II- Sigmund Freud- Psychoanalysis ▪ I> Overview of the Psychoanalytic Theory What Made This Theory Interesting a. Cornerstones: Sex and Aggression • Two impulses we have as a human being ✓ Sex According to Freud, sex is something about our libido Libido- not all about sex wherein we only gain pleasure. There are impulses that we enjoy other than sex. b. Spread by a dedicated group o There are also other psychologist who ventured the theory of Freud c. Freud’s brilliant command of language o o II> Biography of Sigmund Freud ➢ Born in Moravia (Czech Republic) in 1956 ➢ Was the eldest son among 7 siblings ➢ Had warm-indulgent relationship with his mother which we came up with the Oedipus Complex ➢ Lived 80 years in Vienna Austria until Nazi invasion and force to live in London ➢ Filled with hostility with the second born sibling, Julius who died at 6 months ➢ He is intensely curious about human nature ➢ Left teaching because he is Jew with limited academic advancement and his father couldn’t provide ➢ He met Joseph Breuer a physician and taught Freud Catharsis o Catharsis- emotional release: part of the psychotherapeutic technique of Freud to unburden the things in yourself, you just need to release it. Let your emotions and thought flow. ➢ Returned to Paris where he learned about male hysteria from Charcot. o Hysteria (how they define during Freud’s Time)- conversion disorder: people who don’t have medical problems tends to experience physical illness. Converting emotional derivatives into something that is physical. ▪ “I’d rather suffer physically than emotionally” “The more you are suppressing/ repressing your emotions the more it affects you unconsciously and may be converted to different form” ➢ Freud and Breuer discussed and published a book Studies of Hysteria according to the case of Anna 0. ▪ Anna 0. -one of the clients who experienced hysteria -has unresolved issues towards her father and her issues was converted to something that is physical symptoms. *Moderate lang daw dapat paggamit ng Defense Mechanism sabi ni Papa Freud HAHA* ➢ He introduced the term “Physical Analysis” and during the following year he called his approach “psycho-analysis” ➢ Abandoned the Seduction Theory in 1897 and replaced it with Oedipus Complex ▪ Since he is interested in studying hysteria and neurosis, he believes that it all came from repressed infantile sexual abuse. Abuse happens during our unconscious years (6 months, 1 year old) and it affects the personality, that is where hysteria and neurosis rooted from that is why we can’t remember it ▪ He abandoned it because the theory did not treat any patient. So, what is the use of the theory if it does not have practical application ▪ Some of the fathers will be accused with sexual perverts. Kasi most of the siblings of Freud experienced from Hysteria. Parang ang lalabas is that si daddy nila ang may kasalanan kung bakit nagka-Hysteria mga kapatid niya kasi diba yung Hysteria daw is galing sa Represses Infantile Sexual Abuse. ➢ Freud suffered from neurosis, psychosomatic illness, intense preoccupation with some form creative activity. ▪ He also suffered from mid-life crisis and he used that as an inspiration to work, he used it to express his creativity. ➢ At his midlife, Freud suffered from self-doubt, depression, and an obsession with his own Death ▪ Most of the theories in psychodynamics are based on their own experiences: wounded healers. They used it to study more and be interested with explaining human personality ▪ “Thanatos” – According to Freud it is the Death Instinct that all of us will be dead. And one of his Fears is Death II- Sigmund Freud- Psychoanalysis ❖ Superstitious beliefs. ❖ There are still beliefs that you don’t want to believe but forced to because it is imbedded in you. Cathartic Method (Couch Method) Free Association -most of the clients are laying on the bed with no tables or barriers so that they can freely expressed their feelings. Back then, most of the psychoanalyst are hidden and should not be seen by their clients. The more you see the person, the more you are inhibited in expressing your thoughts because you can see their facial expressions. ➢ Despite difficulties, in 1900 wrote Interpretation of Dreams ➢ After 1900 developed world-wide circle of followers ➢ Had 33 operations for cancer of the mouth o Because he is addicted to cocaine ➢ Died in London in 1939 III> Level of Mental Life 1. Unconscious a. Deepest Level in the Iceberg b. Something that we can’t access. Can only be accessed through the help of therapeutic techniques of Freud c. Two sources of unconscious processes. (May gusto tayong maalala pero di natin maalala) i. REPRESSION=FORGETTING ❖ What you don’t know wont’ hurt you ❖ There are things/ situations that are so painful/hurtful that we tend not to remember it most specifically to people who suffered traumatic events/incidents. People rather forget than to linger to it. ❖ The pain is still present and is still hunting you. ❖ One of the primary defense mechanisms of the people who experienced traumatic incidents is to forget. Most of the time, forgetting is not a good thing. Because part of the moving on process is that you still remember the event, but you can handle the emotions accompanied by the events. ❖ Why is there a presence of repressed emotions? Because we don’t want those emotions to be in reality. ❖ “Bakit nagkakaroon ng unconscious because of the defense mechanism. Dahil sobrang sakit gusto mo nalang i-repress” ii. Phylogenetic Endowment ❖ Inherited unconscious images from our parents/culture 2. Preconscious a. Not in awareness but can be conscious b. You can still remember things with the help of some cues c. Non-threatening ideas. d. Example: galit ka sa jowa mob ago mag discussion kaya postpone mo muna yung galit mo pero di mo naman siya nakalimutan. Nadealay mo lang e. Mas healthy siya kesa sa repression f. SUPRESSION=DELAYING 3. Conscious a. Tip of the iceberg b. Something that we are aware of c. Mental elements in awareness, minor role in P.T (Psychoanalytic Therapy) IV> Provinces of the Mind 1. The Id a. Pleasure Principle b. Primary Process i. We are totally id at birth; we are like animals; we don’t have thinking mind; we only have is pleasure ii. So, everything you put in the mouth of the baby, they are going to suck it because they don’t think. 2. The Ego a. The Reality Principle b. Secondary Process i. At age 3 we are already having awareness II- Sigmund Freud- Psychoanalysis 3. The Superego a. The Idealistic Principle i. Being developed with the established society that we are born at. E.g., you are born as a Christian Family, so most of our superego and idealist is being a Christian ii. Relative because what you may believe that it is right but might be wrong is some places. b. Subsystems i. Conscience You think what you did is not ideal/ not good or right because of the society ii. Ego Ideal EXAMPLE: GALIT NA GALIT KA SA FRIEND MO KASI PASSIVE-AGGRESSIVE SIYA KAYA GUSTO MO NA SIYA SAKTAN 1. ID WILL TELL YOU a. Tell him na may problema siya sa behavior niya 2. EGO WILL TELL YOU a. Friend mo siya sizt 3. SUPEREGO WILL TELL YOU a. Weighing how you should react ➢ A pleasure-seeking person dominated by the id o (Doing what you want without thinking about the consequences) ➢ A guilt-ridden or inferior-feeling person dominated by the superego o You are always compromising to other people because you want to be ideal, pleaser of other people. ➢ A psychologically healthy person is dominated by the ego (the reality) V> Dynamics of Personality o Drives (Instinct) ➢ Internal impulses, an impulse that originates inside, it drives action ➢ Something that we want to do but sometimes we are not allowed by the situation Major Headings: Eros (Sex) Thanatos (Aggression, Distraction) ➢ Sex drive: Libido ▪ Something that we enjoy and pleasurable bukod sa sex like food, etc. ▪ Something that makes us alive • Entire body is invested in Libido • Erogenous Zone: Genital, Anus, and Mouth • Its aim cannot be changed but the path by which aim is reached can be varied >Pag may pleasurable activity ka na hindi nagawa na pleasurable, it can manifest sa dream • Forms o Narcissism ▪ (Primary in infants) • Kasi we only think about ourselves • We are born egoistic • We only care about our needs as babies ▪ (Secondary in Adolescents) • We get conscious about our appearances • We try to please people as much as we can ▪ Love and Sadism • Sometimes we complain about our partners without knowing the other side of the story or their side of the story. • Chismis- okay lang na magsalita sila about ibang tao kasi it pleases them, okay na kahit nakakasakit na ▪ Masochism • You are inflicting pain to others and to yourself by means of sexual or physical. • Victim Gaming • Sarili lang ang iniisip II- Sigmund Freud- Psychoanalysis ➢ Aggressive: nameless ▪ Something that makes us fight back ▪ Aim of destrcuctive drive to return to organism in organic sheath (dealth) ▪ Its final aim is self-destruction • When you are angry to other people, they are not the one suffering but is you • Sarcasm, bullying, hurting other people because they hate themselves • Di mo maffeel existence mo pag di ka nakakasakit ng ibang tao ▪ Forms: Teasing, gossiping, sarcasm, humiliation, humor, and enjoyment of people’s suffering ▪ To deal with anger is to forgive ▪ Even the kindest person, may bad thoughts padin. ▪ Love thy neighbors is necessary, thus we use REACTION FORMATION: repressed hostile feeling and we show the opposite tendency • Instead of being angry we tend to be nice o Characterized by: ➢ Impetus- amount of force it exerts ➢ Source- region of the body either in excitation/tension ➢ Aim- to seek pleasure by removing excitation or reducing tension ➢ Object- person or thing which the aim is satisfied EXAMPLE: People who smoke 1. Impetus ✓ “I can’t control it; I can’t just quit it” ✓ mataas yung urge nila and meron biological reactions sa katawan nila that prevents them from stopping 2. Source ✓ when they are just thinking about it but they are prohibited to do it they are salivating that is why they become tense 3. Aim ✓ they do anything basta makuha lang yung pleasure. 4. Object ✓ iba yung relief pag nakapag yosi na Anxiety ➢ Affective, unpleasant state accompanied by a physical sensation that warns the person against impeding danger. ➢ One of the concepts of Freud is the defense mechanism for us to alleviate anxiety ➢ Anxiety is a common feeling and is not only felt by people with mental problems Kinds of Anxiety 1. Neurotic Anxiety a. Exist in the ego originates from the ID b. We acknowledge the ego c. Certain things that we want right away but we can’t have it d. Yung crush mo gusto mo kaso may jowa 2. Moral Anxiety a. Conflict between ego and superego b. When we are doing something bad, it haunts us, may guilt 3. Realistic Anxiety a. Closely related to fear b. Realistic fear; cockroaches; what we normally fear in life; ordinary fear. VI> Defense Mechanism ➢ To avoid dealing directly with the sexual and aggressive implosives and defend itself against the anxiety that accompanies them 1. Repression a. Most basic defense mechanism because the succeeding defense mechanism has something to do with repression b. It forces threatening feelings into the unconscious c. You don’t want to be vulnerable: jokes are half meant. 2. Reaction Formation a. Adopting a disguise that is directly opposite its original form b. Can be bad when you repressed your emotions too often and can be left unresolved o II- Sigmund Freud- Psychoanalysis 3. Displacement a. Redirecting of unacceptable urges into people and objects to disguise or conceal their true nature b. EXAMPLE: galit ka sa jowa mo pero di mo masabi sa kanya kaya napapagbuntungan mo ng galit pamilya mo. 4. Fixation a. When you are stuck ate the maturation process. You should not be there but that is the same pattern you use in dealing with anxiety. b. Instead of growing, nasa reducing part ka. Ayaw mo mag grow kasi takot ka. c. You settle sa growth na feeling mo safe ka EXAMPLE OF FIXATION A. Oral Fixation a. Whatever satisfies the mouth b. Smoking is pleasurable to the mouth c. Any pleasure that is pleasurable to the moth d. They do it unconsciously B. Anal Fixation a. Orderliness- Toilet Training b. When you were not trained to be orderly (you have disorganized personality) c. When you were too trained and not allowing you to poop anywhere (you are very perfectionist and orderly) C. Phallic Fixation a. Vanity b. Desire towards our opposite parents we try to be as pleasing as we can so we can be the “daddy’s girl, mama’s boy” c. Exhibitionism (psychological disorder) i. Finding pleasure by showing their genitals in public d. Pride i. High ii. When they are not being loved by their opposite parents, it affects their selfesteem iii. When you are born with the absence of your own father’s love you tend to have high standards in finding your partners 1. May or may not resemble their parents 5. Regression a. Reverting to the earlier stage to deal with the stress and anxiety b. Once the libido has passed the developmental stage, it may during times of stress and anxiety, revert to their earlier stage. c. Gusto mo bumalik sa pagkabata to deal with the problems in life 6. Projection a. Can be defined as seeing in others those unacceptable feelings or behaviors that reside in one’s own unconscious b. Sinasabi mong galit ka sa ibang tao pero ikaw talaga totoong nakakaramdam nun c. When carried extreme, projection can become paranoia, which is characterized by delusions of jealousy and persecution 7. Introjection a. Incorporate positive qualities of another person into their own ego b. Hero worship might be a good example 8. Sublimation a. Turning negative urges into something positive and more socially accepted b. When you are under a lot of stress you tend to convert the stress into something more productive c. The repression of the genital aim of Eros by substituting a cultural or social aim. d. Not all can use sublimation VII> Stages of Development 1. Infantile Period (0-5) a. Oral Phase i. Erogenous Zone: Mouth: first organ to provide pleasure. (kasi nung baby ka pa yung pleasure lang na nagagawa mo sa mouth is to feed) 1. Phases a. Oral Receptive Phase i. Everything you put inside the mouth of the baby; they will not hesitate but to eat it no matter what it is. b. Oral Sadistic Phase i. Infants responds to other through biting, cooing, closing their mouth, smiling, and crying. II- Sigmund Freud- Psychoanalysis b. Anal Phase i. Erogenous Zone: Anus 1. Phases a. Early Anal (Retentive) i. Behave aggressively towards parents for frustrating them in toilet training b. Late Anal (Expulsive) i. Interest stems from pleasure of defecating ii. Anal Character 1. People who continue to receiver erotic satisfaction by keeping and possessing bjects and excessive arranging them a. Example: hoarding b. Not being able to let go of things easily iii. Anal Triad 1. Orderliness, stinginess, obstinacy c. Phallic Phase i. Erogenous Zone: Genitalia 1. 3 to 4 ears of age because we are already aware of our sexuality, and we already know about our genitalia 2. First time dichotomy: male and female “anatomy is destiny” a. There are things that only men can do b. There are limitations to what women can do c. He things women are hard to understand ii. Male Oedipus Complex 1. A young boy experience rivalry towards their father and develops feeling towards their mother a. Castration Anxiety- Boys fear of losing the penis due to their feelings towards their mother i. They are afraid that their father may castrate them because of their rivalry 2. The complete resolution of male Oedipus complex is for the boy to identify with his father. 3. Not all have resolved Oedipus complex because of the absence of their parents. 4. If the guy is over loved by their mother it may have an effect to their future girlfriends. They are always relying on their mother. iii. Female Oedipus Complex 1. A young girl desire’s sexual intercourse with the father and accompanying hostility towards mother. 2. The complete resolution of female Oedipus complex is to identify with the mother 3. If not resolved with the mother, you may have different sexual preferences. There’s a tendency for you to have a male like characteristics 4. Pag hindi resolved ang issue with mother may tendency na wala kang mapagkukunan as a role model so you tend to identify nalang with your father. 5. Penis Envy a. Girls desire to have a penis ➢ Most crucial for personality formation wherein what we unconsciously experienced during those years has something to do with our personality now. If you are fixated with such things, it is deterministic that you can’t do anything about it and it will always be there ➢ You might suppress it, the impulses will always be there, you may have repressed it but the impulses will see in a disguised form. II- Sigmund Freud- Psychoanalysis Parallel Paths of the Simple Male and Female Phallic Phases Male Phallic Phase 1. Oedipus Complex a. Originally, they have sexual desires to their mother 2. Castration Complex a. Fear of penis castration by the father: Castration Anxiety. It shatters the Oedipus Complex 3. Identification with the father 4. Strong superego replaces the nearly completely dissolved Oedipus Complex a. The boy develops moral character that suppresses their sexual desire towards their mother. Female Phallic Phase 1. Castration complex in the form of Penis Envy 2. Oedipus Complex develops as an attempt to obtain a penis a. For Freud, kawalan ng babae ang pagkakaroon ng penis 3. Gradual realization that the Oedipal desires are self-defeating a. Because we can’t really have our father 4. Resolution is to identify with the mother 5. Weak superego replaces the partially dissolved Oedipus Complex a. We tend to be emotional and irrational which may be rooted from the conception of Freud which is “Anatomy is destiny” 2. Latency Period a. 6-7-9 years old b. Not biological needs but more on the social needs. We are taught how to suppress our needs. c. We are meeting the expectation of our parents, teachers, and the society towards us. d. We dedicated what is pleasurable into something that is expected to us by other people. e. Reinforce through constant suppression by parents and teacher and by internal feelings of shame, guilt and morality f. More on the expectations that are expected from us during the stage g. This is where we develop being competitive 3. Genital Period a. Direct sexual energy toward another person b. Reproduction is now possible c. You already have your libido d. If you already have consumed too much libido during your infantile period, you may have problems when it comes to genital period. II- Sigmund Freud- Psychoanalysis VIII> Applications of Psychoanalytic Theory ➢ Free Association o Patients verbalize every thought that comes to their minds o They will be laying in bed which they are free to tell anything while the therapists look for patterns on how the client speaks ➢ Transference o Strong sexual desire or aggressive feelings that the client develops towards the therapist o Vulnerable and taong malungkot o That feeling may affect the result of the therapy ➢ Resistance o Patients unconsciously block their own progress in therapy ➢ Dream Analysis o Interpreting dreams into something can be associated into something o Should not be interpreted easily, there should be an interview from the primary relationship of the client ➢ Freudian Slips (Parapraxes) o Let the person talk IX> X> Related Research (Not thoroughly discussed) Refer to PPT Critique of Freud a. Did Freud understand women, gender, and sexuality? i. Freud understands men more than women b. Was Freud a Scientist? i. He is more considered as a Philosopher in our field ii. Kasi lahat ng naisip niya is galing lang sa utak niya c. Freud’s Theory i. Average on Generating Research ii. Moderate on Organizing Data iii. Low Guiding Action, and Parsimony iv. Has internal consistency v. Very low on Falsifiability XI> Concept of Humanity ➢ Determinism over free Choice o Kasi sabi niya anatomy is destiny ➢ Pessimism over optimism o Kasi always associated an determinism sa pessimism o In pessimism, you don’t believe that people can change. Once you are fixated in some particular stage, it will take time for you to change it, or di mo talaga mababa: can be in disguised form. Can be suppressed or repressed pero andun padin siya ➢ Causality over Teleology o Past-oriented si Freud. Kahit anong future meron ka pa, your past will always haunt you ➢ Unconscious over Conscious ➢ Biology over Culture o Anatomy is destiny o Why is there difference between girls and boys ➢ Equal emphasis on Uniqueness and Similarity o Kasi we are all unique when it comes to fixation sa psychosexual stage because it depends on the parenting style you received when you are a child.