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PLANNING A TEST AND CONTRUCTION OF TABLE OF SPECIFICATION (TOS) FRANCHESCA MARIE O. BANTOTO IMPORTANT STEPS IN PLANNING A TEST 1.Identifying test objectives 2.Deciding on the type of test to be prepared 3.Preparing a Table of Specifications (TOS) 4.Constructing the draft test items 5.Try-out and validation 1. IDENTIFYING TEST OBJECTIVES •An objective test, if it is to be comprehensive, must cover the various levels of Bloom’s taxonomy. Each objective consists of a statement of what is to be achieved preferably by the students. The following are typical objectives: •knowledge/remembering •comprehension/understanding •application/applying •analysis/analyzing •evaluation/evaluating •synthesis/synthesizing KNOWLEDGE Count Define Draw Identify Label List Locate Name Outline Point Quote Recite Record Repeat Select State Write COMPREHENSION Associate Classify Convert Describe Differentiate Discuss, Distinguish, Estimate Explain Interpret Match Paraphrase Predict Recognize Select Summarize Translate APPLICATION Apply Build Calculate Classify Compare Complete Contrast Construct Demonstrate Illustrate Modify Operate Practice Relate Report Solve Use ANALYSIS Analyze Categorize Compose Debate Detect Diagram Differentiate Distinguish Group Infer Investigate Prioritize Relate Research Separate Sort Transform SYNTHESIS Adapt Assemble Combine Compare Compose Create Design Formulate Generalize Integrate Invent Organize Plan Prepare Prescribe Revise Specify EVALUATION Accept Appraise Assess Compare/Contrast Critique Determine Evaluate Facilitate Grade Justify Measure Rank Recommend Reject Select Test 2. DECIDING ON THE TYPE OF TEST TO BE PREPARED •The test objectives guide the kind of test that will be designed and constructed by the teacher. For instance for the first four (4) levels, we may want to construct a multiple-choice type of test while for application and judgement, we may opt to give an essay test. 3. PREPARING A TABLE OF SPECIFICATION (TOS) •A Table of Specification (TOS) is a test map that guides the teacher in constructing a test. It ensures that there is a balance between items that test lower order thinking skills (LOTS) and those which test higher order thinking skills (HOTS). NOTE: Each institution may have its own TOS format. TWO-WAY TABLE OF SPECIFICATION TWO-WAY TABLE OF SPECIFICATION TWO-WAY TABLE OF SPECIFICATION DECIDE ON THE NUMBER OF ITEMS TO GIVE TO THE TEST. CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING: NATURE OF THE SUBJECT, GRADE LEVEL, LEVEL OF THINKING SKILLS DESIRED AND TIME ALLOTMENT. TWO-WAY TABLE OF SPECIFICATION REVIEW THE NUMBER OF DAYS SPENT IN TEACHING THE LESSON. NO. OF ITEMS =(TOTAL NO. OF ITEMS DIVIDED BY TOTAL NO. OF DAYS/HOURS) * (NO. OF DAYS OR HOURS THE CONTENT WAS TAUGHT TWO-WAY TABLE OF SPECIFICATION DECIDE WHAT CATEGORIES OF SKILLS YOU ARE GOING TO USE. TWO-WAY TABLE OF SPECIFICATION DECIDE WHAT ITEMS NUMBERS YOU WILL ASSIGN FOR QUESTIONS OR ITEMS THAT COVER A PARTICULAR OBJECTIVE, IN PARTICULAR SKILL CATEGORY. TWO-WAY TABLE OF SPECIFICATION %= (TOTAL NUMBER OF ITEMS FOR A PARTICULAR OBJECTIVE DIVIDED BY TOTAL NUMBER OF ITEMS) * 100 ONE WAY TABLE OF SPECIFICATION RIMBERIO CO 4. CONSTRUCTING THE DRAFT OF TEST ITEMS •The actual construction of the test items follows the TOS. As a general rule, it is advised that the actual numbers of items to be constructed in the draft should be double the desired number of items. The subsequent try-out and item analysis will most likely eliminate many of the constructed items in the draft (either they are too difficult, too easy or non-discriminatory). RIMBERIO CO 5. ITEMS ANALYSIS AND TRY-OUT •The test draft is tried out to a group of pupils. The purpose of this try out is to determine the a). Item characteristics through item analysis b). Characteristics of the test itself –validity, reliability and practicality. ITEM ANALYSIS TERMINOLOGY QUANTITATIVE ITEM ANALYSIS A numerical method for analyzing test items employing students response alternatives or options. QUALITATIVE ITEM ANALYSIS A non – numerical method for analyzing test items not employing students responses, but considering test objectives, content validity, and technical item quality KEY Correct option in a multiple – choice item DISTRACTOR Incorrect option in a multiple – choice item DIFFICULTY INDEX Proportion of students who answered the item correctly. DISCRIMINATION INDEX D Measure of the extent to which a test item discriminates or differentiates between students who do well on the overall test and those who do not do well on the overall test. POSITIVE DISCRIMINATION INDEX Those who did well on the overall test chose the correct answer for a particular item more often than those who did poorly on the overall test. NEGATIVE DISCRIMINATION INDEX Those who did poorly on the overall test chose the correct answer for a particular item more often than those who did well on the overall test. ZERO DISCRIMINATION INDEX Those who did well and those who did poorly on the overall test chose the correct answer for a particular item with equal frequency. INDEX OF DISCRIMINATION The item's ability to distinguish between those who know the answer and those who are merely guessing. Item Analysis •A process which examines student response to individual test items (questions) in order to assess the quality of those items and of the test as a whole. It provides the following: 1.The difficulty of the item 2.The discriminating power of the item 3.The effective of each alternative (for multiple choice type of test) RIMBERIO CO BENEFITS DERIVED FROM ITEM ANALYSIS 1.Provides useful information for class discussion of the test. 2.Provides data which helps the students improve their learning. 3.Provides insights and skills which leads to the construction of better test items for future use. STEP IN ITEM ANALYSIS (U-L METHOD) I.Arrange the scores from highest to lowest. II.Get the top 27% and the lowest 27% and name them as Upper Group (UG) and the Lower Group (LG). III.Compute the index of difficulty for each item. IV.Compute the index of discrimination for each item. V.Interpret the results. VI.Indicate the necessary action. RIMBERIO CO DIFFICULTY INDEX (ID) •Refers to the ease or difficulty of a test item. It is defined as the number of students who are able to answer the item correctly divided by the total number of students. INDEX OF DISCRIMINATION (ID) •The item’s ability to distinguish between those who know the answer and those who are merely guessing. RIMBERIO CO EXAMPLE: Suppose a 40-item test given to 40 students in Math 2. Compute the difficulty index and index of discrimination of the following test results. Interpret your answers and determine what actions you should take. Show your answers in a table. RIMBERIO CO THANK YOU