-provided design is not clear. A contractor’s competence can strengthen the negative relationship between design innovation and the level of owner-provided design. When more design information is provided by the owner, all the contractor needs to do is build the facility according to the owner’s design plans and specifications. These contractors cannot fully take advantage of their experience in the design development phase. As the contractor gains more control over the design, the contractor’s competence strengthens design innovation. The moderating effect of the contractor’s competence on the relationship between design change and the level of owner-provided design is not supported by the empirical results. Design change is the owner’s behavior to change the content of documents offered by the owner (Wu et al. 2005). The design development documents are not the owner’s responsibility, and there is no need for the owner to make changes. Therefore, the moderating variable did not have an effect. Conclusions The operational variations of the DB delivery system have been classified into three types (direct design-build, the design criteria method, and preliminary engineering) in previous research (Beard et al. 2001; Xia and Chan 2008); this provided a suggestive framework. DB in this study was regarded on a continuous spectrum that was closer to reality in order to reach a deeper understanding. Appropriate Level of Owner-Provided Design for Design-Build Procurements The empirical results of this study show that lower levels of ownerprovided design could lead to higher design quality, that is, greater design innovation and fewer design changes. The original hypothesis that design dispute is negatively related to the level of ownerprovided design is not confirmed. These conclusions are consistent with the findings of the Federal Highway Administration’s DesignBuild Effectiveness Study (Federal Highway Administration 2006), which stated that project quality was higher for lower levels of preliminary design completed before the design-build contract award. The higher design quality can be attributed to a contractor’s ability to influence the project design earlier in the process. Less detailed criteria result in more innovation and fewer design changes. Owners should avoid completing as much design as possible on their own in order to reap the true benefits of DB (Chan et al. 2001). The use of performance specifications not detailed by standards and prescriptive specifications is increasing as a way to articulate project quality requirements and to promote greater innovation on the part of contractors. When the DB approach is suitable, owners should provide less design information on the basis that the requirements of the owner are clear. © ASCE Contractor is Important: Pay Attention to the Selection of the DB Contractor When the owner provides less design information, the final design is more innovative with a competent contractor. This study reinforces the conclusions of related literature that contractor characteristics play an important role in the success of DB projects (Ling 2004). The outcome of the final facility has much to do with contractor characteristics (Hatush and Skitmore 1997; Ling 2004). Experienced DB contractors work better with less owner-provided design information (Molenaar and Songer 1998). In DBB projects, low bids are always used in the evaluation process. While costs remain the primary factor for awarding contracts, in DB other factors should be included in the selection of a proper contractor. It is sensible for owners of DB projects to apply the best-value approach in selecting contractors rather than focusing only on price. For DB project contractors, it is necessary to improve competence in order to be able to complete integrated design and construction work. Emphasizing the importance of the contractor’s characteristics can raise the bar for expertise and experience among contractors in the DB approach and increase their comfort in applying DB approach. Clearly Articulating Owner Requirements This paper did not find a relationship between the level of ownerprovided design and design disputes. The findings from the empirical analysis suggest that design changes and disputes are largely reduced with a high degree of clarity in RFPs. High-quality RFPs ensure that the scope of the work is rigid and clear. The disputes encountered in DB projects are mostly concerned with deviations from the owner’s requirements in the RFP, conflicts derived from differences between the RFP and the contractor’s proposal, and abortive work, among others. The clarity of the RFP is an important prerequisite for project success. This research highly recommends that owners of DB projects possess enough knowledge and experience to produce an RFP that is comprehensive and understandable. Owners that do not have this capacity could have a consultant assist in preparing their RFPs. The extent to which DB works to the owner’s benefit depends on the clarity and conciseness of the RFP. It can be very harmful for project outcomes if the information provided by the owner to the contractor at the outset of the design-build process is incorrect. The contractor is inclined to undertake opportunistic behavior. Limitations and Further Research First, in this paper the level of owner-provided design was measured empirically, not involving specific content analysis of ownerprovided design documents. This is a limitation of the quantitative methods this research used. Further research could examine the level of owner-provided design based on case studies in order to give greater insight. Second, this research divided design quality into three dimensions, taking into account the previous literature. Further research could apply different classification methods in order to provide evidence to reverify the conclusions of this study. Also, because the hypothesis regarding the level of owner-provided design and design dispute was not supported, this paper excluded the hypothesis that the competence of the DB contractor has moderating effect on their relationship. Further research could explore the effect of the contractor’s competence on DB design quality based on other sets of data or using another research method. Third, this study only examined the effect that the level of owner-provided design has on design quality. Further studies are suggested in order 04018121-7 J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 2019, 145(1): 04018121 J. Constr. Eng. Manage. to explore suitable decision-making mechanisms for appropriate levels of owner-provided design in DB practice. Data Availability Statements Data generated or analyzed during the study are available from the corresponding author by request. Information about the Journal’s data-sharing policy can be found here: http://ascelibrary.org/doi/10 .1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0001263. Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University of Virginia on 11/10/18. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Acknowledgments This research was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71572124 and 71231006). The authors would like to thank the interviewees and respondents who participated in the survey. References AASHTO. 2005. “Design-build environmental process and level of detail: Eight case studies.” Accessed October 18, 2018. http://onlinepubs.trb .org/onlinepubs/archive/NotesDocs/25-25(12)_FR.pdf. Abdelrahman, M., T. Zayed, and A. Elyamany. 2008. “Best-value model based on project specific characteristics.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 134 (3): 179–188. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2008) 134:3(179). Aibinu, A. A., G. Ofori, and F. Y. Ling. 2008. “Explaining cooperative behavior in building and civil engineering projects’ claims process: Interactive effects of outcome favorability and procedural fairness.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 134 (9): 681–691. https://doi.org/10.1061 /(ASCE)0733-9364(2008)134:9(681). Akintoye, A. 1994. “Design and build: A survey of construction contractors’ views.” Constr. Manage. Econ. 12 (2): 155–163. https://doi.org/10 .1080/01446199400000021. Al-Momani, A. H. 2000. “Examining service quality within construction processes.” Technovation 20 (11): 643–651. https://doi.org/10.1016 /S0166-4972(00)00002-X. Anumba, C. J., and N. F. Evbuomwan. 1997. “Concurrent engineering in design-build projects.” Constr. Manage. Econ. 15 (3): 271–281. https:// doi.org/10.1080/014461997373006. Arditi, D., and D. E. Lee. 2004. “Service quality performance of design/build contractors using quality function deployment.” Constr. Manage. Econ. 22 (2): 123–127. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144619042000201321. Ashford, J. L. 2002. The management of quality in construction. London: Routledge. Baccarini, D. 1999. “The logical framework method for defining project success.” Project Manage. J. 30 (4): 25–32. https://doi.org/10.1177 /875697289903000405. Bagozzi, R. P., and Y. Yi. 1988. “On the evaluation of structural equation models.” J. Acad. Marketing Sci. 16 (1): 74–94. https://doi.org/10.1007 /BF02723327. Barrie, D. S., and B. C. Paulson. 1992. Professional construction management: Including CM, design-construct, and general contracting. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Basu, R. 2014. “Managing quality in projects: An empirical study.” Int. J. Project Manage. 32 (1): 178–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman .2013.02.003. Beard, J., E. M. Loulakis, and E. Wundram. 2001. Design-build: Planning through development. New York: McGraw-Hill. Chan, A. P. C., D. C. Ho, and C. Tam. 2001. “Design and build project success factors: Multivariate analysis.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 127 (2): 93–100. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2001) 127:2(93). Chan, A. P. C., D. Scott, and E. W. M. Lam. 2002. “Framework of success criteria for design/build projects.” J. Manage. Eng. 18 (3): 120–128. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0742-597X(2002)18:3(120). © ASCE Chan, E. H. W., and A. T. W. Yu. 2005. “Contract strategy for design management in the design and build system.” Int. J. Project Manage. 23 (8): 630–639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2005.05.004. Conlin, J., D. Langford, and P. Kennedy. 1996. “The relationship between construction procurement strategies and construction contract disputes.” In Proc., CIB W92 Symp. North Meets South: Developing Ideas. South Africa: Univ. of Natal. Cserhati, G., and L. Szabo. 2014. “The relationship between success criteria and success factors in organisational event projects.” Int. J. Project Manage. 32 (4): 613–624. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2013 .08.008. Demirkesen, S., and B. Ozorhon. 2017. “Impact of integration management on construction project management performance.” Int. J. Project Manage. 35 (8): 1639–1654. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2017 .09.008. Desai, P. S. 2001. “Quality segmentation in spatial markets: When does cannibalization affect product line design?” Marketing Sci. 20 (3): 265–283. https://doi.org/10.1287/mksc.20.3.265.9767. Dewar, R. D., and J. E. Dutton. 1986. “The adoption of radical and incremental innovations: An empirical analysis.” Management Sci. 32 (11): 1422–1433. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.32.11.1422. Dong, Y., H. Liao, A. Chuang, J. Zhou, and E. M. Campbell. 2015. “Fostering employee service creativity: Joint effects of customer empowering behaviors and supervisory empowering leadership.” J. Appl. Psychol. 100 (5): 1364–1380. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038969. Dulamimi, M., G. Morris, and T. Baxendale. 1995. “The role of design management in improving the effectiveness of design and build projects.” In Proc., Int. Congress on Construction Design and Build Projects—International Experiences, 5–6. Singapore. Federal Highway Administration. 2006. “Design-build effectiveness study.” Accessed October 18, 2018. https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/reports /designbuild/designbuild.pdf. FIDIC (International Federation of Consulting Engineers). 1999. Conditions of contract for EPC/Turnkey projects. Geneva: FIDIC. Fornell, C., and D. F. Larcker. 1981. “Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error.” J. Marketing Res. 18 (1): 39–50. https://doi.org/10.2307/3151312. Fredrickson, K. 1998. “Design guidelines for design-build projects.” J. Manage. Eng. 14 (1): 77–80. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0742 -597X(1998)14:1(77). Gaafar, H., and J. Perry. 1999. “Limitation of design liability for contractors.” Int. J. Project Manage. 17 (5): 301–308. https://doi.org/10.1016 /S0263-7863(98)00046-5. Garvin, D. A. 1984. “What does ‘product quality’ really mean?” Harvard Univ. Fall 26 (1): 25–43. Gransberg, D. D., and E. Windel. 2008. “Communicating design quality requirements for public sector design/build projects.” J. Manage. Eng. 24 (2): 105–110. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0742-597X (2008)24:2(105). Hage, J. 1980. Theories of organizations: Form, process, and transformation. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Hale, D. R., P. P. Shrestha, G. E. Gibson, and G. C. Migliaccio. 2009. “Empirical comparison of design/build and design/bid/build project delivery methods.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 135 (7): 579–587. https://doi .org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000017. Hatush, Z., and M. Skitmore. 1997. “Evaluating contractor prequalification data: Selection criteria and project success factors.” Constr. Manage. Econ. 15 (2): 129–147. https://doi.org/10.1080/01446199700000002. Hellard, R. B. 1993. Total quality in construction projects: Achieving profitability with customer satisfaction. London: Thomas Telford. Hendricks, K. B., and V. R. Singhal. 1996. “Quality awards and the market value of the firm: An empirical investigation.” Manage. Sci. 42 (3): 415–436. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.42.3.415. Heravi, A., V. Coffey, and B. Trigunarsyah. 2015. “Evaluating the level of stakeholder involvement during the project planning processes of building projects.” Int. J. Project Manage. 33 (5): 985–997. https://doi.org /10.1016/j.ijproman.2014.12.007. Hsieh, T. Y., S. T. Lu, and C. H. Wu. 2004. “Statistical analysis of causes for change orders in metropolitan public works.” Int. J. Project Manage. 22 (8): 679–686. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2004.03.005. 04018121-8 J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 2019, 145(1): 04018121 J. Constr. Eng. Manage. Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University of Virginia on 11/10/18. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Idrus, A., and M. Sodangi. 2010. “Framework for evaluating quality performance of contractors in Nigeria.” Int. J. Civ. Environ. Eng. 10 (1): 34–39. Janssens, D. E. 1991. Design-build, explained. London: Macmillan Education. King, B. 1989. Better designs in half the time: Implementing QFD quality function deployment in America. Methuen, MA: GOAL/QPC. Konchar, M., and V. Sanvido. 1998. “Comparison of U.S. project delivery systems.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 124 (6): 435–444. https://doi.org/10 .1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(1998)124:6(435). Korkmaz, S., D. Riley, and M. Horman. 2010. “Piloting evaluation metrics for sustainable high-performance building project delivery.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 136 (8): 877–885. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO .1943-7862.0000195. Kumaraswamy, M. M. 1998. “Consequences of construction conflict: A Hong Kong perspective.” J. Manage. Eng. 14 (3): 66–74. https://doi .org/10.1061/(ASCE)0742-597X(1998)14:3(66). Lam, E. W., A. P. Chan, and D. W. Chan. 2008. “Determinants of successful design-build projects.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 134 (5): 333–341. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2008)134:5(333). Lee, D.-E., and D. Arditi. 2006. “Total quality performance of design/build firms using quality function deployment.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 132 (1): 49–57. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2006) 132:1(49). Levy, S. M. 2006. Design-build project delivery: Managing the building process from proposal through construction. New York: McGraw-Hill. Ling, F. Y. Y. 2004. “How project managers can better control the performance of design-build projects.” Int. J. Project Manage. 22 (6): 477–488. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2003.09.003. Lumineau, F., and J. E. Henderson. 2012. “The influence of relational experience and contractual governance on the negotiation strategy in buyer-supplier disputes.” J. Oper. Manage. 30 (5): 382–395. https://doi .org/10.1016/j.jom.2012.03.005. Mallon, J., and D. Mulligan. 1993. “Quality function deployment: A system for meeting customers’ needs.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 119 (3): 516–531. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(1993)119:3(516). Marcus, A. A. 1981. “Policy uncertainty and technological innovation.” Acad. Manage. Rev. 6 (3): 443–448. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10 .5465/amr.1981.4285783. Migliaccio, G., G. Gibson, and J. O’Connor. 2009. “Procurement of designbuild services: Two-phase selection for highway projects.” J. Manage. Eng. 25 (1): 29–39. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0742-597X(2009) 25:1(29). Mogaibel, H. 1999. Project delivery systems of mining projects. CEM 600 Master of Engineering Rep. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals. Molenaar, K. R., and A. D. Songer. 1998. “Model for public sector designbuild project selection.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 124 (6): 467–479. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(1998)124:6(467). Molenaar, K. R., A. D. Songer, and M. Barash. 1999. “Public-sector design/ build evolution and performance.” J. Manage. Eng. 15 (2): 54–62. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0742-597X(1999)15:2(54). Murphy, M. E., R. Perera, and S. Heaney. 2008. “Building design innovation: Expansion of classification linkages through case study analysis.” J. Eng. Des. Technol. 6 (2): 99–111. https://doi.org/10.1108 /17260530810891252. Musawir, A. U., C. E. M. Serra, O. Zwikael, and I. Ali. 2017. “Project governance, benefit management, and project success: Towards a framework for supporting organizational strategy implementation.” Int. J. Project Manage. 35 (8): 1658–1672. https://doi.org/10.1016/j .ijproman.2017.07.007. Ndekugri, I., and A. Turner. 1994. “Building procurement by design and build approach.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 120 (2): 243–256. https://doi .org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(1994)120:2(243). Ngacho, C., and D. Das. 2014. “A performance evaluation framework of development projects: An empirical study of constituency development fund (CDF) construction projects in Kenya.” Int. J. Project Manage. 32 (3): 492–507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2013.07.005. © ASCE Park, J., and Y. H. Kwak. 2017. “Design-bid-build (DBB) vs. design-build (DB) in the U.S. public transportation projects: The choice and consequences.” Int. J. Project Manage. 35 (3): 280–295. https://doi.org/10 .1016/j.ijproman.2016.10.013. Park, M., S.-H. Ji, H.-S. Lee, and W. Kim. 2009. “Strategies for designbuild in Korea using system dynamics modeling.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 135 (11): 1125–1137. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO .1943-7862.0000095. Plebankiewicz, E. 2010. “Construction contractor prequalification from Polish clients’ perspective.” J. Civ. Eng. Manage. 16 (1): 57–64. https://doi.org/10.3846/jcem.2010.05. Podsakoff, P. M., S. B. MacKenzie, J.-Y. Lee, and N. P. Podsakoff. 2003. “Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies.” J. Appl. Psychol. 88 (5): 879–903. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879. Preece, C., and S. Tarawneh. 1997. “Why are design and build clients unhappy?” Constr. Manage. 3 (7): 24–25. Ramsey, D., M. E. Asmar, and G. E. Gibson. 2016. “Quantitative performance assessment of single-step versus two-step design-build procurement.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 142 (9): 04016033. https://doi.org/10 .1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0001145. Robbins, S. P. 2009. Organizational behavior, 13/E. NJ: Pearson. Robinson, J. P., P. R. Shaver, and L. S. Wrightsman. 2013. Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes: Measures of social psychological attitudes. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press. Scott, S. 2006. Best-value procurement methods for highway construction projects. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board. Scott, S. G., and R. A. Bruce. 1994. “Determinants of innovative behavior: A path model of individual innovation in the workplace.” Acad. Manage. J. 37 (3): 580–607. https://doi.org/10.5465/256701. Shane, J. S., S. M. Bogus, and K. R. Molenaar. 2013. “Municipal water/ wastewater project delivery performance comparison.” J. Manage. Eng. 29 (3): 251–258. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479 .0000139. Shrestha, P. P., and J. D. Fernane. 2016. “Performance of design-build and design-bid-build projects for public universities.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 143 (3): 04016101. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO .1943-7862.0001241. Slaughter, E. S. 1998. “Models of construction innovation.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 124 (3): 226–231. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364 (1998)124:3(226). Slaughter, E. S. 2000. “Implementation of construction innovations.” Build. Res. Inf. 28 (1): 2–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/096132100369055. Songer, A. D., and K. R. Molenaar. 1996. “Selecting design-build: Public and private sector owner attitudes.” J. Manage. Eng. 12 (6): 47–53. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0742-597X(1996)12:6(47). Sullivan, J., M. E. Asmar, J. Chalhoub, and H. Obeid. 2017. “Two decades of performance comparisons for design-build, construction manager at risk, and design-bid-build: Quantitative analysis of the state of knowledge on project cost, schedule, and quality.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 143 (6): 04017009. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862 .0001282. Tan, R. R., and Y.-G. Lu. 1995. “On the quality of construction engineering design projects: Criteria and impacting factors.” Int. J. Qual. Reliab. Manage. 12 (5): 18–37. https://doi.org/10.1108/02656719510089975. Trigunarsyah, B. 2004. “A review of current practice in constructability improvement: Case studies on construction projects in Indonesia.” Constr. Manage. Econ. 22 (6): 567–580. https://doi.org/10.1080 /0144619042000202870. Wardani, M. A. E., J. I. Messner, and M. J. Horman. 2006. “Comparing procurement methods for design-build projects.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 132 (3): 230–238. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364 (2006)132:3(230). Williamson, O. E., and D. C. Mueller. 1986. “The economic institutions of capitalism.” In Antitrust Bulletin. New York: The Free Press. Wu, C. H., T. Y. Hsieh, and W. L. Cheng. 2005. “Statistical analysis of causes for design change in highway construction on Taiwan.” Int. J. Project Manage. 23 (7): 554–563. https://doi.org/10.1016/j .ijproman.2004.07.010. 04018121-9 J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 2019, 145(1): 04018121 J. Constr. Eng. Manage. Yates, J. K., and L. C. Battersby. 2003. “Master builder project delivery system and designer construction knowledge.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 129 (6): 635–644. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2003) 129:6(635). Yu, T., G. Q. Shen, and Q. Shi. 2017. “Comparing the performance quality of design-bid-build and design-build delivery methods.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 143 (4): 04016111. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943 -7862.0001262. Zaltman, G., R. Duncan, and J. Holbek. 1973. Innovations and organizations. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Zhou, J., and J. M. George. 2001. “When job dissatisfaction leads to creativity: Encouraging the expression of voice.” Acad. Manage. J. 44 (4): 682–696. https://doi.org/10.5465/3069410. Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University of Virginia on 11/10/18. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Xia, B., and A. Chan. 2008. “Review of the design-build market in the People’s Republic of China.” J. Constr. Procurement 14 (2): 108–117. Xia, B., A. Chan, K. Molenaar, and M. Skitmore. 2012. “Determining the appropriate proportion of owner-provided design in design-build contracts: Content analysis approach.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 138 (9): 1017–1022. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000522. Yana, A. A. G. A., H. A. Rusdhi, and M. A. Wibowo. 2015. “Analysis of factors affecting design changes in construction project with partial least square (PLS).” Procedia Eng. 125: 40–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j .proeng.2015.11.007. Yasamis, F., D. Arditi, and J. Mohammadi. 2002. “Assessing contractor quality performance.” Constr. Manage. Econ. 20 (3): 211–223. https://doi.org/10.1080/01446190110113693. © ASCE 04018121-10 J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 2019, 145(1): 04018121 J. Constr. Eng. Manage.