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HR chapter 8 & 10

Chapter 8: training
Employee orientation (or onboarding) provides new employees with the basic background
information (such as computer passwords and company rules) they need to do their jobs; ideally
it should also help them start becoming emotionally attached to and engaged in the firm
1. Make the new employee feel welcome and at home and part of the team.
2. Make sure the new employee has the basic information to function effectively, such as
e-mail access, personnel policies and benefits, and expectations in terms of work
3. Help the new employee understand the organization in a broad sense (its past, present,
culture, and strategies and vision of the future).
4. Start socializing the person into the firm’s culture and ways of doing things
Orientation process
The length of the orientation program depends on what you cover, the first part of the
orientation by explaining basic matters like:
1. explaining basic matters like working hours and benefits, Then the supervisor continues
the orientation by
2. explaining the department’s organization
3. introducing the person to his or her new colleagues,
4. familiarizing him or her with the workplace, and reducing first-day jitters
At a minimum, the orientation should provide information on matters such as employee
benefits, personnel policies, safety measures and regulations, and a facilities tour;5 new
employees should receive (and sign for) print or Internet-based employee handbooks covering
such matters
Training process
Training means giving new or current employees the skills that they need to perform their jobs,
such as showing new salespeople how to sell your product. Training might involve having the
current jobholder explain the job to the new hire, or multi-week classroom or Internet classes.
In one recent year, employers spent about $1,208 per employee on training.
In other words Is the process of teaching new/current employees the basic skills they need to
perform their jobs
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Training & law:
1. Discrimination: Employers face much the same consequences for discriminating
against protected individuals when selecting candidates for training programs as they
would in selecting candidates for jobs
2. Negligent training: As one expert puts it, “it’s clear from the case law that where an
employer fails to train adequately and an employee subsequently does harm to third
parties, the court will find the employer liable
3. Needed skills & equipment: the employer should confirm the applicant/ employee’s
claims of skill and experience, provide adequate training (particularly where employees
work with dangerous equipment), and evaluate the training to ensure that it is actually
reducing risks.
Aligning Training & Strategy: In essence, the task is to identify the employee behaviors the
firm will need to execute its strategy, and then from that deduce what competencies (for
instance, skills and knowledge) employees will need. Then, put in place training goals and
programs to instill these competencies, Strategic changes like these affected the skills that
Walgreens employees required, and therefore its training and other staffing policies
Steps in training process
1. Needs analysis
a) Task analysis for analyzing new employees’ Training needs:
The aim here is to give these new employees the skills and knowledge they need to
do the job, Task analysis is a detailed study of the job to determine what specific
skills (like reading spreadsheets for a clerk) the job requires. For task analysis, job
descriptions and job specifications are essential. They list the job’s specific duties
and skills, which are the basic reference points in determining the training required.
Managers also uncover training needs by reviewing performance standards,
performing the job, and questioning current jobholders and their supervisors
b) Performance analysis: analyzing current employees’ Training needs
Performance analysis is the process of verifying that there is a performance
deficiency and determining whether the employer should correct such deficiencies
through training or some other means (like transferring the employee)
Performance analysis begins with comparing the person’s actual performance to
what it should be. Doing so helps to confirm that there is a performance deficiency,
and (hopefully) helps the manager to identify its cause
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Ways to identify how a current employee is doing include:
o Performance appraisals
o Job-related performance data (including productivity, absenteeism and tardiness,
grievances, waste, late deliveries, product quality, downtime, repairs, equipment
utilization, and customer complaints)
o Observations by supervisors or other specialists
o Interviews with the employee or his or her supervisor
o Tests of things like job knowledge, skills, and attendance
o Attitude surveys
o Individual employee daily diaries
o Assessment center results
o Special performance gap analytical software, such as from Saba Software, Inc
o can’t do/won’t do: The aim here is to distinguish between can’t-do and won’t-do
problems. First, determine whether it is a can’t-do problem and, if so, its specific causes.
For example: The employees don’t know what to do or what your standards are; there
are obstacles in the system such as lack of tools or supplies; there are no job aids (such
as color-coded wires that show assemblers which wire goes where); you’ve hired
people who haven’t the skills to do the job; or training is inadequate
2. Designing the training program:
Design means planning the overall training program including training objectives,
delivery methods, and program evaluation. Sub-steps include setting performance
objectives, creating a detailed training outline (all training program steps from start to
finish), choosing a program delivery method (such as lectures or Web), and verifying
the overall program design with management (book page 239)
3. Developing the course:
Actually, assembling the program's training content and materials. Choosing the
specific content the program will present as well as designing/choosing the specific
instructional methods (Lectures, cases, web-design, and so on), Training equipment and
materials include iPads, workbooks, lectures, PowerPoint slides, Web- and computer
based activities, course activities, trainer resources (manuals, for instance), and support
4. Implementation (Training Methods for Employees):
On-the-job training (OJT): means having a person learn a job by actually doing it.
Every employee, from mailroom clerk to CEO, should get on-the-job training when he
or she joins a firm. In many firms, OJT is the only training available.
Types of on-The-job Training: Coaching, Job Rotation, Special Assignment
Learn by doing
Immediate feedback
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a) Coaching or understudy method: an experienced worker or the trainee’s
supervisor trains the employee. This may involve simply observing the supervisor,
or (preferably) having the supervisor or job expert show the new employee the
ropes, step by step, On-the-job training is part of multifaceted training, which
combines on-the-job training with comprehensive initiation programs and
continuing-education seminars
b) Job rotation: , in which an employee (usually a management trainee) moves from
job to job at planned intervals, is another OJT technique
c) Special assignments: similarly give lower-level executives firsthand experience
in working on actual problems
Other techniques
a. Apprenticeship Training: is a process by which people become skilled workers,
usually through a combination of formal learning and long-term on-the-job training,
often under the tutelage of a master craftsperson, (on slide): A structured process
by which employees become skilled through a combination of classroom
instructions and on the job training
b. Informal learning: Surveys estimate that as much as 80% of what employees learn on
the job they learn through informal means, including performing their jobs while interacting
every day with their colleagues.63 Employers can facilitate informal learning
c. Job Instruction Training: Listing each job’s basic tasks, along with key points, in
order to provide step-by-step training for employees. In other words is consist of a
sequence of steps best learned step-by-step. Such step-by-step training
d. Lectures: Lecturing is a quick and simple way to present knowledge to large groups
of trainees, as when the sales force needs to learn a new product’s features, some
guidelines for lectures:
o Don’t start out on the wrong foot, for instance, with an irrelevant joke.
o Speak only about what you know well.
o Give your listeners signals. For instance, if you have a list of items, start by
saying something like, “There are four reasons why the sales reports are
necessary…. The first….”
o Use anecdotes and stories to show rather than tell
o Be alert to your audience. Watch body language for negative signals like
fidgeting or boredom.
o Maintain eye contact with the audience.
o Make sure everyone can hear. Repeat questions that you get from trainees.
o Leave hands hanging naturally at your sides.
o Talk from notes or PowerPoint slides, rather than from a script.
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e. Programmed Learning: is a step-by-step, self-learning method that consists of
three parts:
1. Presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner
2. Allowing the person to respond
3. Providing feedback on the accuracy of answers, with instructions on what to do
This way of training have advantages in:
o Reduce Training Time
o Allow the employees to learn at the own pace
o Facilitate the learning process
o Get immediate feedback
f. Behavior modeling: A Training technique in which the trainees are first shown a
good management technique in a film, are asked to play roles in a simulated
situation and are then given feedback and praise by the supervisor
showing trainees the right (or “model”) way of doing something, (2) letting trainees
practice that way, and then (3) giving feedback on the trainees’ performance
1. Modeling: First, trainees watch live or video examples showing models
behaving effectively in a problem situation. Thus, the video might show a
supervisor effectively disciplining a subordinate, if teaching “how to discipline”
is the aim of the training program.
Role-playing: Next, the trainees get roles to play in a simulated situation; here
they are to practice the effective behaviors demonstrated by the models.
3. Social reinforcement: The trainer provides reinforcement in the form of praise
and constructive feedback.
4. Transfer of training: Finally, trainees are encouraged to apply their new skills
when they are back on their jobs
g. Audiovisual Based Training: Although increasingly replaced by Web-based
methods, audiovisual-based training techniques like DVDs, films, PowerPoint, and
audiotapes are still used
h. Videoconferencing: Videoconferencing involves delivering programs over
broadband lines, the Internet, or satellite. Vendors such as Cisco offer
videoconference products such as WebEx
i. Simulated Learning
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Simulated learning, Audiovisual Based Training, Videoconferencing has some of
advantages which are:
o Too expensive to create, but for large companies the cost per employee is
usually reasonable
o Reduce Learning time
o Mastery of Learning
o Increased motivation
j. Electronic Performance Support System (EPSS): Set of computerized tools and
displays that automate training, documentation, and phone support, integrate this
automation into applications, and provide support that’s faster, cheaper, and more
effective than traditional methods (Job Aids)
Job aids are sets of instructions, diagrams, or similar methods available at the job
site to guide the worker.75 Job aids work particularly well on complex jobs that
require multiple steps, or where it’s dangerous to forget a step
Management Development Techniques
Management development is any attempt to improve managerial performance by
imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills. It thus includes in-house
programs like courses, coaching, and rotational assignments
1) Managerial On-the-Job Training and Rotation: Managerial on-the-job training
methods include:
A) Job rotation: means moving managers from department to department to broaden
their understanding of the business and to test their abilities. The trainee may be a
recent college graduate, or a senior manager being groomed for further promotion,
In addition to providing a well-rounded training experience, job rotation helps avoid
stagnation through the constant introduction of new points of view in each
department. It also helps identify the trainee’s strong and weak points
B) coaching/understudy approach: Here the trainee works directly with a senior
manager or with the person he or she is to replace; the latter is responsible for the
trainee’s coaching. Normally, the understudy relieves the executive of certain
responsibilities, giving the trainee a chance to learn the job.
C) Action learning: A training technique by which management trainees are allowed
to work full-time analyzing and solving problems in other departments.
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2) Off the Job Management Techniques: There are also many off-the-job techniques
for training and developing managers.
A) Case study method: A development method in which the manager is presented
with a written description of an organizational problem to diagnose and solve
B) management games: A development technique in which teams of managers
compete by making computerized decisions regarding realistic but simulated
o Its raises trainee’s communication skills
o Helps them to better manage the information flow between individuals and
o Improves planning and problem solving
C) Outside seminars: Numerous companies and universities offer Web-based and
traditional classroom management development seminars and conferences.
D) University-related programs: Many universities provide executive education and
continuing education programs in leadership, supervision, and the like. These can
range from 1- to 4-day programs to executive development programs lasting 1 to 4
months. In one such program
E) Role playing: is to create a realistic situation and then have the trainees assume the
parts (or roles) of specific persons in that situation, in other words, A training
technique in which trainees act out parts in a realistic management situation.
F) Executive coaches: An outside consultant who questions the executive’s associates
in order to identify the executive’s strengths and weaknesses, and then counsels the
executive so he or she can capitalize on those strengths and overcome the
5. Evolution: There are two basic issues to address when evaluating training
programs. One is the design of the evaluation study and, in particular, whether
to use controlled experimentation. The second is, “What should we measure?
a) Designing the study:
Time series design: How can we be sure that the training (rather than, say,
a company-wide wage increase) caused the results that we’re trying to
measure? The time series design is one option. Here, as in Figure 8-3, you
take a series of performance measures before and after the training program.
This can provide some insight into the program’s effectiveness
controlled experimentation: Formal methods for testing the effectiveness
of a training program, preferably with before-and-after tests and a control
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B) Choosing Which Training Effects to Measure: The manager can measure four basic
categories of training outcomes or effects:
1. Reaction: Evaluate trainees’ reactions to the program. Did they like the program? Did they
think it worthwhile?
2. Learning: Test the trainees to determine whether they learned the principles, skills, and facts
they were supposed to learn.
3. Behavior: Ask whether the trainees’ on-the-job behavior changed because of the training
program. For example, are employees in the store’s complaint department more courteous
toward disgruntled customers
4. Results: Most important, ask, “What results did we achieve, in terms of the training
objectives previously set?” For example, did the number of customer complaints diminish?
Reactions, learning, and behavior are important. But if the training program doesn’t produce
measurable performance-related results, then it probably hasn’t achieved its goals
Chapter 10: compensation
Compensation system: defined as the total pack of rewards that organizations provide to
individuals in return for their labor
Competency Based Pay: The supervisor certifies employee competence prior to any pay
increases, therefore the employee has to demonstrate proficiency prior to getting any raise.
Competency based pays for competencies and not seniorities
Traditional Based Pay (JBP): The traditional based pay, the employee receives the pay
attached to the job regardless of whether the employee has the necessary competence for
performing the job. According the JBP, pay changes when one switches jobs. It’s ties to grade
or seniority
Direct Compensation
Wages: compensation in the form of money paid for time worked
Salaries: compensation in the form of money paid for discharging the responsibilities of a
Incentive programs: special compensation program designed to compensate high
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Individual incentives:
Bonus: individual performance incentive in the form on a special payment made over and
above the employees’ salary in sales jobs
Merit salary system: individual incentive linking compensation to performance in non-sales
Pay for performance: individual incentive that rewards a manager for especially productive
Company wide incentives:
Profit sharing: incentive plan for distributing incentives to employees when a company profit
rise above a certain level
Gain-sharing plans: incentive plan that rewards groups for productivity improvements
Pay for knowledge plans: incentive plan to encourage employees to learn new skills or
become proficient at different jobs
Indirect Compensation Benefits Programs
Benefits: compensation other than wages and salaries
o Worker’s insurance
o Retirement plans
o Cafeteria benefits plan: benefit plan that sets limits on benefits per employee, each of
whom may choose from a variety of alternative benefits
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