Nerissa D. Domingo and Rhea Angel Anthropological Foundations Reference: Divisions of Anthropology Anthropology may be classified as physical and cultural. PHYSICAL- deals with the study of man as product of the evolutionary process. It is concerned with man’s bodily structures. CULTURAL- deals with man’s behavior and with the ways human beings carry out the activities of daily living. Anthropological Foundations 1 Anthropology 2 Divisions of Anthropology 3 Relation of Anthropology to other Sciences 4 Educational Implications of Anthropology What is Anthropology? • Anthropology was derived from the Greek word anthrope meaning man and logy meaning science. • Literal meaning of anthropology then is science of man. • It is the study of mankind. • Dictionary defines anthropology as the science that treats the origin, development, and especially the cultural development, customs, beliefs, etc. of man What is Anthropology? • Herskovitz defines anthropology as “the science of man and his works.” • According to Jacobs and Stern, anthropology is the scientific study of physical, social and cultural development and behavior of human beings since their appearance on earth. Man is a unique animal kingdom because: Man is a unique animal kingdom because: • He is also unique in the field of behavior for the following reasons: He possesses tools and other material artifacts. He has complex techniques for getting and preparing food. He has social and political organization He has a system of religious beliefs and rituals He communicates by means of languange. Divisions of Anthropology The diversity of human behavior is seen in: food habits, ways food is cooked, habits of dress and ornaments and relations with in laws. Cultural anthropology sub-divisions: ARCHEOLOGY • Deals with ancient cultures and past phases of modern civilization based on documents, paintings, stone carvings, etc. In Geology, these eras are: • • • • Archezoic-when primitive forms of life appeared. Protozoic-when early life forms increased. Paleozoic-when fish, amphibians and other amphibians appeared. Mesozoic-when huge reptiles predominated. Cenozoic Era: • Tertiary or age of Mammals • Halocene Period Cultural anthropology sub-divisions: ETHNOLOGY • Treats of and describe cultures and explains similarities and differences • Deals with the sub-divisions of mankind, their origins, relations, speech, institutions, etc. Cultural anthropology sub-divisions: LINGUISTICS • Concerned with man’s language, a nonliterate or literate, past and present. Descriptive linguistics • Deals with the classification, arrangement and study of the features of language . Comparative or Historical Linguistics • Takes up the changes in language, the borrowings from other languages, and the comparison of languages. SUB-DIVISIONS OF ANTHROPOLOGY RELATION OF ANTHROPOLOGY TO OTHER SCIENCES Physical Anthropology is related to the biological sciences-anatomy, physiology, embryology and genetics. Social anthropology is related to sociology, psychology, geography, economics, and political sciences. Cultural anthropology is related to humanistic disciplines, such as history, literature, art, and music. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF ANTHROPOLOGY • It allows people to study how humans and other organisms react to certain environments. • It gives us insight in how things work, live and coexist. • Through anthropology, we can determine how things were made, live and react to different scenarios and how different texts and our perception of ideas change us. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF ANTHROPOLOGY • It also help us to study the changes that happen upon nature or from ourselves or from other organisms. • Along with this it shows us a great deal how much more advanced we are to become. CULTURE AND SOCIETY COMPONENTS OF CULTURE 1.Material Culture 2.Non Material Culture 3.Language 4.Values 5.Signs and Symbols 6.Norms Importance of Anthropology Anthropology contributes to the education of social work students through its emphasis on the role of culture and of social context in the delivery of social services. Examples are provided with special emphasis on child abuse and pro- tective services. Cultural heritage can provide an automatic sense of unity and belonging within a group and allows us to better understand previous generations and the history of where we come from. Understanding our cultural heritage can give a sense of personal identity. Religion and Cultural Heritage is a unique one-year interdisciplinary MAprogramme focusing on a major trend at the interface of religion, identity, politics, and heritage studies. It also addresses a gap in critical heritage studies, studying the shifting place of religion in heritage debates. Thank You For Listening !!!