FOR EDUM010: CHILD AND ADOLESCENT LEARNERS & LEARNING PRINCIPLES Biological Process : The Brain & BODY BRAIN PHYSIOLOGY Structure & Function Frontal lobes- are involved in voluntary movement, thinking, personality and intentionality or purpose. Occipital lobes – function in vision Temporal lobes – have an active role in hearing, language processing and memory. Parietal lobes- play important roles in registering spatial location, attention and motor control Deeper in the brain, lies amygdala (important in emotion) and hippocampus (memory and emotion). Neurons and its functions ◦ basic conducting unit/building blocks of nervous system ◦ the specialized cells that conduct impulses through the nervous system ◦ Are divided into 3 functions: 1. Sensory 2. Motor 3. Association Brain’s laterization Left hemisphere Right Hemisphere -language (speaking, writing, reading, speech and written comprehension) -Math and Logic (Reasoning and numerical skills) -intelligence Visual-spatial relations (perception) -emotions/emotional thinking -Music processing -nonverbal language -language control -difficulty understanding metaphors -insensitive to emotional qualities of speech -attentional deficits -unilateral neglect – blindness in the left visual field Brain during infancy At birth, brain is about 25% of adult weight. By 2nd year, it is about 75% of its adult weight. Spreading connections of dendrites Increase connections between neurons After birth, environmental experiences guide the brain’s development. The inflow stream of sights, sounds, smells, touches, language and eye contact help shape the brain neural connections. Things to remember: Because the brain is still developing so rapidly during infancy: 1. The infant’s head should be protected from falls or other injuries. 2. Baby should never be shaken (baby shaken syndrome) to avoid brain swelling and hemorrhaging. Studying brain development in infant is never easy. (see charles nelson’s study) Childhood Brain ▪From age 6 through puberty, the most dramatic growth takes place in the temporal and parietal lobes, esp in areas that play major role in language and spatial relations. ▪The development of the brain and the opportunities to experience the widening world contribute to children’s emerging cognitive abilities. Childhood Continuing development of the brain and nervous system. Enable children to plan their actions, attend to stimuli more effectively and make considerable strides in language development. Increase in brain size due to: growth of nerve endings and myelination (eye-hand coordination and focusing attention) At age 3-6, most rapid growth takes place in the frontal areas involved in planning and organizing new actions and maintaining attention to tasks. Adolescence Using fMRI, scientist have recently discovered that adolescent brain undergo significant structural changes. 1. The corpus callosum thickens – improves ability to process information 2. amygdala was more pronounced than in the prefrontal cortex. (the reverse occurred in adult). 3. The very last part of the brain to mature is the prefrontal cortex where planning, setting priorities, suppressing impulses and weighing the consequences of one’s actions take place. 4. Increase in dopamine and decrease in serotonin. ( mental disorder is more common in adolescence & adulthood) Questions to ponder…. How can the changes in the brain explain adolescent’s behavior? What are the roles of the teachers in stimulating brain development? Height and weight increase rapidly in infancy, then they take a slower course during the childhood years. Infancy 95% of full term newborns are 18-22 inches long and weighs between 5 and 10 pounds In the first several days, they may lose 5-10% of their body weight before they learn to adjust to neonatal feeding. They grow rapidly , gaining an average of 5-6 ounces per week during the first month Infants growth is slower during the second year of life. At 2 years, infant weigh 26-32 pounds and 32-35 inches in height (half of adult height). Early childhood Height – the average annual increase in height is 3 inches . By age six, the average child measures 46.6 inches. Weight – annual increase of 3 to 5 pounds. At age 6, children should weigh approximately 7x as much as they did at birth. Body proportions- “baby look” disappears, Facial features remain small but the chin becomes more pronounced and neck elongates Early childhood Body Build – 3 possible body builds: Endomorphic “flabby”, Mesomorphic “sturdy” and Ectomophic “thin”. Bones and muscles – bones ossify at different rates in different parts of the body. Children may look thinner even though they weigh more. Teeth- during the first 4-6 months of this stage, the last four baby teeth erupts “back molars”. Baby teeth is replaced with permanent teeth. Middle and Late childhood Involves a slow, consistent growth. Average of 2 to 3 inches in height Gains about 5 to 7 pounds a year increase in the size of skeletal and muscular system (improved muscle tone) Proportional changes, head circumference, waist circumference and leg decrease in relation to body height. ADOLESCENCE 1. ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ Physical growth tends to be both rapid and uneven. Girls’ growth spurt occurs earlier, and so they look older than boys of same age. After growth spurt, boys have greater strength and endurance Early maturing boys likely to draw favorable responses; late maturing boys may seek attention Late maturing girls likely to be popular and carefree Determinants of puberty Menarche (first menstrual flow for girls) Heredity –programmed into the genes within the boundaries of about 9-16 years of age. Hormones – androgens (main class of male sex hormones) and estrogen ( main class of female hormones). Testosterone is an androgen that is the key hormone in the development of puberty in boys Estradiol is an estrogen that play an active role in female pubertal development. Development of primary sex characteristics BOYS GIRLS Testes Ovaries Scrotum Uterus Penis Fallopian tube Seminal vesicles Vagina Prostate gland Menarche – first menstruation Important secondary sex characteristics BOYS GIRLS Pubic hair & facial hairs Hips becomes wider & rounder Skin becomes coarser, less transparent and pores enlarge Breasts begin to enlarge Sebaceous or oil producing gland & apocrine glands become active Voice becomes husky and later drops in pitch Breast knots Pubic hair & Auxiliary hair Skin becomes coarser, less transparent, pores enlarge Sebaceous & apocrine glands become active Muscles increase in size & strength Voice becomes fuller and melodious Common Effects of Pubertal changes on attitudes and behaviors Desire for isolation – withdraw from peers & family activities, often daydream about how misunderstood & mistreated they are. Boredom – developing the habit of underachieving. In coordination- clumsy & awkward for a time Social Antagonism – uncooperative, disagreeable & antagonistic. Common Effects of Pubertal changes on attitudes and behaviors Heightened emotionality – moodiness, sulkiness, temper outbursts and a tendency to cry at a slightest provocation. Loss of self-confidence – due to lowered physical resistance & constant criticisms of adults and peers Excessive modesty – fear that others will notice the changes and comment on them unfavorably. Sleep restores, replishes, and rebuild our brain and bodies. How much do infants sleep? Newborn sleep 16-17 hours a day, although some sleep more and others less. Half of infant’s sleep is REM sleep. After 3 mo. old, infant’s REM sleep is only 40%. The large amount of REM sleep may provide the infant with added self-stimulation, it also promote brain development. Would you allow shared sleeping with your baby? In the U.S. Sleeping in a crib in a separate room is the most frequent sleeping arrangement. It promotes self-reliance and independence. In Guatamala, china and other asian cultures, infants sleep in their parents bed until the birth of a new sibling . They believe that it enhances closeness, promotes It eliminates the risk of the mother breastfeeding, a quicker response rolling over her baby. to the baby’s cries and allows the mother to detect potentially To minimize risk if mother is dangerous breathing pauses. impaired by alcohol, smoking or being overly tired. Sudden Infant death syndrome (SIDS) In addition to sleeping in a prone position, the researchers have found the ff risk factors: 1. SIDS is less likely to occur in infants who use a pacifier when they go to sleep. 2. Low birth weight infants are 5 to 10x more likely to die of SIDS. 3. Infants with sleep apnea die of SIDS. 4. It is more common in lower socioeconomic status 5. Common among infants who are passively exposed to cigarette smoke. 6. More common if infants sleep in soft bedding 7. SIDS occurs more often in infants with abnormal brain stem functioning. How to help children sleep better? Read bed time story Playing quietly with the child in the bath Or letting the child sit on the caregivers lap while listening to music. Sleep problems include nightmares and night terrors These sleep disruptions reflect emotional problems in children. CHILDHOOD Experts recommend that young children get 11 -13 hours of sleep each night (national sleep foundation, 2008) A national survey indicated that children who do not get adequate sleep are more likely to: 1. Show depressive symptoms 2. Have problems at school 3. Have a father in poor health 4. Live in a family where disagreements and fights are common 5. Live in an unsafe neighbourhood. Nutrition Nutritionists recommend that infants consume approximately 50 calories per day for each pound they weigh – more than twice an adult requirement per pound. Behaviorist John Watson espoused that schedule feeding is superior because it increases the child’s orderliness. Fat is very important for babies BREAST VS. BOTTLE FEEDING? What's your view? Every mother who is physically able should breastfeed. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons. Benefits of breast feeding Appropriate weight gain and lowered risk of childhood obesity (Bergmann and others, 2003) Fewer allergies( Oddy and others, 2004) Prevention or reduction of diarrhea, respiratory infections, bacteria and urinary tract infections (Marild and others, 2004) Denser bones in childhood and adulthood (Gibson and others, 2001) Lower incidence of SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) (fredrickson, 1993) Improved neurological & cognitive development (Brody, 1994) Improved visual acuity (Makrides & others, 1995) Nutritional needs & Eating habits of children Young children need fewer calories than infants and toddlers because their brains & body are growing more slowly. As a result, appetite typically decreases from ages 2-6, which causes some parents concern. The best way to meet children’s nutritional needs each day is to provide access to a variety of foods from all the food groups. Nutritional needs & Eating habits of adolescence The dramatic physical growth and development during puberty requires increases in energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals. The total nutrient needs are higher than any other period of life and they peak during the period where the growth is fastest. Poor nutrition during adolescence can contribute to many adult health problems such as diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis and cancer. Recommended daily calorie and protein intakes for adolescents. Calories per Day Proteins grams Per day Age Male Female Male Female 11-14 2,200 2, 500 46 49 15-18 2,200 3,000 44 59 19-24 2,200 2,900 46 58 Recommendations for teens about nutrition and fitness Remove TV from teen’s bedroom and limit the time they spend looking at any screen to 2 hours or fewer a day. Avoid beverages sweetened with sugar or high fructose corn syrup. Strive to eat at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetable daily. Engage in moderate to vigorous physical activity for at least 60 minutes a day. Actually prepare and eat meals at home as a family at least 5-6 times a week. Limit eating out, especially at fast food restaurants Dont skip breakfast and make sure it is healthy Limit portion sizes Make lifestyle changes a whole family project Perceptual development INVOLVES THE PROCESSING OF SENSORY INFORMATION BY THE BRAIN. Visual perception A newborn infant will gaze at an object and track it to keep it in view. Visual acuity is achieved at 12 months old. Depth perception develops after 6 months when babies begin to move around on their own. Through a technique called “habituation procedure”, researchers learned a great deal about the type of visual stimulation infants prefer. Infants preferred pattern over solid colored stimuli, prefer human faces to other pattern stimuli, when gazing at a face, they focus on eyes and facial expression. Auditory perception There is a substantial evidence that fetuses react to sound by the sixth and seventh month of prenatal development. 3 day old infant prefer familiar rather than unfamiliar voice. 2 year old infants only produce the sounds of their native language. Auditory perception develops rapidly during infancy but it does not reach adult levels until elementary school years. Development of other senses Taste TOUCH AND PAIN Babies seem to be born with “sweet tooth”. Newborns are responsive to touch. They are naturally attracted to their mothers milk which is sweeter than the cows milk. Research on infants attachment also supports the importance of human contact. SMELL It is also developed at birth. A sense of smell may play an important role in bonding. Touch is important for brain development Attachment is the process by which infants form strong , affectional ties with their caregivers. They can also feel pain as they respond to injections and circumcision by fussing & crying. No evidence however, that the pain experienced in routine medical care has any long-term effects on physical or emotional development. Motor development INVOLVES CHILDREN’S INCREASING ABILITY TO MOVE AND CONTROL THEIR BODY MOVEMENTS Newborn reflexes REFLEX DESCRIPTION FUNCTION Eye blink Infant closes eyes with bright light or noise near eyes. Protects infants from strong stimulation. Rooting Head turn toward source when stroked on cheek near mouth Helps infant find nipple Moro* Infants attempt to cling when startled May have helped animal ancestor cling to mother Palmer grasp* Spontaneous grasp when object placed in palm Prepares infant for voluntary grasping Stepping Infants lifts one foot after another when held to permit feet to touch flat surface Prepares infant for voluntary walking Babinski reflex* Toes fan out and curl sole of foot is stroked Unknown Gross motor skills Involve the movement of the head, body, legs, arms and large muscles. The most significant for parents is the change in locomotion skills. Children are affectionately called toddlers because they toddle from side to side. During preschool years, children’s muscles grow stronger and their physical coordination improves. The effective performance of some motor skills depends on cognitive skills. Fine motor skills Refers to skill that involve small body movements. Development is continuous and gradual Follows a universal sequence but each child has his or her own individual timetable. Fine motor skills Grasping reflex appear at 5 months onward Pincer grasp appear around 1 year old. They can use the thumb and index finger to pick up small objects, such as blocks, buttons or puzzle pieces. By age 2, they can turn knobs and faucets and play with screw type toys. By 3-5 years, they can assemble simple puzzles, hold crayons, paint brushes, or marker pens. Fine motor skills By age 5-6, they can copy simple geometric shapes, manipulate buttons and zippers and perhaps tie their own shoes. They can also print the alphabet, letters in their name, numbers 1 to 10. Hand dominance appears. By age 7, ready to master cursive writing By age 10 and 12, they begin to show manipulative skills similar to those of adults, can perform crafts, play musical instruments and work with puzzles with tiny pieces. Fine motor skills Sex difference exist in the level of perfection of skills. Girls surpass boys in skills involving ﬁne motor skills, while boys are superior to girls involving the grosser muscles. The socio-economic status also inﬂuence the skills that children will learn. Children from lower status learn self-help and social help skills, while children from middle/upper status learn more on play skills. Special health concerns 4 major health issues facing young people of today. Eating disorders and obesity Substance abuse Adolescent sexuality and pregnancy Depression and suicide Schools can play an important role in the prevention and intervention efforts.