Study Guide Biology Basics and Scientific Knowledge Review: Unit 0 Test Test Day: Tuesday, August 30, 2022 >>>Concepts Included: Graphing, Scientific Notation, Scientific Method, Dimensional Analysis<<< Lab Equipment, Lab Safety, Microscopy Graphing: Making Graphs with Graph Paper When making a graph by hand, make sure that you follow the rules below 1. Remember “DRY MIX”: Dependent Response Y, Manipulated Indirect X 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Independent Variable (manipulated) goes on the X axis Dependent Variable (response) goes on the Y axis When you number your axes use even increments Label both axes. Include units on your axis labels (in parentheses). Title your graph: use a descriptive title! If your line graph contains two or more lines: Draw the lines a different way (different colors, straight and dashed, etc.) Include a key that tells the reader which line is which A trick to remember is to give your graph “TAILS” Title Axis Intervals Labels Size (large) 1. Baby chickens, like all baby birds, require a constant source of food. As chick grow, more energy is required for daily activities, and their food requirements increase. The following data table reports the average food eaten by a group of 10 chickens over a 5-day period. Day Food Consumed (g) 0 0.0 1 1.0 2 3.2 3 6.5 4 10.6 5 15.4 Questions 1. Identify the independent and dependent variables. 2. How much grain will the chicks eat on day 6? 3. On day 7? 4. What type of relation does the graph represent? Scientific Notation: The examples of scientific notation are: 390000000 = 3.9×108 1230000000 = 1.23×109 7 50400000 = 5.04 x 10 -8 0.000000037 = 3.7 x 10 -5 0.0000412 = 4.12 x 10 Khan Academy Practice: https://www.khanacademy.org/math/cc-eighth-grade-math/cc-8th-numbers-operations/cc-8thscientific-notation/e/scientific_notation Scientific Method: 1. I will ask you to describe the scientific method and how it is used. 2. What is a hypothesis? Be able to create a hypothesis from a given observation written in the form: If ________, then ________. Or If _____, than ___________. Write your own hypotheses to these scientific questions: 1). Question: What amount of sunlight makes a daisy grow best? Hypothesis: __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ 2). Question: Which size of rock is best for skipping? Hypothesis: _________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Identify the Control, Dependent and Independent Variables, Hypothesis: Lisa is working on a science project. Her task is to answer the question: "Does Rogooti (which is a commercial hair product) affect the speed of hair growth". Her family is willing to volunteer for the experiment. >> Describe how Lisa would perform this experiment. Identify the control group, and the independent and dependent variables in your description. Experimental Set-Up: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Dependent Variable: _______________________________ Independent Variable: ______________________________ Going UP the table move the decimal to the LEFT Control: __________________________________________ k kilo- 103 Dimensional Analysis: 2 h hecto- 100 10 da deca- 10 101 1 100 NO PREFIX – BASE UNIT Going DOWN the table move the decimal to the RIGHT 1000 d deci- 1 10 10-1 c centi- 1 100 10-2 milli- 1 1000 m 1. Convert the following: 733.4 cm = _______________ m 58.4 cm = _______________ mm 32.3 s = _______________ ms 61.0 L = _______________ mL 905 mg = _______________kg 1075 mg = _______________ g 255 mm = _______________ m 2. Solve the Following] 10m + 12cm = ___________m 45 J - 80 dJ = ____________ J 15 m x 5 km = ___________ m 10 -3 2 000 g ÷ 1.5L = _______________ g/mL Lab Equipment & Microscopy: Be able to: Identify Lab Equipment and Use, Proper Microscopy Technique and Steps for Slide Preparation, Prepare your own slide and bring it into focus A. Label the parts of a microscope B. Steps to Focus a Microscope 1. Rotate to the lowest-power objective lens. You want to make sure that you can look through the lens without being too concentrated on one area. If it’s too powered, you won’t be able to make out anything through the lens. Rotate it down, then proceed to the next step. 2. Place your slide label-side up on the stage: clip it on with the stage clips. Every microscope comes with one or more clips that can be used to hold slides. Never try to use DIY clips since they’re not stable. Stage clips are designed to hold the delicate glass slides without causing damage. 3. Use the coarse focus knob to focus on your slide as best you can. Take your time and make sure that the lens isn’t too close to the slide. Contrary to popular belief, getting too close to a microscope or sliding it too close to the lens can make it harder to see. It reduces the field of vision. 4. If nothing can be seen, try using the X-Y translational knobs to move the slide until you see the specimen, then try reducing the light source – this can be done by closing the iris the diaphragm below the stage. You never know if the slide isn’t centered unless you look with your eyes rather than the microscope. If it’s off-center, you won’t be able to see your specimen or object. C. Describe the process of preparing a wet mount slide to prepare and examine one animal cell, stained and unstained, using the light microscope Step 1 Swab the inside of the cheek. Step 2 Transfer the sample to a slide. Step 3 Cover the sample with a drop of water. Step 4 Place the cover slip at the edge of the water at a 45° angle. Step 5 Slowly lower the cover slip onto the water using the mounted needle. Step 6 Dry the slide if necessary. Step 7 Examine the slide under the microscope using the usual procedure. Step 8 To stain: Prepare as for steps 1 and 2 previously Step 9 Cover the sample with one drop of methylene blue stain. Step 10 Gently wash excess stain from the slide using a wash bottle. Step 11 Apply the cover slip as previously done, mount slide and prepare a slide D. Name the equipment in a lab, the function and purpose of lab equipment -Here is an online study tool: https://www.sciencegeek.net/Chemistry/taters/labequipment.htm https://www.sciencegeek.net/Chemistry/Review/Equipment/ E. Lab Safety & Safety Symbols: General Lab Safety https://www.onepointesolutions.com/blog/lab-safety-symbols/ Make sure you understand the rules of lab safety and the Safety Symbols we covered. The link above shows the descriptions of each that we covered in our PowerPoint. 1. ______________ 2. ______________ 3. ______________ 4. ______________ 5. ______________ 6. ______________ 7. ______________ 8. ______________ 9.______________ 10. ______________ 11. ______________ 12. _____________ 13. ______________ 14. ______________ 15. ______________ 16. ______________ 1. Be sure to read all fire alarm and safety signs and follow the instructions in the event of an accident or emergency. 2. Ensure you are fully aware of your facility's/building's evacuation procedures. 3. Make sure you know where your lab's safety equipment—including first aid kit(s), fire extinguishers, eye wash stations, and safety showers—is located and how to properly use it. 4. Know emergency phone numbers to use to call for help in case of an emergency. 5. Lab areas containing carcinogens, radioisotopes, biohazards, and lasers should be properly marked with the appropriate warning signs. 6. Open flames should never be used in the laboratory unless you have permission from a qualified supervisor. 7. Make sure you are aware of where your lab's exits and fire alarms are located. 9. If there is a fire drill, be sure to turn off all electrical equipment and close all containers. 10. Always work in properly-ventilated areas. 11. Do not chew gum, drink, or eat while working in the lab. 12. Laboratory glassware should never be utilized as food or beverage containers. 13. Each time you use glassware, be sure to check it for chips and cracks. Notify your lab supervisor of any damaged glassware so it can be properly disposed of. 14. Never use lab equipment that you are not approved or trained by your supervisor to operate. 15. If an instrument or piece of equipment fails during use, or isn't operating properly, report the issue to a technician right away. Never try to repair an equipment problem on your own. 16. If you are the last person to leave the lab, make sure to lock all the doors and turn off all ignition sources. 17. Do not work alone in the lab. 18. Never leave an ongoing experiment unattended. 19. Never lift any glassware, solutions, or other types of apparatus above eye level. 20. Never smell or taste chemicals. 21. Do not pipette by mouth. 22. Make sure you always follow the proper procedures for disposing lab waste. 23. Report all injuries, accidents, and broken equipment or glass right away, even if the incident seems small or unimportant. 24. If you have been injured, yell out immediately and as loud as you can to ensure you get help. 25. In the event of a chemical splashing into your eye(s) or on your skin, immediately flush the affected area(s) with running water for at least 20 minutes. 26. If you notice any unsafe conditions in the lab, let your supervisor know as soon as possible.