Name: Anh Nguyen AFA HW 15 - Nov. 29th ● Page 652 # 3: What has been the impact of Black American women—both during the slavery period and thereafter—on the uplift of the Black communities? Women in America did not gain voting rights up until the 1920s (woman suffrage) and even then, it was given to them by white males. Throughout history, women have been the oppressed class, “Silent but resilient” one would say, contributing to the society and providing the backbone of the society’s well-being, ruled and governed by men. Black women traditionally enjoyed human rights, that is, until Europeans enslaved them and took everything away in the 14th century. So to put it into perspective, not only they were enslaved, rejected human rights, they were also women (oppressed class), they were, indeed, the lowest of the low by law (in America) until the 1960s (Black power movement). They are resilient, endured and resisted centuries of captivity and enslavement by white society, were exploited, segregated, beaten up, and abused throughout America's history. Nonetheless, they amounted to great contributions of black and the general communities. Many works and books recited the intensive labor and resilience of black women in Antebellum America, “double-duty day” is an example. It means that Black women toiled under the grueling demands of white settlers all day, then did what kept themselves at night, taking care of their family, children, and elders (Africana Studies, 2020). It was established that Black women were sexual preys, and their children followed the status of the mother (born as “slaves”) instead of their English/White fatherhood, we cannot begin to fathom the miscarriages and health problems faced by Black women, being worked dawn to dusk, all day everyday. During enslavement, Black women lived in two worlds: captivity and exploitation by white settlers, and closed quarter in the “slave” plantation. They carried with them cultural values, structures and customs that Black mothers shaped their children. For example, in a book by Dr. Gutman, Black mothers in southern plantations (of different locales) traced their descent by naming their children in a specific pattern, West African names and lineage. Such naming customs sustained meaningful beliefs, values and responsibilities, and most importantly, it proved that America wasn’t and will not be a “melting pot” as often depicted, because children of African descent did not emulate white settlers values and beliefs (The black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-1925). Furthermore, thanks to such close quarter unions, Black women taught themselves to read (denied by owners), and thus taught their children to read and write. After the American civil war, freed, educated Black women immediately assisted and worked to provide for millions of “now-freed” black folks, poor and mostly illiterate, a large number of freed Black women worked as school teachers, nurses, missionaries. Once again, Black women had little room to provide for themselves upon freedom, but to provide for their communities, elders and children, they worked hard (presumably not as hard as chattel slavery). They formed unions and organizations, with agendas and funds to aid and support their people in the diaspora. Even in the face of the KKK (Ku Klux Klan), they fought hard. Williams in “They Left Great Marks on Me:” Black women entailed recounts of violence they experienced from Emancipation (Civil war) to World war I. Black women were not scared in the face of hardship and systematic racism, but rather spoke against it and fought for their freedom and civil rights. ● Page 694 # 2: Compare and contrast the myth of the Doctrine of Discovery to the realities of the conquest.Page 694 # 6 Give concrete examples of how Romanus Pontifex had a lasting impact on the modern world, particularly on Africa and the African diaspora. The Doctrine of Discovery by Porguese and papal bull Romanus Pontifex by Pope Nicholas V were fabricated and premeditated religious, spiritual, political and economic order for Christianity’s domination over Africa’s values and beliefs. The Doctrine of Discovery implies that no other socities had sailed the seas to find new lands and that the lands were uninhabited (false and false). What happened was, during the Age of “Disovery”, Portugal ordered crusades against Nothern Africa (Beazley, 1910). The crusades were in the name of God, and also of profit allowed Portugal to conceal the fact that such land was inhabited by other ethnicities and societies (Jewish, Africans, Indians and Muslims). The Doctrine of Discovery merely existed as an excuse for the conquest of Africa, and Romanus Pontifex was a document that legalized Christiandom’s support for the conquest against infidels (whoever aren’t white and christian are infidels) and supported enslavement and dispossesion of Africans and other societies around the world (Africana Studies, 2020). The text, Romanus Pontifex was specifically detrimental to Africa and its daughter, serving as the archetype for European religious entitlement and secular authority in Africa in the 19th century through distorted and racist narratives. The text supported Eurocentric views of the world, specifically Africa. It was a radical exclusion of the people of the land. The text stemmed from racism and lust for power from the Pope and Europeans, thus rejecting the beliefs, values, arts of Africa, denial of human rights and allowing Europeans to enslave and conquer Africa. We have established that Africans were viewed as the “Subordinate race” of lower class and “boorish”, thus Europeans were simply “correcting” their behavior, or “teaching” them the humanity of Europe. With that in mind, the text and the doctrine of discovery greatly influenced the ideologies and how people around the world perceived Africans, justifying European’s cruelty towards African and halting Africa’s development.