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Lesson plan and techniques

(98) Methodology PPP ESA TBL - YouTube
Six key parts:
1.Lesson Objectives
2.Related Requirements
3.Lesson Materials
4.Lesson Procedure
5.Assessment Method
6.Lesson Reflection
TBI-Text-based instruction
o1:00-1:10: 1. Riscaldamento.(Lead in and elicitation: warm-up or engagement)
Richiama l’attenzione della classe e ricapitola la discussione della lezione precedente sulle grandi
tragedie, introducendo l’”Amleto”
o1:10-1:25: 2.Presentazione delle informazioni.(Presentation) Parla brevemente della vita di
Shakespeare, focalizzandoti sul periodo creativo dei due anni anteriori all'opera e dei due anni
o1:25-1:40: 3.Esercitazione guidata. (Controlled Practice)Apri una discussione in classe sui
temi maggiori dell’opera
o1:40-1:55: 4.Esercitazione libera. (Freer Practice) Gli studenti devono scrivere un paragrafo
parlando di un evento attuale in termini shakespeariani. Incoraggia individualmente gli alunni più
brillanti affinché scrivano due paragrafi e aiuta quelli più lenti
o1:55-2:00:5.Conclusioni.(Review and Follow Up or Feedback) Raccogli il lavoro degli studenti,
assegna i compiti e saluta la classe.
TTT-Test Teach Test
1. Engage
This is the stage where you get the learners’ interest. If it’s at the beginning of the lesson, it’s also where you’ll set the context.
Think of the engage stage as a warm up, with a clear link to the study stage, but without teacher or correction. The following methods
can all be used to help engage the students and to elicit/explain meaning (remember, elicit means to ask the students before you explain).
1. Realia (objects and materials from everyday life)
2. Mime and action
3. Pictures/video clips
4. Stories and anecdotes
5. Contrast
6. Discussion
7. Discovery
8. Brainstorming, spidergram
2. Study
This is the equivalent to both the ‘Practice’ and ‘Production’ stages of a PPP lesson. Learners should look at the target language, notice
how it looks or sounds, and ensure they can reproduce it accurately.
While the methods can include the kind of teacher-led activities you might find in a PPP lesson (such as drilling or explicit grammar
instruction), they can also include discovery activities.
This phase is divided into 1) Teaching part 2) Student Insight
The focus here is on the accuracy of the target language.
1. Gap-fill exercises
2. Word searches
3. Crosswords
4. Matching exercises
5. Example sentences
6. Pronunciation exercises, such as drilling
7. Study from texts and dialogues
3. Activate
This is the equivalent of the ‘Production’ stage of a PPP lesson.
Learners should be able to do activities that promote communication that everyone can get involved in.
This could include writing activities as well as spoken.
Unlike a strict PPP class, students can use any language that they feel necessary to complete the
activity. All of these activities would fulfil the criteria for an ‘activate’ stage:
•Dialogue creation
•Email exchanges
•Designing an advert
The focus of this stage is on communication and fluency.
Common ESA sequences Here are some common ways to use ESA, however you can organize them based on the
needs of the learners and the type of activity.
Straight Arrow
● The sequence goes: Engage-Study-Activate
● The sequence goes: Engage-Study-Activate 1- Study- Activate 2
● This sequence gives students the opportunity to improve their accuracy with a second activate activity
● The sequence goes: Engage-Activate-Study-Activate-Study-Engage
● This sequence is very interactive and students are given multiple times to engage with the material
● This sequence gives teachers the opportunity to respond to the students’ needs
ESA model example
A Sample ESA Lesson Plan | ITTT | TEFL Blog (teflcourse.net)
Teaching techniques
1.Lead-in (5mins)
This is where you will introduce your topic to the
class. Audio-visual aids such as a music video are an excellent
lead-in tool. The lead-in should be 5 minutes or less as it is just a
For example: the famous nursery rhyme “Old McDonald had a
farm”, could be a fun lead-in for a lesson on animals. Your
objective here is to lay the foundation for your lesson. You don’t
want it to be too long as it should not overshadow your lesson.
After listening to the song/watching the video you can ask the
students to make a prediction on what topic the lesson would be
based on for the day, it gives them a little thrill when they make
the correct predication.
2. Audio-visual aids
such as a music video
or a Picture or a song?
3. Quote or Question
1.Elicitation (5mins)
Elicitation is basically ‘extracting’ information. At this step, you want to test the students’
current knowledge on the topic.
3. Ranking Task : There’s a reading lesson I teach in which the article is all about fun local
things to do in Washington, DC. So for the lead-in, I write five things on the board that people
might do when visiting a new city:
-Visit the famous sights
-Try the local food
-Go to museums
-Take pictures of interesting things
-Go shopping
4. Two Truths and a Lie
Write three sentences about yourself on the board—but make sure only two of them are true
and one is false. Have students talk in pairs to guess which sentence is the lie. Insider tip: you
can base your sentences on what you’re going to cover in that lesson.
For example: are you teaching a lesson on the present perfect? Write your two truths and a lie
in the present perfect:
1. I’ve never seen the Star Wars films.
2. I’ve lived in this city for five years.
3. I’ve visited ten countries.
2.Presentation (10-15mins)
In this step you will be presenting the main topic. So, if you chose the theme of animals you
should have a ‘focus area’ such as animal homes. During your presentation you will talk about
this topic. At this point of the lesson it would be appropriate to introduce the class to new
vocabulary and key phrases. The objective of this step should be for the students to learn the
appropriate use of key terms and phrases and how to use them in the proper context. It will also
broaden their current knowledge on the topic.
1. Gap fill.
2. Matching.
3. True or false exercise.
3.Controlled Practice (20-25 mins)
1.After presenting your lesson and teaching new vocabulary, you would want the
students to put into practice everything they have studied. The best way to test their
knowledge on the day's lesson is through a worksheet. Another great tool is doing a role-play in
which the students can act out different social situations while using the key phrases and
vocabulary taught for the day. Most often your topic will dictate the type of activity most suited
for the lesson. The activities done at this stage should be able to help sharpen the four basic
language learning skills. Try to get all the students involved and assist them where necessary.
Controlled Practice Activities
Drilling refers to an oral repetition of specific TL. Drilling can be mechanical – without much context
– or meaningful – within a specific context. Activity Examples:
Model & Drill: Teacher or video/audio clip models TL example, and the students repeat.
Picture Passing: Students pass pictures or visual stimulus around and need to form some kind
of TL example from it i.e. students pass a pictures of different people with different physical
appearances and need to say: “This person has brown hair” [then they get handed a new
picture] “This person has blue-eyes” then continue passing down pictures and saying “This
person has ____” (the blank being whatever physical features the picture has).
Students get handed a sheet of different vocabulary items, sounds, or grammar points and the students try
and get bingo (a horizontal, vertical, or diagonal line) on their worksheet based on what the teacher calls
For example:
Vocabulary: Teacher reads out the word, definition, or a clue (i.e. “This animal goes ‘mooooo’) for each
of the vocabulary words on the sheet (i.e. Cow).
Pronunciation: Teacher reads out different words and students have to mark off which word they hear on
their sheets – note that the words should be chosen strategically i.e. minimal pairs (words that only have
one sound difference e.g. ship and sheep) with specific sounds that the students have trouble
Grammar: Teacher reads out a sentence and students have to mark which grammar point corresponds
with the sentence i.e. I have been to Spain = Present Perfect.
Interactive tool to create Bingo
For example, clue number six/down: An animal that goes “Moooo”; A: Cow. They are another way to provide
controlled practice and can be used for grammar (i.e. Clue: I have been to Spain; A: Present Perfect), and
functions (i.e. Clue: A phrase used to order food; A: Can I get…).
Activity Examples:
•Individually: Students individually work on crossword and then check with a partner their answers before
doing whole class feedback.
•Group/Pairs: Students work in pairs/groups doing crossword puzzles together.
•Information Gap: One student has half of the crossword puzzle answers and the other student has the other
half. One student has to give clues for the answers (without being too direct of course: think ICQ!) and the
other has to guess the answer from the clues. Then switch roles.
Here’s a link to a crossword puzzle generator here.
How to create crosswords online:
Refers to any activity where students match one item with another.
Definitions: Matching definitions with corresponding word, phrase, or even grammatical meaning.
Synonyms/Antonyms: Matching a word/phrase to a synonym (i.e. terrible/bad) or antonym
Formality: Match word/phrase to its informal or formal equivalent i.e. I would like…/I want…
Politeness: Match word/phrase to its more polite or less polite equivalent i.e. Would you give
me../Give me…
Visuals: Matching visuals with a language item i.e. a word/phrase/grammatical structure to a picture
or series of pictures.
Card Games: Students play memory matching game by turning over cards that are face down trying
to find corresponding matches i.e. a word and a picture.
Fill-in-the-blank refers to an activity where there is a block of text – either in sentence or paragraph form – with blanks in
them. The students have to write or choose the correct answer to fill in the blank.
Activity Examples:
Two Options: Next to the gap there are two possible answers to choose from i.e. I ____ (went/have been) to the store
yesterday. Students circle the correct option.
Word Bank: Students have a word bank (either with the same number of words/phrases as there are blanks – or for
more challenge more words than there are blanks), and they need to choose the correct word/phrase to fill in the blank.
No Options: Students are presented a text (either in sentence-by-sentence or paragraph form) with blanks and the
students have to produce the correct answer.
6.Sentence re-ordering
Words are presented out-of-order and the students have to re-order
them appropriately.
For example:
– to/yesterdayI/store/went
Answer: I went to the store yesterday
7.Sentence Completion
Students get presented with a certain amount of information leaving
some blanks for them to complete with their own answers (i.e. their own
personal info or opinion etc.).
For example:
I was born in _________. I work at ________. I have been studying
English for ________ years. Etc.
7.Sentence Formation
In these activities students will form their own complete sentences either orally or in written form.
Activity Examples:
•From Prompts: What/tallest waterfall = What is the tallest waterfall?
•From Scaffolding Device: Have a scaffolding device where students choose from different columns
to form sentences and perhaps have to add additional info.
For Example:
scuba dive
would like to
;however, …
•Replies: Students have to reply with the correct response
For Example:
– Restricted: Have you been having a nice day? A: Yes, I have been.
– Open-ended: What do you like to do on the weekends? A: Answers will vary.
•Describing Pictures:
For Example:
– Visual(s): Students write about a visual or visuals.
– Information Gap: There are two pictures with different info on them; students write sentences
about the differences of the two pictures.
– Comic Strip: Students write sentences based on a series of visuals in a comic strip.
4.Freer Practice
Once again you will be testing the students’ knowledge on the lesson just taught;
however, with this step you can be more flexible and usually focused on speaking
or writing activities. Games are great for this as it creates a "freer" learning
environment. It's both entertaining and educational. With this step you can do more than
one activity depending on your time. Encourage peer teaching, that is, get the students to
help each other.
Freer practice activities
1.Pyramid Activity
This activity includes three main stages: 1) Individual Ranking; 2) Partner Ranking; 3)
Group Ranking.
Individual Ranking: The activity starts with the students making some kind of ranking in
terms of importance individually i.e. ranking 7 items from 1-7 in terms of their
importance in order to survive on an island. It’s important to note that each of the
seven items needs to have a unique number ranging from 1-7 (there can be no two
items with the number 2, for example).
Partner Ranking: In partners, students have to come up with ONE mutual list, so the
students will have to come to an agreement.
Group Ranking: After the partner ranking, split the class into larger groups where the
students will have to come to a consensus to make one common list.
For this activity, students will stand up, walk
around, and speak to other students similar
to ‘mingling’ in a social gathering. Common
mingle activities include:
•‘Find someone who..’ activities.
•Sharing ideas/Stories
•Exchanging personal information
•‘Getting to know you’ activities
2.Group Speaking
The students speak together in groups of around 3-6 (depending
on class size). Some ways to do group speaking activities:
•General Discussion: Give the students some kind of prompt with
3-4 points and have them discuss the topic.
•Paper Slips: Each group gets paper slips with particular
topics/questions etc. on it. Use a timer and after each interval (for
example, 1 minute), students flip over the next paper slip with the
new question/topic to discuss.
•Assigning Roles: You can assign each group member a
separate duty, for example:
3. Debates
Students debate a particular topic. Important points:
•Note-Taking Device: Have students brainstorm using some kind of note-taking device to
gather their thoughts before doing the debate.
•Grouping: You can group the students in the following ways:
• Put ‘for’ and ‘against’ students into one group (i.e. of 6 people – 3 for and 3 against)
and have them debate amongst each other.
• Put ‘for’ students into the same group and ‘against’ students into another group. They
discuss and prepare their arguments.
•Presentation: You can have the students present their ‘for’ and ‘against’ views in front of the
class as a presentation.
•Forum: You can have the whole class come together and debate each other after discussing
their views in groups.
4. Role-plays
Students are tasked to act out a particular scene, play, communicative task etc.
Important Notes:
•Information Gap: A nice tool to use in tandem with a role-play is an information gap. An information gap is
where students have handouts with different information on them and they have to communicate in order to
bridge the gap of information. For example, students might do a role-play where they are ordering food in a
restaurant and the student waiters have information on their menu that the student customers do not have
and need in order to make their order. Here is a link to an example lesson.
•Drama: You can have students act out drama clips with an emphasis on improving their pronunciation i.e.
sentence stress and intonation. Here are some examples of drama clips that the students can imitate for
role-plays with a focus on developing their pronunciation of sentence stress and intonation.
•Target Language Focus: You can have a particular set of target language that you want the students to use;
you can ensure that the students use the target language with help from a scaffolding device (i.e. some kind
of handout that has some of the target language imbedded in it, for example, questions to ask, vocabulary
items etc.) and also ICQs such as: “So what words/grammar point/phrases do you need to use?”
5. The Jigsaw Classroom
1.Email/Letter Writing
Have students write back and forth to each other in class in letter or email form.
You can download an email or letter template for them to fill in from Google images
or just take a screen shot of an empty email from your own email account.
Print it and give it to the students as a handout.
2. Essays
Have students write an essay inside of the classroom following the typical essay format:
• Hook: Include a first sentence that captures the attention of the reader.
• Thesis: Has a sentence that sums up the main idea/argument etc. of the writer.
•Body Paragraphs
• Topic Sentence: Has a sentence that describes the main idea of the paragraph.
• Transitioning Sentence: The last sentence of the paragraph that transitions into the
proceeding paragraph.
• Brief Summary: Summarizes the main points of the paper in brief (1-3 sentences).
• Concluding Sentence: The last sentence of the concluding paragraph that states the final opinion of
the article and why it is important for the reader.
Usually you want to give them around 5-10 minutes to develop some kind of brainstorm, outline, or mind
map of their writing beforehand.
You can have the students write poems. Here is a link to
some different types of poems and some examples of
4. Free Writing
Have students write about whatever topic without worrying
about following a standardized form i.e. just one
paragraph rather than following any organization such as
an intro, body, and conclusion.
5.Story from Visuals/Comic Strip
Students write a story based on visuals – can be
individual images or in comic strip form.
6. Giving Advice
Step 1: Students write one paragraph about a problem.
Step 2: Students pass paper to another student who
writes advice on how to improve the problem.
Step 3: Students pass papers again and then write one
final paragraph evaluating the problem and whether it was
good or bad advice and adding any other additional info
they might have.
7. Story From Prompt (ICT:Story that board)
Give students a topic to write about (i.e. a ‘scary story’) or an
introduction to a story – either a few sentences or perhaps a full
paragraph – and then they continue it using their imagination. You can
do this in a series where the students write a paragraph, pass it down
to the next student, the next student writes a paragraph on where the
previous student left off, pass it again, and so on until the story is
8.Instant Messaging/Text Messaging
Give students a template of an instant messaging/text
messaging conversation and have them pass their paper
back and forth as they engage in conversation based on
whatever topic/context of the lesson. Good to include
some informal language teaching or perhaps ‘computer
talk’ into such lessons i.e. spelling ‘going to’ as ‘gonna’,
acronyms (LOL, FYI etc.), emojis, and the like.
Have students write biographies/autobiographies based
on either fiction or non-fiction. For example, you could
have a few pictures of random people (i.e. a hippy, small
child, an athlete) and students imagine a biography for
one of them and after reading each others’ they have to
guess which biography belongs to which picture.
5.Review and Follow up (5
Towards the end of the lesson it's good to do a quick
review to tie up the lesson and at the same time
check of the students’ was able to grasp all the
concepts taught. It’s a good idea to go over the new
vocabulary and key phrases taught. Review could also
be done in the form of a short worksheet like a wordsearch which they can complete in class or something
longer if you wish to give the students homework for the
The 6 Types of Assessment [+ How to Use Them] | Prodigy
Education (prodigygame.com)
Le prove di verifica sono affiancate da una osservazione
continua, in itinere, di entità, frequenza, adeguatezza degli
interventi di ciascun alunno nel corso delle lezioni, e dei suoi
progressi durante il percorso educativo
Six types of assessments are:
Le prove di verifica sono volte a monitorare il raggiungimento di
obiettivi intermedi e che finali e sono molteplici.
•Diagnostic assessments.
Prove formative: vengono effettuate nel corso del processo
didattico contestualmente alla lezione.
•Formative assessments.
Prove sommative: vengono effettuate periodicamente, al termine
•Summative assessments.
di una sequenza didattica.
Prove di produzione scritta: per esempio, brevi produzioni
•Ipsative assessments.
guidate, esercizi di completamento, lavori di sintesi.
Prove di produzione orale: brevi presentazioni del lavoro
•Norm-referenced assessments.
•Criterion-referenced assessments.
Prove di ricezione orale o scritta: ascolto di brevi dialoghi,
comprensione di brevi testi scritti.
Prove di interazione comunicativa: collegate ai diversi
momenti didattici, si svolgono durante la lezione stessa.
Evaluation Grids – L. R. CAPUANA (lrcapuana.com)
Four-Phases e-CLIL lesson Plan