# PR2 LESSON 1 WEEK 1

```QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH
CHARACTERISTICS | STRENGTHS |
WEAKNESSES | KINDS
by Coach Pin
NATURE OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
 Numerical – from the word “quantity”; deal with numbers.
 Objective – seeks precise measurements and analysis of concepts.
 Conclusive / Deductive – can only validate already established
theories or principles.
 Close-Ended Research Instrument – answered by selecting from
a limited number of options (ex. questionnaires or surveys).
NATURE OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
 Uses Random Sampling Technique (simple, stratified, cluster,
systematic)
 Numerical data are expressed through tables, graphs, and
figures and words.
 Utilization of statistical tools to interpret gathered data.
 Research aspects are all planned before collecting data.
CHARACTERISTICS OF
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
CHARACTERISTICS OF QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH
1. Data are gathered using structured research instruments.
2. Results are based on larger sample sizes which are randomly chosen.
3. Can be repeated or replicated.
4. Objective
5. All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected.
6. Data are in form of numbers often arranged in tables, charts, and
figures.
7. Generalizable and reliable.
8. Use of questionnaires to collect numerical data.
ACTIVITY 1
TELL WHETHER OR
NOT EACH OF THE
FOLLOWING
STATEMENTS IS
TRUE OR FALSE.
1. Deductive approach of data analysis
is breaking down the general
principle into specific details of the
phenomenon.
2. Inductive approach is usually
associated
with
quantitative
research.
3. Quantitative data are presented
through tables, graphs or figures
only and no textual description is
done.
4. Quantitative research is conducted
to
validate
theory
constructed
by
previous
researchers.
5. Quantitative research methods are
uncoordinated.
ASSIGNMENT
TO BE SUBMITTED ON
SEPTEMBER 12, 2022
MONDAY
on page 7 of your
module under “Let’s
Try This 2”.
STRENGTHS OF QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH
STRENGTHS OF QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH
why a phenomena occur.
 Can generalize research findings and can be replicated.
 Provides precise, quantitative, numerical data presented in
tables, graphs, charts and figures.
 Relatively quick and precise analysis and interpretation of
data.
 Quick data collection through the use of checklist, survey
questionnaire, multiple-choice paper and pencil test.
WEAKNESSES OF QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH
WEAKNESSES OF QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH
 Difficulty in data analysis.
 Requires extra resources to analyze the findings / results.
 Has limited outcomes since close-ended instruments are used.
 Research data are prone to manipulation.
KINDS OF QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH
KINDS OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
TRUE-EXPERIMENTAL
EXPERIMENTAL
QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL
QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH
DESCRIPTIVE
NON-EXPERIMENTAL
COMPARATIVE
CORRELATIONAL
EXPERIMENTAL QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH
• Study of the effect of the systematic manipulation of one variable on another
variable.
• Variable – any property, characteristics, or quantity that changes over time in
different situations. (e.g. height, age, temperature)
• INDEPENDENT VARIABLE- also known as experimental treatment;
manipulated variable assumed to have a direct effect on the dependent
variable. (cause)
• DEPENDENT VARIABLE – observed and measured variable. It receives
the “effect” caused by the independent variable.
DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT
VARIABLES
“EFFECTS OF PROVIDING ONLINE FEEDBACK TO STUDENTS
IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING COURSE EXAMINATIONS”
Independent Variable: Immediate online feedback and feedback during their
next class session
Dependent Variable: Two sections’ exam scores and their final grades in the
course
TRUE- EXPERIMENTAL
• To have a “true” experimental research, researchers must use a random process
such as toss coin to assign available subjects to the experimental treatments.
• With random assignment, each subject has an equal and independent chance of
being assigned to any group.
• “The Effect of Teaching with a Cooperative Group Strategy or a
Traditional Lecture Approach on Student’s Achievement”
QUASI- EXPERIMENTAL
• The researcher does not randomly assign groups and must use ones that are
naturally formed or preexisting groups.
• Experimenter must use already assembled groups such as classes.
• “The effects of part-time employment on the achievement of high
school students”
NON-EXPERIMENTAL QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH
• Researcher identifies variables and may look for relationships among them
but does not manipulate the variables.
DESCRIPTIVE/ SURVEY RESEARCH
• Study designed to depict the participants in an accurate way. All about
describing people who take part in the study.
• Uses instruments such as questionnaires and interviews to gather information
from groups of individuals.
• 1 variable and 1 group or population
• “Number of Hours spent of Grade 12 learners in social media”
COMPARATIVE/ EX POST FACTO
• Similar to an experiment but the researcher does not manipulate the
independent variable.
• The researcher simply compares groups differing on the preexisting
independent variable to determine any relationship to the dependent variable.
• 1 variable and 2 or more groups
• “Attitudes towards Practical Research 2 of Academic and TVL
students”
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
• Gathers data from individuals on two or more variables and then seeks to
determine if the variables from individuals are related (correlated).
• Correlation – extent to which two variables vary directly (positive
correlation) or inversely (negative correlation).
• 2 variables and 1 group or population