Uploaded by nikhil choudhary


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Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta)
A proinflammatory cytokine expressed by monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells in response to
inflammatory stimuli such as pathogens, stress conditions, and other danger signals. IL-1 beta play an
important role in innate host and initiating acute-phase responses to infection and injury. Elevated
levels of IL-1 beta have been associated with many chronic inflammatory conditions. IL-1 beta
neutralizing antibodies potential therapeutic value.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system that regulates the immunity through their action on white blood cells. It
is a part of the body's natural response to microbial infection, and in discriminating between foreign ("non-self") and "self. IL-2
increases the cell killing activity of both natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells.
CD25 (IL2 receptor alpha chain/IL2RA)
Role in the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes. IL2 is primarily produced by mature T cells. IL2 plays an
important role as a growth factor, differentiation factor, and regulator of cell death. IL-2 stimulates the
proliferation of B cells, augments natural killer cell activity, and inhibits granulocyte macrophage colony
formation. The targeted disruption of a similar gene in mice leads to ulcerative colitis-like disease, which
suggests a role in the immune response to antigenic stimuli. Mutations in this gene are associated with
interleukin 2 receptor alpha deficiency.
Interleukin 8 (IL-8, CXCL8)
A pro-inflammatory factor functions as a chemoattractant and potent angiogenic factor. The role in the
angiogenesis and growth of tumours, play a role in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis, a common respiratory
tract disease caused by viral infection.
Interleukin 10 (IL-10, CSIF)
anti-inflammatory cytokine mainly produced by macrophages and Th2 cells. effects in
immunoregulation and inflammation. It suppresses cytokine secretion, antigen presentation and CD4+ T
cell activation
IL-15 (Interleukin 15 )
A cytokine that regulates T and natural killer cell activation and proliferation.IL-15 may be essential
for the immune responses, allograft rejection, and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. This
widely expressed pro-inflammatory cytokine play a role in several inflammatory disorders, including
rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and pulmonary inflammatory diseases.
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Interleukin-17A (IL-17A, CTLA-8)
A CD4+ T cell-derived cytokine promotes inflammatory responses in cell lines and is elevated in rheumatoid
arthritis, asthma, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, and transplant rejection.
IFN-γ, or type II interferon
A cytokine critical for innate and adaptive immunity against viral, some bacterial and protozoan
of autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
A cytokine produced by macrophages, lymphoid cells, mast cells, endothelial cells, cardiac
myocytes, adipose tissue, fibroblasts, and neurons. It has different action on various organs such as
Stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, Suppression of appetite,Fever, stimulation of
the acute phase response, responsible for insulin resistance. It stimulates inflammatory activity through
action on neutrophils and endothelial cells and responsible for cardinal signs of Inflammation: heat,
swelling, redness, pain and loss of function. High concentrations can be found in cancer patients.
TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations are elevated in obesity. TNF and IL-6 are the most prominent cytokines
predicting COVID-19 severity and death
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH),
key roles are in growth differentiation and folliculogenesis. AMH can also be used as a marker for ovarian
dysfunction, such as in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Pre-treatment AMH is useful in predicting
the long-term post-chemotherapy loss of ovarian function. AMH is also useful in diagnosing recurrence of granulosa
cell tumors
Inhibin B
Inhibin B has been used as a marker of ovarian reserve. Inhibin B is good tumour marker to mucinous and
granulosa ovarian cancer.
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