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PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (QUANTITATIVE)
First Quarter: Week 1
Name:
Section:
_
_
Date:
LEARNING ACTIVITY SHEET
Day 1: DESCRIBING QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Background Information
You learned that there are two general methodologies in research, qualitative
and quantitative. You learned the characteristics, strengths, and weaknesses, the types
of qualitative research. In like manner, let us study quantitative research.
Babbie (2010) defines quantitative research as either descriptive or experimental
because subjects are measured once or before and after. Its data are gathered via
structured instruments, and the result is based on large sample sizes that are
representative of the population.
This methodology aims to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models
in an attempt to explain what is observed. The methods used in this research are
replicable, which starts from a clearly defined research question to which objective
answers are sought. In essence, quantitative research is mainly collecting numerical
data to explain a phenomenon.
The quantitative paradigm (Aliaga and Anderson 2000) may be further described
Question
What is the nature of reality?
Reality is objective, singular, and separate from the
researcher.
What is the relationship of
the researcher to the
subject of research?
The researcher is independent of the subject of
research.
What is the role of values?
Research is value-free and unbiased.
What is the language of
research?
Formal, based on set definitions, impersonal voice
and uses accepted quantitative words.
What is the process of
research?
Deductive process
Cause and effect
Static design-categories isolated before the study
explanation, and understanding
Accurate reliable through validity and reliability.
Learning Competency with Code:
Describes characteristics, strength, weaknesses, and kinds of quantitative
research (CS_RS12-Ia-c-1)
Exercise 1: Modified True or False. Write the word TRUE if the statement is correct.
Otherwise, underline the word or phrase that makes the sentence FALSE and write the
correct one on the space provided.
1. Quantitative research is either descriptive or experimental, where subjects
are measured once or by before and after.
2. Quantitative research is interested not only in examining the phenomenon
but also its causes.
3. Data on quantitative research are gathered through an unstructured
interview.
4. Quantitative research deals with data that are ungeneralizable to the
population.
5. Quantitative data is collecting data that are in the forms of words or
phrases.
6. For quantitative research, the reality is subjective, singular, and is
separated from the researcher.
7. The deductive process is used in quantitative research.
8. The language used in quantitative research is said to be formal, based on
set definitions voice, and uses accepted quantitative words.
9. Generalizations of qualitative data should lead to prediction, explanation,
and understanding.
10. Research instruments in quantitative research go through validity and
reliability testing.
DAY 2: STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH
Background Information
Just like qualitative research, the quantitative methodology also has its strengths
and weaknesses, as discussed by Melegrito and Diana (2016, 31-35).
So, let us talk about its strengths. The quantitative methodology is robust in terms of
data analysis. It produces descriptive data/terms which can be formed into graphical
models for making interpretation easier. It provides numerical data that are derived from
statistical tests, whether descriptive or inferential statistics. It helps in making
declarations on specific data. Important facts such as preference trends, differences
between groups, and demographics are derived from statistical analysis, which can only
be done in quantitative research.
On the other hand, it also has its limitations. One of them is that there is a need to
ensure that measures are valid and reliable. Otherwise, it will not be easy to interpret its
data. Another limitation is the data deficiency. You have learned that quantitative
research works on data that is generalizable to a population. It means there is a need to
have large samples of sources of data for it to become reliable. Otherwise, it may lead
to critical errors.
Lastly, overreliance to p-value and sample size also poses limitations to quantitative
research. P-value (calculated probability) refers to the probability of finding the observed
or more extreme results when Ho (Null Hypothesis) is true. It is also described in terms
of rejecting Ho when it is true but not a direct probability of this state. Sample size (n)
refers to the number of observations (in research: the number of respondents or
participants derived from the population).
For this reason, a p-value is possible to be manipulated by the sample size to have a
statistical power (SP – a study has the probability of detecting an effect of a certain
size). When a sample is underpowered due to the small size, there is a high tendency
not to realize a statistical significance. Hence, the sample size must be increased if
statistical significance is scarce with meaning.
Statistical significance communicates with the researcher if the results are valid. Effect
size expresses how much results carry some weight or if they make a difference.
Ex. “If you were examining whether adding a feature would increase a product’s value.
You could have a statistically significant finding, but the magnitude of the increase in
value might be minimal- say a few cents. In contrast, a meaningful effect size might
result in an increase in the value of PHP 50 per unit. If you can achieve statistical
significance with a
small “n,” the effect is reasonably substantial. Hence, both statistical significance and
effect size must be both put into account when interpreting data.”
Learning Competency with Code:
Describes characteristics, strength, weaknesses, and kinds of quantitative
research (CS_RS12-Ia-c-1)
Exercise 2: Write the Strengths and Limitations of Quantitative Research on the
correspondings spaces below.
Strengths
Limitations
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.
5.
5.
Exercise 3. Briefly explain the following terms using your own words:
1. p-value:
_
_
_
2. sample size:
_
_
_
3. statistical significance:
_
_
_
4. Effect size:
_
_
_
5. Data deficiency:
_
_
_
Criteria
CONTENT/IDEAS
ORGANIZATION
VOCABULARY/
WORD CHOICE
VOICE
SENTENCE
FLUENCY
CONVENTIONS
1
Does Not Meet
Meets
3
Does Not Fully
Meet
4
Meets
5
Exceeds
Writing is
Writing is limited Writing does not
confident and
in communicating
clearly
Writes related,
clearly focused. It
knowledge.
communicate
quality
Length is not
knowledge. The paragraphs, with
attention.
Relevant details
development.
questions.
enrich writing.
Writing is brief
Writing is
Writing includes a
Uses correct strong, beginning,
and
confused and
underdeveloped loosely organized. writing format.
middle, and end
Incorporates a
Transitions are
with very weak
with clear
transitions and weak and closure coherent closure. transitions and a
closure.
focused closure.
is ineffective.
Uses a variety of
Shows some use
Effective and
Language is trite,
word choice to
of varied word
engaging use of
vague or flat.
make writing
choice.
word choice.
interesting.
Writer uses
Writes with a
Writer’s voice/
Writer’s voice/
voice/point of
distinct, unique
point of view
point of view
view. Writes with
voice/point of
shows that sense
shows little sense
the understanding view. Writing is
of audience is
of audience.
of a specific
vague.
audience.
to the audience.
Many run-ons or Some run-ons or
Uses simple
Consistent variety
fragments. Little
fragments.
compound, and
of sentence
Limited variety in
variety in
complex,
structure
sentence
sentence
sentences.
throughout.
structure.
structure.
Inconsistent
Maintains
Uses consistent
Occasional errors
agreement
agreement
agreement
between parts of
between parts of
between parts of between parts of
speech. Some
speech. Many
speech. Few speech. No errors
errors in
errors in
errors in
in mechanics.
mechanics. Some
mechanics.
mechanics.
Creative and
evidence of
Limited evidence
Applies basic
effective use of
spelling
spelling
of spelling
strategies.
strategies.
strategies.
spelling.
Adapted from: National Council of Teachers of Teachers (NCTE) 2004)
DAY 3: KINDS OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Background Information:
In your qualitative research, you learned that different types of qualitative
research are used based on the nature of the study you wish to undertake. In the same
manner, quantitative research all offers different kinds of designs that are used
depending on the objective or topic of your study. Let us tackle them one by one.
Descriptive Research. Anastas (1999) explained that “this research answers the
questions 4W and H (What, Where, When, Who, and How) except why. These
questions are which are linked to the research questions” (Melegrito and Mendoza
2016, 23). It does not answer “why” because it does not seek to explain why certain
things happen. It is only applied to describe what exists and gather information on the
current status of a particular.
Survey Research. Bryman (2008) explained that this research design is intended to
acquire information from people. It aims to gather data concerning the predominance,
distribution, and interrelations of the variables within an identified group. It aims to
gather evidence of people’s knowledge, opinions, attitudes, and values on various
issues and concerns.
Correlational Research. This research design is based on pairs of measures or scores
of a single sample. It indicates the strengths of the relationship between two variables
that embody the characteristics or performances of a group (Melegrito and Mendoza
2016, 24-25). The correlation ranges are as follows:
1.00 to + 1.00
0 and +1.00
0 and – 1.00
0
Correlation Range
Positive Correlation
Negative Correlation
No Correlation
You have to take note that in correlation research, it is not the positive or negative
relationship that matters. Instead, it is the size of the correlation between two variables.
Causal Comparative/Quasi-Experimental. Gay (1996) considers this design as
descriptive, for it describes existing conditions. Still, it endeavors to find the causes of
the existing phenomena. Hence, this design is about proving the cause and effect
relationships that descriptive and correlational studies do not ascertain. It also
sometimes likened to experimental research because it generates cause and effect
relationships. However, it lacks manipulation of the independent variable. That is why
this research is also sometimes likened to correlation.
(True) Experimental Research. In this study, the researcher is authorized to control the
situation and manipulates the Independent Variable (IV) to detect its influence on the
Dependent Variable (DV). This design attempts to identify the cause and effect
relationships between variables. In social science, many IVs cannot be manipulated
(Bryman 2008). Hence, you must be cautious with experimental design because it is
artificial and may not be generalized well to the real world. It is because artificial settings
may alter the behavior of the participants.
Examples:
Type of Quantitative Research
1. Descriptive Research
2. Survey Research
3. Correlation Research
4. Causal Comparative/QuasiExperimental
5. Experimental Research
Sample
Senior High School Students’ Birthday
Celebration Practices
The Preferred Mid-Range Smartphone
Brand of Senior High School Students
and Having a Tutor
The Effect of Exercising Regularly to Body
Fitness
The Effectiveness of Counselling and
Medical Treatment on Alcoholism
Learning Competency with Code:
Describes characteristics, strength, weaknesses, and kinds of quantitative
research (CS_RS12-Ia-c-1)
Exercise 4: Determine whether the following samples are descriptive, survey,
correlation, causal-comparative/quasi-experimental, or experimental
research.
Sample Title
1. Successful Career and Educational Attainment of K
2. The Effect of Gender on College Course Choices
3. The Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Writing in
the Quality of Essays of Senior High School Students
4. The Preferred Learning Modalities of Junior High
School Students
5. Study Habits of Elementary Students
Day 4: UNIT TEST
Learning Competency with Code:
Describes characteristics, strength, weaknesses, and kinds of quantitative
research (CS_RS12-Ia-c-1)
Exercise 5: Multiple Choice. Encircle the letter of your choice.
1. Which of the following refers to the probability of finding the observed or more
extreme results if Ho is true?
a. effect size
b. p-value
c. sample size
d. statistical significance
2. Which of the following refers to the number of observations, respondents, or
participants usually derived in from a population?
a. effect size
b. p-value
c. sample size
d. statistical significance
3. Which of the following refers to the expression of how much results can carry some
weight or make a difference?
a. effect size
b. p-value
c. sample size
d. statistical significance
4. Which among the quantitative research is design to answer the 4W and H?
a. Causal Comparative
b. Correlational
c. Descriptive
d. Experimental
5. Which among the quantitative research design endeavors the proving of cause and
effect but lack manipulation of the independent variable?
a. Correlational
b. Experimental
c. Quasi-Experimental
d. Survey
6. Which among the research design is intended to acquire information on people’s
attitudes, opinions, knowledge, and values on various issues?
a. Correlational
b. Descriptive
c. Experimental
d. Survey
7. Which most closely describes the nature of reality in quantitative research?
a. Quantitative research is deductive in process
b. Reality is objective, singular, and separate from the researcher
c. Research is value-free and unbiased
d. The researcher is independent of the from the subject of the study
8. Which most likely describes the role of values in quantitative research?
a. Quantitative research is deductive in process
b. Reality is objective, singular, and separate from the researcher
c. Research is value-free and unbiased
d. The researcher is independent of the from the subject of the study
9. Which of the following best describes the relationship between the researcher and
the subject in a quantitative study?
a. Quantitative research is deductive in process
b. Reality is objective, singular, and separate from the researcher
c. Research is value-free and unbiased
d. The researcher is independent of the from the subject of the study
10. Which of the following best defines causal-comparative or quasi-experimental?
a. It attempts to identify the cause and effect relationships between variables
b. It controls the situation and manipulates the IV to detect influence on DV
c. It endeavors the proving of cause and effect relationships but lacks IV manipulation
d. It indicates the strengths of the relationship between two variables
11. Which of the following best define correlational research?
a. It attempts to identify the cause and effect relationships between variables
b. It controls the situation and manipulates the IV to detect influence on DV
c. It endeavors the proving of cause and effect relationships but lacks IV manipulation
d. It indicates the strengths of the relationship between two variables
12. Which of the following best defines true experimental research?
a. It attempts to identify the cause and effect relationships between variables
b. It describes the situation and manipulates the IV to detect influence on DV
c. It endeavors the proving of cause and effect relationships but lacks IV manipulation
d. It indicates the strengths of the relationship between two variables.
13. What makes quantitative research advantageous over qualitative research?
a. Data Analysis is difficult in quantitative research
b. Data are formed with words that can easily be organized into themes
c. Data can be formed into graphical models and interpret it easier
d. Research instruments are easily made in quantitative research
14. Why is there a need to be cautious in over-relying in the p-value?
a. p-value does not express meaningful interpretation over data
b. a p-value is not generalizable to the population
c. a p-value is only by chance and not an exact calculation
d. a p-value is possible to be manipulated by the sample size to gain statistical power
15. Why do researchers need to be cautious in experimental research?
a. Artificial settings may alter the behavior of the participants
b. It is dangerous to do experiments
c. It may be unethical to do experiments
d. Situation and Variables are manipulated
Exercise 6: Design an infographic that explains the description, strengths, weaknesses,
and kinds of quantitative research.
Infographic
Rubric
Design
4
 Layout is
organized and
 Layout
uses
 Color
consistent
Scheme
style
 Fonts
 Color scheme
has visual
appeal and
works with
content
 Fonts are
legible and
consistent
Content
 Appropriate
terms, vocab,
 Terms, Facts
jargon defined
 Quantity of
and used
data
 More than
 Quality of
enough data
data
to make
claims
 Data clearly
demonstrate
trend, claim,
etc
 Data from
good source
Clarity
 Claim, main
idea is obvious
 Makes a
and easy to
claim
understand
 Efficiency
 No
 Makes clear
unnecessary
impression
graphics or
visuals
 Infographic
makes a good
initial
impression
Representation  Design
elements are
 Design
clearly
complements
informed by
content
content
 Careful
 Visuals show
choice of
connection to
visuals
content and
3
2
 Generally good  Layout could
layout
use
 Has minor
improvement
inconsistency or  Two or more
one distracting
inconsistent
element
elements
 Color scheme
clashes
fonts
 Layout
distracts from
content
 One or two
terms or jargon
used incorrectly
or without
explanation
amount of data
 Data
demonstrate
trend, claim, etc
 Data from good
source
1
 Layout is
disorganized,
no obvious
organization
 Layout
distracts from
content
 Color scheme
is confusing
 Not enough
 Lacking in
terms, vocab,
appropriate
jargon
terminology
 Data is sparse  Not enough
 Data might not
facts or data
not
 Data is from
demonstrate
poor or
the trend or
questionable
claim
source
 Data from
good source
 Claim, main
 Claim, main
idea is
understandable  Some
 No unnecessary
graphics or
graphics or
visuals are
visuals
unneeded
 Infographic
makes a poor
initial
impression
 Confusing
 Design
 Visualizations  Design and
elements are
fit the data and
visuals are at
clearly informed
the claim
odds with the
by content
content or
 Visualizations fit
claims being
the data and the
claim
 Data
visualization
matches
content and
claim
create a visual
flow
 Visualizations
fit the data and
the claim
Adopted from: White 2016 General Infographic Rubric
Reflection:
What is the importance of quantitative research in our daily lives?
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
Writing Rubric
Criteria
1
Does Not Meet
Meets
3
Does Not Fully
Meet
4
Meets
5
Exceeds
Writing is
Writing is limited Writing does not
confident and
in communicating
clearly
Writes related,
clearly focused. It
knowledge.
communicate
quality
CONTENT/IDEAS
Length is not
knowledge. The paragraphs, with
attention.
Relevant details
development.
questions.
enrich writing.
ORGANIZATION
VOCABULARY/
WORD CHOICE
VOICE
SENTENCE
FLUENCY
CONVENTIONS
Writing is brief
Writing is
Writing includes a
and
confused and
Uses correct strong, beginning,
underdeveloped loosely organized. writing format.
middle, and end
with very weak
Transitions are
Incorporates a
with clear
transitions and weak and closure coherent closure. transitions and a
closure.
is ineffective.
focused closure.
Uses a variety of
Shows some use
Effective and
Language is trite,
word choice to
of varied word
engaging use of
make writing
vague or flat.
choice.
word choice.
interesting.
Writer uses
Writes with a
Writer’s voice/
Writer’s voice/
voice/point of
distinct, unique
point of view
point of view
view. Writes with
voice/point of
shows that sense
shows little sense
the understanding view. Writing is
of audience is
of audience.
of a specific
vague.
audience.
to the audience.
Many run-ons or Some run-ons or
Uses simple
Consistent variety
fragments. Little
fragments.
compound, and
of sentence
Limited variety in
variety in
complex,
structure
sentence
sentence
sentences.
throughout.
structure.
structure.
Inconsistent
Maintains
Uses consistent
Occasional errors
agreement
agreement
agreement
between parts of
between parts of
between parts of between parts of
speech. Some
speech. Many
speech. Few speech. No errors
errors in
errors in
errors in
in mechanics.
mechanics. Some
mechanics.
mechanics.
Creative and
evidence of
Limited evidence
Applies basic
effective use of
spelling
of spelling
spelling
strategies.
strategies.
spelling.
strategies.
Adapted from: National Council of Teachers of Teachers (NCTE) 2004)
Exercise 1
1. True
2. True
3. False (Unstructured Interview = structured instrument)
4. False (ungeneralizable = generalizable)
5. False (in the forms of words or phrases - = numerical form)
6. False (subjective = objective)
7. True
8. True
9. False (qualitative = quantitative)
10. True
Exercise 2
Strengths
1. can be formed in graphical models for
making interpretation easier
2. provides numerical data that are
derived from a statistical test
3. provides important facts such as
preference, trends, differences
between groups and
demographics
Limitations
1. Ensure measures to be valid and
reliable
2. P-value may be manipulated by
sample size
3. Data may be invalid if the sample size
is minimal (data deficiency)
Exercise 4
Exercise 5
1. Correlation research
2. Causal Comparative/Quasi-Experimental
3. Experimental
4. Survey
5. Descriptive
1. b
2. c
3. a
4. c
5. c
6. d
7. b
Prepared:
Master Teacher I
ACNHS
8. c
9. d
10. c
11. d
12. a
13. c
14. d
15. a
References
Alan, Bryman. 2008. Social Research Methods. Third.
Aliaga, Martha, and Gunderson, Brenda. 2000. Introduction to Quantitative Research.
Doing Quantitative Research in Education with SPSS.
Anastas, Jeane W. 1999. No TitleResearch Design for Social Work and the Human
Services. Columbia University Press.
Babbie, Earl R., 2015. The Basics of Social Research. Nelson Education.
National Council of Teachers of English. 2004. “Writing Rubric, Read.Think.Write.”
2004. https://www.ramapo.edu/fa/files/2013/04/Writing-Rubric-3.pdf.
Gay, Lorraine Rumbel. 1996. Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis
and Application. New Jersey: Merrill, Englewood Cliffs.
Melegrito, Ma. Lourdes, F., and Diana J. Mendoza. 2016. Applied Research: An
Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods and Report Writing. Quezon City:
Phoenix Publishing House.
White, Jim. 2016. “General Infographic Rubric.” Stem Literacy through Infographics.”
National Science Foundation. 2016. http://science-infographics.org/generalinfographic-rubric/.
1
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (QUANTITATIVE)
Name:
Section:
_
_
Date:
LEARNING ACTIVITY SHEET
IMPORTANCE OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ACROSS FIELDS
Background Information:
Based on your previous study in Practical Research 1 (Qualitative Research) we
know that people research to finds answers to improve the way we do things, or just
simply discover solutions to daily life problems.
Gutierrez (2020) mentioned that “research is of great value to people. Through
research, the quality of life man has improved from conventional to modern. It has made
life richer and more meaningful. Through research, people have found ways to augment
their income and alleviate poverty.”
Quantitative research, because of its emphasis on proof, rather than discovery,
has been widely used in most disciplines (Prieto, Naval and Carey 2017). Whether it is
in the field of Medicine, Dentistry, Education, Sports, Social Sciences, Nursing and
many more.
Quantitative Research Across Discipline
Qualitative research is oriented toward analyzing specific evidences in temporal
and local particularity. It starts with the respondents’ perspectives, expressions, and
activities in their local context. In this case, qualitative research is important across
many fields of inquiry because it is designed for social sciences, psychology, and other
fields. With this, qualitative research would verify or validate the tendencies, transform it
into research programs, and maintain the necessary changes toward its objectives and
What discipline am I?
Careful analysis and comprehension of specific research titles may give hints on
the kind of discipline it will focus.
Example: Medicinal Effects of Guava Leaves (Quantitative Medicine/Medical Education)
Learning Competency with code
Illustrates the Importance of Qualitative Research Across Fields (CS_RS12-Ia-c-2).
Exercise 1. Matching Type: Match the items in COLUMN A to COLUMN B and write the
Column A
1. Healthy Lifestyle vis-&agrave;-vis Physical
Fitness of Sports Athletes: Impact on
Performance
2. Effects of Cooperative Leaning on
Students Achievements
3. Effectiveness of Redesivir on
Treating Patients with Novel Corona
Virus 2019
4. Motives of Angeles City Dance
Athletes: Effects on Performance
5. Cooking Practices of Aetas in
Sapang Bato
Substance Use: The Moderating
Effect of Prospective Self
7. Impact of Social Networking on
Students’ Learning Abilities.
8. Work-Family Conflict and Cognition
9. Development of Novel Corona Virus
2019 Vaccine
10. Development of a Dual Steering
Wheel for Beginner Drivers
Column B
A. Quantitative Sports and
Physical Education
B. Quantitative Psychology
C. Quantitative Education
D. Quantitative Medicine
E. Quantitative TVL/TLE
Exercises 2. Essay: Discuss briefly. What is asked Below
1. How quantitative research related or important to different field of
discipline?
2. Choose two disciplines enumerated above (column B) and explain how
quantitative research was used on it.
Rubric for Essay
An insightful, logical,
The response to the
and compelling
A logical response to
ideas presented in the
Response and
response to the content the ideas presented in
article lacks depth and/or
exploration of
of the article. The
the article. The writer’s
substance.
the content of the
writer’s insights are thoughts are fairly well
The presentation is weak
article
clear and wellsupported. (4-5 pts)
or non-existent. (1-3 pts)
supported. (6-7 pts)
A well-focused and
A discussion that is
coherent discussion
that articulates complex generally focused on
A discussion that lacks
some organization and
ideas clearly and
Discussion
coherency and/or lacks
structure. The writer
effectively.
the presentation of
presents some complex
The writer presents
complex ideas. (1-2 pts)
ideas. (3-4 pts)
many complex ideas.
(5-6 pts)
Key Points
Several key points at the
Key points present in Most of the key points
heart of the article are
the article are identified present in the article are
not identified or
and summarized
identified and
summarized poorly. (1-2
summarized. (3-4 pts)
pts)
Vocabulary choices are
Vocabulary and
precise, and sentence
sentence structure are
Vocabulary and
structure is varied in a
appropriate and
Sentence Structure
way that is both
conveys meaning
effective and
clearly. (3-4 pts)
interesting. (4 pts)
Mechanics
Vocabulary selected
lacks precision, and
clarity and/or sentence
structure may detract
from the meaning. (1-2
pts)
Some minor mechanical
The response reflects
errors, such as spelling Mechanical errors are
effective control of all
or grammar, are
serious and interfere
elements of mechanics,
demonstrated, but they significantly with the
including grammar and
do not interfere with
writer’s meaning. (1pt)
spelling. (3 pts)
meaning. (2 pts)
Souce: Washburn University
Reflection
Put a checkmark on the blank, which corresponds to how well you learned the lesson.
Statement
Always Sometimes
1. I can easily identify topics related to my
specialization.
2. I can identify titles and its field or discipline.
3. I can easily write sample titles in different fields.
4. I know the importance of research across fields
5. I can enumerate different research disciplines.
Never
1. A
2. C
3. D
4. A
5. E
6. B
7. C
8. B
9. D
10. E
Prepared:
PERCIVAL Y. CAPITULO, PhD
SHS Master Teacher II
ACNTS
References for Learners
Baraceros, Esther L. 2016 Practical Research 2. Fisrt ed. Manila: REX Bookstore,
Prieto, Nelia G., Victoria C. Naval, and Teresita G. Carey. 2017 Practical Research 2 for
Senior High School. Quezon City: LORIMAR Publishing,
Gutierrez, Christian Paul C. n.d. &quot;Lesson 2- The Importance of Quantitative Research
across Fields-2.pdf.&quot; Scribd. Accessed July 29, 2020.
https://www.scribd.com/document/427834994/Lesson-2-The-importance-ofQuantitative-Research-across-fields-2-pdf.
Mariano, Jay-ar Mario V. KUPDF. n.d. Accessed July 29, 2020.
https://kupdf.net/queue/practical-research-2
module_5b3b889fe2b6f56e60fe704f_pdf?queue_id=1&amp;x=1595993109&amp;z=MTExLjEyNS4xMjMuNTY.
“Qualitative Research: Characteristics, Uses, Strengths &amp; Weaknesses, and
Importance.” 2020. ELCOMBLUS. April 14, 2020.
https://elcomblus.com/qualitative-research-characteristics-uses-strengthsweaknesses-and-importance/.
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (Quantitative)
Name:
Section:
Date:
_
_
LEARNING ACTIVITY SHEET
Kinds of Variables and their Uses
Background Information
According to Laerd Statistics variables refers to something that can take more
than one value and values can be words or numbers.
The following are common variables in research, i.e., age, sex, gender,
education, income, marital status, and occupation.
Natures of Variables/Data
1. Nominal Variables - are variables that have two or more categories but which
do not have an intrinsic order. Examples: Biological Sex (Boy and Girl), Gender
(Male, Female, etc.), Political Affiliations (Liberal, Democratic, etc.), Basketball
Fan Affiliation (Alaska Aces, TnT Katropa, etc.).
2. Ordinal Variables - are variables that have two or more categories, just like
nominal variables only the categories can also be ordered or ranked. Examples:
Educational Level (Kinder, Grade 1, etc.), Age Brackets (Children, Infant, etc.),
Classroom Ranking, etc.
3. Interval Variables - are variables for which their central characteristic is that they
can be measured along a continuum and they have a numerical value.
Examples: Temperature, Individual’s Net Worth, etc.
4. Ratio Variables - are interval variables, but with the added condition that 0
(zero) of the measurement indicates that there is none of that variable.
Examples: Height, Mass, Distance, etc.
Kinds of Variables
1. Independent Variables – are variables the experimenter changes or controls
and is assumed to have a direct effect on the dependent variable (Saul 2019).
Example: Title “Effects of Age on the Quarterly Grades of Senior High School
Students”, Dependent Variable (Quarterly Grades), Independent Variable (Age).
2. Dependent Variables – are variable being tested and measured in an
experiment and is 'dependent' on the independent variable (Saul 2019).
Example: Title “Effects of Age on the Quarterly Grades of Senior High School
Students”, Dependent Variable (Quarterly Grades), Independent Variable (Age).
3. Intervening/Mediating Variables - variable that helps explain the relationship
between two variables. Example: Title “Effects of Age on the Quarterly Grades of
Senior High School Students”, Dependent Variable (Quarterly Grades),
Independent Variable (Age), Possible Intervening Variable (Age Bracket).
4. Control Variables – are variables which the researcher holds constant (controls)
during an experiment (Helmenstine 2020). Example: Title “The Relationship of
Content-Based Integration Activities to Quarterly Grades of Senior High School
Students”, Control Variable (Grades of Students in a Control Group that does not
facilitate Content-Based Integration Activities), Experimental Variable (Grades of
Students in a Experimental Group that facilitates Content-Based Integration
Activities)
5. Confounding Variables – are variables, other than the independent variable that
you're interested in, that may affect the dependent variable (McDonald 2014).
Example: Title “Effects of Age on the Quarterly Grades of Senior High School
Students”, Dependent Variable (Quarterly Grades), Independent Variable (Age),
Possible Confounding Variable (Family Income, Social Status, etc.).
Learning Competency with Code
Differentiates Kinds of Variables and their Uses - CS_RS12-Ia-c-3
Activities/Exercises
Activity 1 (Kinds of Variables)
Directions: Read the following items and do as directed.
1. In your own words, how can you differentiate a dependent variable from
an independent variable?
2. In your own understanding, what is a control variable?
3. In your own understanding, what is a confounding variable?
4. Identify the independent variable in the research title below”
“The Effectiveness of Vaccine ABC Against Pathogen XYZ among Asians”
Explain why you identified it as an independent variable.
5. Identify the dependent variable in the research title below”
“The Effectiveness of Vaccine ABC Against Pathogen XYZ among Asians”
Explain why you identified it as dependent variable.
Source: (Prieto, Naval and Carey, Exercises 2017)
Activity 2 (Natures and Kinds of Variables)
Directions: Identify the different variables on each phenomenon below. Write the
variables of each phenomenon on the correct columns below each number. Answers
may repeat on different columns. Explain why you identified your answers as variables
and why you classified them under each nature of variables/data and kinds of variables.
1. Daily Attendance of Students
Nature of Variables
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio
_
_
Kinds of Variables
Independent
Dependent
Intervening/Mediating
Control
Confounding
_
_
_
2. Promotion to the Next Grade Level
3. Nature of Variables
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio
_
_
_
Kinds of Variables
Independent
Dependent
Intervening/Mediating
Control
Confounding
_
_
_
Activity 3
Direction: In the box below, draw a diagram that shows how two (2) or more variables
connect to form a good researchable topic. Give a short explanation of your diagram on
the space below the box
Example:
Age
Attendance
Gender
_
_
_
Attempting
1
Writing is not
sufficiently
focused
on
the essential
question.
Progressing
2
Writing
is
somewhat
focused on
the essential
question.
Accomplishing
3
Writing
is
focused on the
essential
question.
Exceed
4
Writing
is
consistently
and
strongly
focused on the
essential
question.
CONTROLLING
IDEA
Writing does
not identify an
central text.
Writing
identifies but
does
not
explain
an
central text.
Writing clearly
explains
an
central text.
Writing clearly
explains and
elaborates on
the
central
text.
TEXTUAL
EVIDENCE
Writing does
not refer to
the text or
refers to it in
ways that are
not accurate
or relevant.
Writing refers
to the text in
ways that are
partially
accurate
or
relevant to the
explanation.
Writing refers to
the text in ways
that
are
accurate
and
relevant to the
explanation
Writing refers
to the text in
ways that are
accurate and
relevant to the
explanation,
and
also
contribute to a
deeper
understanding
of the central
question.
Writing does Writing
not support its supports
its
explanation.
explanation
DEVELOPMENT
with weak or
unclear ideas.
Writing supports
its explanation
with
clear,
persuasive and
reasonable
ideas.
Writing
supports
its
explanation
with
clear,
persuasive,
and original or
creative ideas.
Writing is not
organized in a
that
ORGANIZATION way
meets
the
demands.
Writing
is Writing
is
organized
to purposefully
demands.
thoughtfully
organized to
Criteria
FOCUS
Writing
is
organized but
only partially
demands
demands.
WORD CHOICE
CONVENTIONS
Writing uses
only
limited
vocabulary
and
incorporates
no language
from the text.
Writing uses
moderately
varied
vocabulary
and attempts
to incorporate
language from
the text.
Writing
accurately and
clearly
incorporates
varied
vocabulary
including
language from
the text.
Writing
accurately,
clearly
and
creatively
incorporates
varied
vocabulary
including
language from
the text.
Writing
has
consistent
errors
in
usage
and
mechanics.
Writing
has Writing has few Writing has no
some errors in errors in usage errors in usage
usage
and or mechanics.
or mechanics.
mechanics.
Source: (Teaching Tolerance 2017)
Reflection
Knowing the definition variables, nature and kinds of variables, and their uses in an
academic research setting, can you use this knowledge in your day-to-day life? How?
_
_
_
_
_
_
Rubric for Writing
Criteria
1
Does Not Meet
Meets
3
Does Not Fully
Meet
4
Meets
5
Exceeds
Writing is
Writing is limited Writing does not
confident and
in communicating
clearly
Writes related,
clearly focused. It
knowledge.
communicate
quality
CONTENT/IDEAS
knowledge. The paragraphs, with
Length is not
attention.
Relevant details
questions.
development.
enrich writing.
ORGANIZATION
VOCABULARY/
WORD CHOICE
VOICE
SENTENCE
FLUENCY
CONVENTIONS
Writing is brief
Writing is
Writing includes a
and
confused and
Uses correct strong, beginning,
underdeveloped loosely organized. writing format.
middle, and end
with very weak
Transitions are
Incorporates a
with clear
transitions and weak and closure coherent closure. transitions and a
closure.
focused closure.
is ineffective.
Uses a variety of
Shows some use
Effective and
Language is trite,
word choice to
of varied word
engaging use of
make writing
vague or flat.
choice.
word choice.
interesting.
Writer uses
Writes with a
Writer’s voice/
Writer’s voice/
voice/point of
distinct, unique
point of view
point of view
view. Writes with
voice/point of
shows that sense
shows little sense
the understanding view. Writing is
of audience is
of audience.
of a specific
vague.
audience.
to the audience.
Many run-ons or Some run-ons or
Uses simple
Consistent variety
fragments. Little
fragments.
compound, and
of sentence
Limited variety in
variety in
complex,
structure
sentence
sentence
sentences.
throughout.
structure.
structure.
Inconsistent
Maintains
Uses consistent
Occasional errors
agreement
agreement
agreement
between parts of
between parts of
between parts of between parts of
speech. Some
speech. Many
speech. Few speech. No errors
errors in
errors in
errors in
in mechanics.
mechanics. Some
mechanics.
mechanics.
Creative and
evidence of
Limited evidence
Applies basic
effective use of
spelling
of spelling
spelling
strategies.
strategies.
spelling.
strategies.
Adapted from: National Council of Teachers of Teachers (NCTE) 2004)
Activity 1 (Kinds of Variables)
1. Independent variables affect dependent variables. Independent variables are the
ones the controls the latter which is the one being tested.
2. These are variables coming from a control group that is the basis for comparing
the changes that happen to the experimental variables.
3. These are variables that are affecting the dependent variable aside from the
independent variable that may affect the results of a study.
4. Demographics of the Asian subjects of Vaccine ABC against Pathogen XYZ. The
effectiveness of a vaccine varies from everyone who is affected of a certain
pathogen. Age, gender, lifestyle, etc. which are under demographics of a
population can be a big factor in the effectiveness of a certain vaccine.
5. Effectiveness of Vaccine ABC. The effectiveness of a vaccine may change
depending on the demographics of the population who are going to take the
dosage of the vaccine.
Prepared by
Vito Dominic D. Sese
Name of Writer
References
Helmenstine, Anne Marie. 2020. The Role of a Controlled Variable in an Experiment.
January 30. Accessed 07 16, 2020. https://www.thoughtco.com/controlledvariable-definition-609094.
Laerd Statistics. 2018. Types of Variable. Accessed 07 16, 2020.
https://statistics.laerd.com/statistical-guides/types-of-variable.php.
McDonald, John H. 2014. Confounding variables. Accessed 07 16, 2020.
http://www.biostathandbook.com/confounding.html.
McLeod, Saul. 2019. What are Independent and Dependent Variables? Accessed 07
16, 2020. https://www.simplypsychology.org/variables.html.
National Council of Teachers of English. 2004. “Writing Rubric, Read.Think.Write.”
2004. https://www.ramapo.edu/fa/files/2013/04/Writing-Rubric-3.pdf.
Prieto, Nelia G, Victoria C Naval, and Teresita G Carey. 2017. &quot;Exercises.&quot; In
Practical Research for Senior High School 2 Quantitative, by Nelia G Prieto,
Victoria C Naval and Teresita G Carey, 22. Quezon City: LORIMAR Publishing
Inc.
Prieto, Nelia G, Victoria C Naval, and Teresita G Carey. 2017. &quot;Kinds of Variables and
their Uses.&quot; In Practical Research for Senior High School 2 Quantitative, by Nelia
G Prieto, Victoria C Naval and Teresita G Carey, 15-18. Quezon City: LORIMAR
Publishing Inc.
Teaching Tolerance. 2017. &quot;Explanatory Writing Rubric.&quot; Tolerance Teaching
| Diversity, Equity and Justice. Accessed 07 16, 2020.
https://www.tolerance.org/sites/default/files/2017-06/35WTS_Explanatory%20Rubric.pdf.
Williams, Yolanda. 2015. Intervening Variable: Definition &amp; Example. October 14.
1
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 (QUANTITATIVE)
Name:
Section:
_
_
Date:
LEARNING ACTIVITY SHEET
DESIGNING RESEARCH IN DAILY LIFE
Background Information:
Based on your previous study in Practical Research 1 (Qualitative Research)
that research is as good as its searching answer to questions or solutions to problems
of day to day living.
Research is as good as its findings because it answers or solves real-world
phenomena. It typically calls to “mind mathematical formulas that describe the everexpanding the natural phenomena, complex theorems, liquids in test tubes, endless
experiments to explain phenomena, human behavior, and the like” (Prieto, Naval and
Carey 2017, 27).
Research affects us and the society that we live in each day of our lives. The way
we experience relationships, how we perceive the world, how society is governed, and a
lot more is influenced by the expanding knowledge that we produce. In other words, we
need research to make sense of our world, and to answer certain phenomena of
different disciplines, corporations, government organizations, our field of specialization,
and many more.
Possible Research Topics Related to Daily Life
Research must be innovative in nature; it must operate on areas between
or anything that might interest you.
Is the Topic or Situation (Researchable or Not Researchable)?
Topics or specific situations that are answerable by a simple inquiry process
\NOT Researchable. If the topic cannot be answered by simple inquiry and needs
further investigation and data analysis, then the topic is Researchable.
Example: Poverty Alleviation, Unemployment etc.
Learning Competency with code
Designs research used in daily life (CS_RS12-Id-e-1).
Exercise 1. Determine whether the following topic or situation is Researchable or NOT
Topic/Situations
Researchable
NOT
Researchable
1. A person wants to know the
occupant of the hotel room 210.
2. A student wants to know the
medicinal effects of guava.
3. Mr. Cruz wants to know the
technique to make his television
function efficiently.
4. A teacher wants to know the
impact of ICT on student’s
performance.
5. Mang Gustin wants to know the
reason behind his decrease in
sales in his sari-sari store.
6. A manager wants to know which
form of advertising is useful in the
7. Mr. Rico wants to discover the
impact of social networking on his
students’ learning abilities.
8. Clara wants to know the study
habits of his classmate.
9. Mr. Vien wants to know the reason
10. Group 2 wants to know
the acceptability of their
newly developed product.
Exercises 2. Designing Research Topics Related to Daily Life. Choose at least 3
Topics you want to research. Formulate a simple essay stating the reasons why you
chose the topic.
Topic 1:
Topic 2:
Topic 3:
Rubric for Essay
An insightful, logical,
The response to the
and compelling
A logical response to
ideas presented in the
Response and
response to the content the ideas presented in
article lacks depth and/or
exploration of
of the article. The
the article. The writer’s
substance.
the content of the
writer’s insights are thoughts are fairly well
The presentation is weak
article
clear and wellsupported. (4-5 pts)
or non-existent. (1-3 pts)
supported. (6-7 pts)
A well-focused and
A discussion that is
coherent discussion
that articulates complex generally focused on
A discussion that lacks
some organization and
ideas clearly and
Discussion
coherency and/or lacks
structure. The writer
effectively.
the presentation of
presents some complex
The writer presents
complex ideas. (1-2 pts)
ideas. (3-4 pts)
many complex ideas.
(5-6 pts)
Several key points at the
Key points present in Most of the key points
heart of the article are
the article are identified present in the article are
Key Points
not identified or
and summarized
identified and
summarized poorly. (1-2
summarized. (3-4 pts)
pts)
Vocabulary choices are
Vocabulary selected
Vocabulary and
precise, and sentence
lacks precision, and
sentence structure are
Vocabulary and
structure is varied in a
clarity and/or sentence
appropriate and
Sentence Structure
way that is both
structure may detract
conveys meaning
effective and
from the meaning. (1-2
clearly. (3-4 pts)
interesting. (4 pts)
pts)
Mechanics
Some minor mechanical
The response reflects
errors, such as spelling Mechanical errors are
effective control of all
or grammar, are
serious and interfere
elements of mechanics,
demonstrated, but they significantly with the
including grammar and
do not interfere with
writer’s meaning. (1pt)
spelling. (3 pts)
meaning. (2 pts)
Reflection
Put a checkmark on the blank, which corresponds to how well you learned the lesson.
Statement
Always Sometimes
1. I can easily identify topics related to my
specialization.
2. I can identify topics that are researchable.
3. I can easily write reasons in choosing research
topics.
4. I know the importance of research in daily lives.
5. I can enumerate different research disciplines.
Prepared:
PERCIVAL Y. CAPITULO, PhD
SHS Master Teacher II
ACNTS
Never
1. Not Researchable
2. Researchable
3. Not Researchable
4. Researchable
5. Not Researchable
6. Researchable
7. Researchable
8. Not Researchable
9. Researchable
10. Researchable
References for Learners
Braceros, Esther L., 2016 Practical Research 2. First ed. Manila: Rex Bookstore.
Prieto, Nelia G., Victoria C. Naval, and Teresita G. Carey. 2017 Practical Research 2 for
Senior High School. Quezon City: LORIMAR Publishing.