Uploaded by Lord Allan Conejos


Learning styles are a popular concept in psychological and educational communities
and are deemed to matter when it comes to enhancing the academic performance of
students. Learning styles refer to a person’s natural way of processing information, which
can influence how well they learn.
There are many different ways of categorizing learning styles, but Neil Fleming's
VARK model is one of the most popular. Fleming introduced the inventory in 1987 that was
designed to help learners about their individual learning preferences. The VARK model of
learning styles suggests that there are four main types of learners: visual, auditory,
reading/writing, and kinesthetic. While all students can benefit from using all four styles,
some students may be suited to one style over the other.
According to research, males and females learn differently. Males tend to learn best
through visual and auditory learning styles, while females learn best through kinesthetic and
logical/verbal learning styles. However, this does not mean females are incapable of learning
through other methods; women simply tend to have a dominant way of learning.
Research also suggests that students learn better when their learning styles match
those of their teachers. The preferred learning styles of students have a big impact on how
they act and what they learn. Students that obtain information using their preferred modality
exhibit higher levels of understanding, motivation, and metacognition.
Participants of the Study
This research was carried out at Manila Central University, a private educational institution in
Caloocan. The purpose of this research is to identify the various and most preferred learning styles
of MCU basic education students for the Academic Year 2021-2022. A total of 747 students responded
to the survey: 231 from Junior High School (grades 7–10) and 516 from Senior High School.
Research Design
The researchers used a descriptive research design to investigate the various learning styles and
learning preferences of students in an online education system. Descriptive research, according to
researchconnections.org, is a type of research that is used to describe the characteristics of a
population; it collects data that is used to answer a wide range of what, when, and how questions
pertaining to a specific population or group.
The researchers used a 16-item VARK questionnaire for students to assess the study's constructs.
The VARK Learning Style Questionnaire, developed by Fleming and Mills (1992), is used to describe
the four modes of learning: visual, aural or auditory, reading/writing, and kinesthetic. The use of
online learning has significantly altered the learning environment, and this survey will serve as a
guide for how students and professors/teachers can adapt to these changes.
Data Gathering
The researchers distributed this survey to all of the university's basic education students. Pupils from
Manila Central University's basic education department were invited to take part in the study. To
collect information from respondents, a tool was created and all items were entered into Microsoft
Forms. The researchers approached the School Principal for assistance in disseminating the
Microsoft Form Survey Link. They sent the link to the students via the teachers’ instruction, and it
was distributed online via the university's social media account and online learning platform. The
questionnaire's Microsoft Form Link was also posted on the Guidance and Career Planning Office
Page at the University's Virtual Learning Environment. Furthermore, the survey was conducted from
September 9 to September 18, 2021. In addition, survey was extended through the request of the
basic education department, the form was re-opened last September 29 to October 6, 2021 for those
students who were unable to respond the first time. The sample was collected until the time and data
saturation points were reached.
Data Analysis
The data were analyzed by calculating the Mean Percentage Score (MPS) or Average Score, as well as
the Mode, which is the response that occurred the most frequently in the data set. Furthermore, the
analysis results were presented in tables. The data that was analyzed was used to draw conclusions
and make recommendations.
The results below shows that Manila Central University – Basic Education Department in terms of
the most preferred learning style by males are Kinesthetic (32.2%) while in Females were
Reading/Writing (36%).
Aural/Auditory Reading/Writing
Table 1.0 Percentage of Learning Style Inventory per Gender
The table 1.0 presented a closer look on how the basic education department of Manila Central
University both males and females differ on how they learn a certain topic or lesson given to them.
Hamidon (2015) underlined that while it may seem like we are giving students with diverse learning
styles the same opportunity, we are actually not facilitating their individual learning equally
efficiently. Learning style indicates learning behavior of students and aids teachers.
Males preferred kinesthetic styles that produce a multi-sensory experience or a combination of visual
and aural experiences. It also indicates that males are more enthusiastic if all approaches are outputbased because they have a kinesthetic learning style. Sarabi-Asiabar (2014) reached the same
conclusion and emphasized the importance of instructors being aware of male learning styles in
order to modify their mode of instruction, particularly in boys' schools. Meanwhile, females preferred
reading and writing. Because of the setup that we must go through, they can deliver more frequently
than males during a pandemic.
As a result of these findings, male and female students have very different learning styles. It is the
instructor's responsibility to address the diversity of learning styles and develop appropriate
learning approaches. Adapting teaching approaches to meet our students' different learning style
preferences is one way to improve student motivation and performance. Learning style preferences
are the ways and conditions in which learners perceive, process, store, and recall what they are
attempting to learn most efficiently and effectively.
Furthermore, Sarabi-Asiabar (2014) concluded that knowledge about students' learning styles at
educational institutes is valuable because it helps solve learning problems among students and
allows students to become better learners. It is obvious that each student has a unique learning style,
and as previously stated, the preference does not differ between genders. And, while awareness of
gender-marking styles may not result in effective teaching, teachers must recognize these differences
as a whole in order to be more effective, and they must then broaden their range of teaching styles
Hamidon, N. A. B. (2015). Study on Students Learning Style According to Gender Factor |
Hamidon | Journal of Culture, Society and Development. Journal of Culture, Society and
Development. https://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JCSD/article/view/23280/23784
Sarabi-Asiabar, A., Jafari, M., Sadeghifar, J., Tofighi, S., Zaboli, R., Peyman, H., Salimi, M., &
Shams, L. (2014). The Relationship Between Learning Style Preferences and Gender,
Educational Major and Status in First Year Medical Students: A Survey Study From Iran.
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.18250
Shuib, M. (2015, June 30). ERIC - EJ1068392 - Learning Style Preferences among Male and
Female ESL Students in Universiti-Sains Malaysia, Journal of Educators Online, 2015Jul. Institute of Education Sciences. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1068392
Wehrwein, E. A., Lujan, H. L., & DiCarlo, S. E. (2007). Gender differences in learning style
preferences among undergraduate physiology students. Advances in Physiology Education,
31(2), 153–157. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00060.2006